The remains of a Roman period industrial complex has been uncovered by archaeologists in England, and includes kilns for making lime, mortar and pottery, and this discovery represents a detailed picture of what life was like for working class folk in the Roman outpost of Britannia.
The Ruined Legacy of Roman Builders in England
In the 1st century BC most of what today is Northamptonshire became a northerly territory of the Catuvellauni, a Belgic tribe who were conquered by the Romans in 43 AD, and over 40 Roman villas are known in Northamptonshire alone. The famous Roman road “Watling Street”, connecting the north of England with London, passed through the county knitting together Roman settlements at Northampton, Kettering and along the Nene Valley near Raunds, with a large fort at Longthorpe.
Dating to the 5th century, when the Roman occupation began to fail causing economic and social unrest across the empire, the Late Romano-British industrial complex was discovered by archaeologists from Oxford Archaeology East at a Roman villa estate at Priors Hall Park housing development in the Borough of Corby, Northamptonshire. After they discovered evidence of large-scale stone and clay quarrying nearby, they found two tile kilns, a large lime kiln for the production of mortar and five pottery kilns.
The large tile kiln being excavated. ( Oxford Archaeology East )
Sea Gods Were In Fashion At That Time, Apparently
This site was first excavated in the 1950s by archaeologists and the modern team say the organization and finance required to build the villas would have been considerable. The various functional areas of this ancient Roman kiln site were found to have been connected by a large metallic surface on which materials required to construct and operate a large Roman villa about 984 feet (300 meters) to the east would have been moved. And amidst the archaeology a stash of Roman period coins and animal bones along with pottery and metal items, including jewelry, tools and other artifacts, were also discovered at the industrial production site.
Zoomorphic buckle depicting flanking dolphins. ( Oxford Archaeology East )
An article in the Daily Mail says these discoveries offer “a rare insight into the lives of the estate workers as opposed to the villa owner,” as most other previous discoveries have shown. And one especially rare coin depicts a rebel Roman emperor Allectus , who ruled over a breakaway empire in Britain in 293 AD, which the archaeologists say is valuable “beyond just monetary” because it was pierced with a single hole which suggests it was for wearing as a fashion item, perhaps like an ancient Che Guevara t-shirt.
Roman Industrial Complex is All About ‘Archaeology of the People’
Why the archaeology at Priors Hall is being treated so importantly is because only this site provides such a wealth of evidence of several sets of specially trained tradespeople like builders and carpenters, tile makers and mortar producers. And attempting to put bones around who these trained workers were, the archaeologists think they were most probably hired from nearby towns and villages.
- Kings Weston Roman Villa, Where a Murder Lay Hidden for 1500 Years
- Villa de Toralla: Who Lived in This Luxury High-Tech Roman Villa on the Galician Coast?
- Powerhouse of the Roman Navy: The Classis Britannica
The larger tile kiln fully excavated. (Oxford Archaeology East )
And offering the researchers a dazzling insight as to what the ancient crafts people wore, a rare, complete, zoomorphic copper-alloy buckle was unearthed depicting two dolphins and the sea gods Neptune and Oceanus, which provides hard evidence of the preferred fashion and tastes of the trade people of that time. And further connecting the researchers with the ancient artisans at the site, a quantity of ceramic tiles have been found to be marked with fingerprints from the people who made them, and one specific tile fragment even includes the partial inscription of its makers name.
Inscribed tile in-situ: ...ENII (F)ECIT - Perhaps '()nenti' or '()nenus' FECIT = 'has made' – so perhaps the name of the tiler. ( Oxford Archaeology East )
In conclusion, this single Roman site is extra special in archaeological terms because it tells the story of common English people and not the old story of how Roman elites lived in Britannia. In a Telegraph article Nigel Wakefield, development director at Urban&Civic which owns the archaeological site, said that while it was always known that the site had a rich Roman history, what wasn’t realized until now is “how they were actually constructed,” and these new discovered represent a newfound understanding of the skill sets and materials used in Roman construction.
New Tech Reveals Origin Of Egyptian Mummies’ Skin Color
Just how much can you learn from the color of a person’s skin? Well, in the case of Egyptian mummies, it is now turning out to be quite a lot. Researchers have worked out a non-intrusive way to map the origins of ancient Egyptian embalming materials, and the composition of the substance that causes deep black coloration of many mummies’ skin is now revealing hitherto unknown geographic data. The study does not say whether these Egyptians were or were not dark skinned naturally, that’s another debate, but according to the latest high-tech analysis, many Egyptian mummies’ deep black skin color not only comes from tar but we now know where that tar came from.
Sign up to our daily newsletter
Now, their history has finally been unearthed as part of an important dig that has been going on during the past six months.
Oxford Archaeology East have undertaken the excavation of the previously-unknown, densely-populated site which paints a vibrant and detailed picture of what life was like for the town’s late Roman occupants.
The discovered two tile kilns, a lime kiln and five pottery kilns as well as large-scale quarrying facilities, along with a host of coins and intriguing artefacts.
They believe their find has the potential to illuminate Corby’s industrial history and the often-overlooked aspects of rural life during the Roman period in Britain.
The complex dates to between the late third to middle of the fourth century AD and is set within a Roman Villa estate.
This was at the peak of the villa-building tradition, in the final century of Roman occupation, a time of economic and social turmoil within the empire.
Roman villas are usually at the heart of large farming estates, including the country house where the owner lived but also the living and working quarters for the multitude of servants and slaves.
More than 2,000 villas are known - with forty in Northamptonshire alone. Although a large proportion of villas have been excavated, the focus tends to be on the principle domestic complex.
Far less is known about the sourcing and manufacturing of materials to construct them and how they operated, and less still is known about the people who built and maintained them.
The excavation at Priors Hall revealed two large tile kilns converted from an earlier structure, a large lime kiln for the production of mortar and five pottery kilns of varying sizes alongside large-scale stone and clay quarrying as well as structures, possibly for the storage of equipment.
These were linked by a metalled surface across the site to facilitate the movement of materials required to construct and operate a large Roman villa about 300 metres to the east.
The organisation and finance required to build a villa would have been considerable. The archaeology at Priors Hall shows evidence for numerous specialist tradespeople such as carpenters and builders, tile makers and mortar producers, perhaps being hired from nearby towns to make the pots, tiles, mortar and stone.
This is in addition to the back-breaking workof quarrying the stone, chopping the wood and mixing the mortar and then transporting it to where it was needed.
Nigel Wakefield, development director at Urban&Civic, which owns the site, said: ‘With two villas previously excavated on Priors Hall Park in the 1950’s, we always knew that we had a rich Roman history.
”What we didn’t realise is quite how fascinating these new discoveries are, not only in terms of the buildings that were previously here, but also in learning how they were constructed and understanding thematerials and skills required to build them
“As master developers, it is important for us to uncover and preserve this history and we're delighted with the role that Oxford Archaeology have played in this process.
“With the heritage management plan in place, we can ensure that the history is not only preserved locally, but also communicated to our residents and they can feel proud to be part of the next community living on this site.”
A decorated complete buckle made of copper-alloy and depicting two flanking dolphins representing links with the gods of the sea, Neptune and Oceanus, found on the site, displays the fashion and taste of the time.
The rest of the finds include coins, animal bone, pottery and metal items, including jewellery and tools which give a rare insight into the lives of the estate workers as opposed to the villa owner.
A large proportion of the coins have been ‘clipped’ - where a piece is removed in order to then make more coins or recycle the metal - which was a common activity during the later Roman period in Britain and highlights the economic problems during this turbulent time.
A particular highlight is a coin of the rebel emperor Allectus, who reigned a small breakaway empire based in Britain in AD 293 – 96.
The coin has been pierced with a single hole to make it wearable as a fashion item.
A large quantity of ceramic tiles were found, many of which had fingerprint impressions from the people who made them, as well as by animals, including dogs, deer and many cats.
A tile fragment included the partial inscription of the name of the maker, likely to be a name of one of the tilers themselves immortalised in clay.
The site was excavated ahead of the next phase of development at 965-acre Priors Hall.
Developer Urban&Civic funded the work and adapted their programme to facilitate it.
The excavation was regularly monitored by Northamptonshire County Council’s archaeological advisors, who provided additional expert advice, while ensuring the work met a high standard.
Oxford Archaeology used innovative technology including sophisticated computer programmes to integrate accurate survey measurements with photographs to produce 3D models of the Roman structures.
These models provide a highly detailed record of each structure, which will allow for further study of them.
The firm is now washing and cataloguing finds recovered from the site, ready to be sent for specialist analysis.
A report on will be deposited with the Historic Environment Record for Northamptonshire and added to Oxford Archaeology’s online library for public access.
Eventually, the finds will go to the brand-new Northamptonshire Archaeological Resource Centre at Chester Farm, Irchester, which is under construction and due to open in 2021.
The discoveries will be accessible to researchers and museums, and other heritage organisations will be able to borrow material for temporary and long-term exhibitions.
Nick Gilmour, senior project manager at Oxford Archaeology said: “The great results of the excavation were only possible due to the hard work of all those involved, along with a great deal of collaboration between them.
“The field team continued with tough, and sometimes delicate, work through a cold and wet winter.”
NCC County Archaeological Advisor Lesley-Ann Mather said: “This current phase of work is part of an ongoing scheme of archaeological resource management within the Priors Hall development area as a whole.
“Northamptonshire County Council, in their role as archaeological advisors to both Corby Borough Council and East Northamptonshire District Council have provided advice in relation to the impact of the proposed development on the known archaeological resource over a number of years.
“This has resulted in the production of a heritage management strategy and plan which covers the East Northamptonshire part of the Priors Hall Development area.
“The previous archaeological evaluations within this area had identified that archaeological activity was present, however the discovery of a Late Romano British industrial complex was entirely unexpected.
”The Roman villa complex that the industrial complex serviced is to be preserved in situ and left as grassland.
”It will be covered by a heritage management plan which will protect and manage it in the long term.
Roman villa building site found at Corby housing estate
Large kilns and evidence of specialist trades such as carpenters and mortar producers were excavated at Priors Hall Park in Corby, Northamptonshire.
Archaeologists said the "unexpected" find offered an insight into workers' lives in the final years of Roman rule.
Items found will go on show at the county's Roman heritage centre in Irchester, due to open in 2021.
The six-month excavation took place ahead of the next phase of house-building at Priors Hall Park, a development of more than 5,000 new homes on the outskirts of Corby.
Kilns of various sizes were unearthed at the site, which dates to between the late 3rd to the middle of the 4th Century AD, alongside large-scale stone and clay quarries and structures believed to have been used to store equipment.
Other items found by Oxford Archaeology East included coins, animal bone, pottery, jewellery and tools.
The company said they would be sent for specialist analysis and offered "a rare insight into the lives of the estate workers".
More than 2,000 Roman villas have been discovered in Britain, including more than 40 in Northamptonshire.
Northamptonshire County Council's archaeological advisor Lesley-Ann Mather said "the discovery of a Late Romano-British industrial complex was entirely unexpected".
Nigel Wakefield, from developers Urban&Civic, said: "With two villas previously excavated here in the 1950s, we always knew that we had a rich Roman history on this site.
"What we didn't realise is quite how fascinating these new discoveries are, not only in terms of the buildings that were previously here, but also in learning how they were constructed and understanding the materials and skills required to build them."
York & North Yorkshire
The site has been excavated as part of a £318 million scheme to upgrade the A1 in North Yorkshire.
It is close to a fort at Healam Bridge, which might have been used by the Ninth Hispanic Legion, which disappeared some time in the 2nd Century AD.
The find includes evidence that the Romans may have worn socks under their sandals!
The unearthed site includes the remains of a water-powered flour mill used to grind grain and produce food for the soldiers along with clothes, food remains, graves and pottery.
Cultural heritage team leader Blaise Vyner said: "We know a lot about Roman forts, which have been extensively studied, but to excavate an industrial area with a mill is really exciting.
"We hope it can tell us more about how such military outposts catered for their needs, as self-sufficiency would have been important."
The industrial area comprised a series of large timber buildings, mostly on the north side of a beck, which powered the mill.
It would have supplied the fort with goods and provisions, probably processing meat and other food, as well as flour.
It could also have developed into something of a settlement in its own right.
There is also an indication that the Roman occupants may have worn socks. Rust on the nail from a Roman sandal appears to have impressions from fibres which could suggest that a sock-type garment was being worn.
Mr Vyner added: "You only have to look up the road to Catterick to see how garrison towns are serviced by local shops. Perhaps we have something similar here."
Neil Redfern from English Heritage said that the discovery of the site had given a "real insight" in to the industrial processes used by the Romans.
"The time span of the remains uncovered illustrates how the site developed from a frontier fort and settlement to a more settled site with strong local economic role relating to the presence of mills along the banks of the beck.
"The complexity and depth of deposits were unexpected and the excavation team has dealt with them very professionally."
Very little is known about the Roman fort itself, which is now a scheduled monument.
It only came to light as a result of geophysical surveys carried out in the 1990s in readiness for the A1's planned upgrading. The line of the new road was adjusted to avoid the main site.
Gary Frost, Highways Agency project manager, said the excavation, which began in July 2009 and was completed this summer, gave experts a unique window on the past.
A nationally important archaeological archive is now accessible online due to a 2018-2020 digitisation project by Worcestershire Archive & Archaeology Service (WAAS).
One of the largest known industrial complexes excavated in Roman Britain – the kilns and settlement at Mancetter and Hartshill, Warwickshire – provides evidence for the production of mortaria vessels, fine and coarse ware pottery, and glass. Pottery production was undertaken on a grand scale from the 2 nd – 4 th century AD with Mancetter-Hartshill mortaria widely distributed across the midlands and to northern Britain, making the Warwickshire industry of national significance.
Between 1960-77, Kay Hartley conducted excavations near these two Warwickshire villages, where kilns sites are known to have extended for over two miles between Watling Street and the River Anker. In 1983 and 1984, further rescue excavations were undertaken by Warwickshire Museum at Mancetter, Cherry Tree Farm. These various excavations investigated a major Roman industrial complex, comprising more than 50 pottery kilns and associated features, including a glass furnace.
Following the excavations, a considerable amount of time and effort was put into post-excavation analysis of the mortaria, other pottery and finds. Despite this, the excavations and their associated finds remained unpublished, representing a major lacuna in Romano-British studies. The purpose of this digitisation project was to secure and make accessible key elements of the archive, facilitating and encouraging its study and use, and potentially its further development.
Excavations at Hartshill (left) and Kay Hartley excavating a kiln at Mancetter Broad Close (right) – copyright of Warwickshire County Council
The importance of the archive is widely recognised and its publication was identified as a priority in national and regional Research Frameworks. A CBA West Midlands research grant facilitated an initial meeting of interested parties – Warwickshire County Council, Warwickshire Museums, the Atherstone Civic Society, Study Group for Roman Pottery (SGRP), CBA West Midlands, WAAS, and James Gerrard of Newcastle University – which highlighted the importance placed on the archive by the West Midlands archaeological community. In 2017 WAAS approached Historic England for funding to digitise key elements of the archive.
An initial audit of the archive, which is held by Warwickshire Museum, was completed in 2019 and digitisation of the archive was carried out in 2019-2020. The digital resource is now accessible through the Archaeology Data Service and includes drawings, photographs, reports and associated records relating to:
- kiln site data and other key features
- mortaria recording system for forms, spouts, decoration and fabric etc
- coarseware pottery form and fabric type series
- associated artefact reports
Illustrations of Roman mortaria vessels found during the Mancetter-Hartshill excavations – copyright of Warwickshire County Council
Sharing & furthering knowledge
Locally, the Atherstone Civic Society and Friends of Atherstone Heritage encouraged the project from the start. They have now opened a Roman Mancetter and Boudica Heritage Centre, displaying pottery from the kilns. The 2019 SGRP conference showcased the archive to ceramic specialists and the local community, and papers will be published in the Journal of Roman Pottery Studies. There is also now potential for the pottery supply from Mancetter-Hartshill to Roman Leicester to be researched.
This online resource complements a separate project digitising Kay Hartley’s mortaria stamp archive. During the 2 nd century AD mortaria were often stamped and Kay Hartley has identified 65 individual potters associated with the Mancetter-Hartshill industry. The stamps provide a rare and valuable insight into the origins and movements of individual artisans working in Roman Britain.
Additionally, it is hoped that research initiatives such as a Collaborative Doctoral Award will be created to build on the archive, which would contribute to academic research and commercial archaeology, as well as filling a recognised skills gap.
Ceramic potter’s stamp for marking mortaria
Funders & project team
This project was funded by Historic England, with an additional small grant from The Study Group for Roman Pottery. Work on the archive was carried out by Jane Evans, with Nina O’Hare and Hazel Whitefoot, and additional comment by Laura Griffin (Worcestershire Archaeology), and with specialist digitisation by WAAS Digital (John France). The project was managed by Derek Hurst (Worcestershire Archaeology).
Explore the archive!
Take a look at the digitised archive for yourself via the ADS website: Mancetter-Hartshill Roman Pottery Kilns Archive Project
The archaeological evidence indicates that Finca del Secretario was the home of a wealthy Roman, whether native-born or born in Rome is not known. The relatively small size of the fish processing plant would indicate a privately run enterprise. The family made their domestic pottery as well as the amphorae needed to contain the produce from the fish processing plant. The size of the baths area would indicate the family used it and perhaps occasional guests.
Distribution of amphorae would indicate that some, or even most of, the produce from the Finca was exported. Suel was a small port only a short distance away.
It is interesting to speculate that the owner of the Finca also owned fishing boats to supply the fish processing tanks. That question may never be resolved. However, further excavation in the villa area may show whether or not the owners, over a period of some 400 years, extended their activities to include agriculture and animal husbandry.
The site is open to the public, and it has an interpretation centre and a café. Entrance is free.
Large Roman settlement remains found near Cambridge
"Absolutely fascinating" archaeological remains from a large Roman settlement have been uncovered on the site of a new housing development in Bottisham.
The discovery was made during an excavation of the site off Tunbridge Lane before Bloor Homes began work on the 24-home De Havilland Orchard development.
The three-month excavation, carried out by Pre-Construct Archaeology under the direction of CgMs Consulting, was commissioned by the developer due to the archaeological significance of previous finds made in the area.
The team of archaeologists uncovered three high-status Roman buildings, which formed part of a rural villa complex dating from between around 200 to 400 AD.
It is believed one of the buildings was a bath house as there is evidence of an underfloor heating system.
A variety of artefacts dating from the Roman period was also discovered, including a 4th century coin of Constantine II, ceramic building tiles, Roman stone work, and the spout on a pottery vessel imported from the continent.
Also found in the dig were a wide range of Neolithic and Early Bronze Age flints, indicating the area was occupied much earlier than Roman times.
Duncan Hawkins, operations director of CgMs Consulting, said: “We knew from remains and previous finds in the area that Bottisham is a place of very high archaeological significance and the discoveries made during this excavation certainly didn’t disappoint.
“We believe one of the three Roman buildings was part of a bath house and the presence of box-flue tile and pilae stacks, which were used in underfloor heating systems, is a sign of the wealth and status of the owners.
“Another extremely exciting discovery was the evidence of medieval settlement activity, which suggests that the medieval village of Bottisham may have once expanded along Tunbridge Lane.”
In more recent times, the site was used as a base for RAF personnel stationed at the nearby RAF Bottisham airfield, but has stood derelict for several decades.
Monika Hanlon, regional sales director for Bloor Homes Eastern, added: “The site’s recent history as an RAF camp is well known to many, so it’s been absolutely fascinating to discover more about the area’s more distant past.
“Now the excavation has been completed, we are looking forward to transforming this long-time derelict site into a community once again.”
Origin of the town's name Edit
The earliest recorded spelling of the town's name is the 10th century Anglo-Saxon Beorhðanstædæ. The first part may have originated from either the Old English words beorg, meaning "hill", or berc or beorc, meaning "birch" or from the older Old Celtic word Bearroc, meaning "hilly place". The latter part, "hamsted", derives from the Old English word for homestead. So the town's name could be either mean "homestead amongst the hills" or the "homestead among the birches".  
Through history spellings of the town's name have changed. Local historian Rev John Wolstenholme Cobb identified over 50 different versions of the town's name since the writing of the Domesday Book (such as: "Berkstead", "Berkampsted", "Berkhampstead", "Muche Barkhamstede", "Berkhamsted Magna", "Great Berkhamsteed" and "Berkhamstead".)   The present spelling was adopted in 1937.  The town's local nickname is "Berko". 
Prehistory and Roman period Edit
Neolithic, Bronze Age, Iron Age and Roman artefacts show that the Berkhamsted area of the Bulbourne Valley has been settled for over 5,000 years.    The discovery of a large number of worked flint chips provides Neolithic evidence of on-site flint knapping in the centre of Berkhamsted.  Several settlements dating from the Neolithic to the Iron Age (about 4500–100 BC) have been discovered south of Berkhamsted. Three sections of a late Bronze Age to Iron Age (1200–100 BC) bank and ditch, sixteen feet (five metres) wide by seven to thirteen feet (two to four metres) high and known as Grim's Ditch, are found on the south side of the Bulbourne Valley.   Another Iron Age dyke with the same name is on Berkhamsted Common, on the north side of the valley.  
In the late Iron Age, before the Roman occupation, the valley would have been within Catuvellauni territory.  The Bulbourne Valley was rich in timber and iron ore. In the late Iron Age, a four-square-mile (ten-square-kilometre) area around Northchurch became a major iron production centre, now considered to be one of the most important late Iron Age and Roman industrial areas in England.   Iron production led to the settlement of a Roman town at Cow Roast,  about two miles (three kilometres) northwest of Berkhamsted. Four Roman first century AD iron smelting bloomeries at Dellfield (one mile (two kilometres) northwest of the town centre) provide evidence of industrial activity in Berkhamsted.   Production ceased at the end of the Roman period. Other evidence of Roman-British occupation and activity in the Berkhamsted area, includes a pottery kiln on Bridgewater Road.    The town's high street still follows the line of the Roman-engineered Akeman Street, which had been a pre-existing route from St Albans (Verulamium) to Cirencester (Corinium).
During Roman occupation the countryside close to Verulamium was subdivided into a series of farming estates.  The Berkhamsted area appears to have been divided into two or three farming estates, each including one or more masonry villa buildings, with tiled roofs and underfloor heating.
- The remains of a villa were found close to the river in 1973 in the adjacent village of Northchurch. The oldest building, made of timber, was built in AD 60, rebuilt using stone in the early 2nd century, and enlarged to a ten-room building around AD 150. The house may have been empty for a period, reoccupied in the 4th century, and abandoned in the late 4th or early 5th century. 
- A Roman-British villa, dyke, and temple were found 1.25 miles (2.0 km) NNW of the castle, near Frithesden, at the edge of the Berkhamsted Golf Course. Excavations in 1954 revealed masonry foundations and tesserae floors. Together, the villa, dyke and temple form a unique complex, suggesting occupation in the late Iron Age and Roman period. 
- Two flint and tile walls from a Roman building were found north of Berkhamsted Castle in 1970. The construction of the castle's earthworks in the Middle Ages may have damaged this building. 
Anglo-Saxon settlement Edit
The earliest written reference to Berkhamsted is in the will of Ælfgifu (died AD 970), queen consort of King Eadwig of England (r. 955–959), who bequeathed large estates in five counties, including Berkhamsted.  [Notes 1] The location and extent of early Saxon settlement of Berkhamsted is not clear. Rare Anglo-Saxon pottery dating from the 7th century onwards has been found between Chesham Road and St John's Well Lane, with water mills near Mill Street in use from the late 9th century, show that an Anglo-Saxon settlement existed in the centre of modern-day Berkhamsted.  The nearest known structural evidence of the Anglo-Saxon period are in the south and west walls of St Mary's Northchurch, one mile (two kilometres) to the north-west of modern Berkhamsted. The church may have been an important minster, attached to a high status Anglo-Saxon estate, which became part of the medieval manor of Berkhamsted after the Norman conquest.  
The parish of Berkhamsted St Mary's (in Northchurch) once stretched five miles (8 km) from the hamlet of Dudswell, through Northchurch and Berkhamsted to the former hamlet of Bourne End. Within Berkhamsted, the Chapel of St James was a small church near St John's Well (a 'holy well' that was the town's principal source of drinking water in the Middle Ages).  The parish of this church (and later that of St Peter's) was an enclave of about 4,000 acres (1,600 ha) surrounded by Berkhamsted St Mary's parish. [Notes 2]    By the 14th century the adjoining village of "Berkhamsted St Mary" or "Berkhamsted Minor" name had become "North Church", later "Northchurch", to distinguish the village from the town of Berkhamsted.     
1066 and the Domesday survey Edit
The Anglo-Saxons surrendered the crown of England to William the Conqueror at Berkhamsted in early December 1066.   After William defeated and killed Harold II at the Battle of Hastings in October, he failed in an attempt to capture London from the south. William led his army around London, crossing the River Thames at Wallingford, "laying waste" while travelling through southeast England. At Berkhamsted, he received the surrender of Edgar the Ætheling (heir to the English throne), Archbishop Ealdred, Earl Edwin, Earl Morcar and the leaders of London.   It is not known why the town was chosen as the meeting place, except that it was in a defensive location north-west of London. [Notes 3] William was crowned in Westminster Abbey on Christmas Day, 1066.  After his coronation, William granted the "Honour of Berkhamsted" to his half-brother, Robert, Count of Mortain,  who after William became the largest landholder in the country. Robert built a wooden fortification that later became a royal retreat for the monarchs of the Norman and Plantagenet dynasties.  
According to the Domesday Book, the lord of Berkhamsted before the Norman conquest was Edmer Ator (also referred to as Eadmer Atule), thegn of Edward the Confessor and King Harold. [Notes 4] The Domesday survey records that there was enough land for 26 plough teams, but only 15 working teams. There were two flour mills (Upper and Lower Mill), woodland for 1,000 pigs, and a vineyard.  The total population was calculated to be either 37 or 88 households the families included 14 villagers, 15 smallholders, 6 slaves, a priest, a dyke builder (possibly working on the earthworks of the castle) and 52 burgesses.  Some historians have argued that the number of 52 burgesses in Berkhamsted was a clerical error, as it is a large number for a small town.   Berkhamsted was described in the Domesday Book as a burbium (ancient borough) in the Tring Hundred.   ( [Notes 5] ) Marjorie Chibnall argued that Robert, Count of Mortain intended Berkhamsted to be both a commercial and a defensive centre  while John Hatcher and Edward Miller believed that the 52 burgesses were involved in trade, but it is unknown if the burgesses existed before the conquest. 
Royal medieval castle (11th to 15th centuries) Edit
Berkhamsted Castle is a (now ruined) motte-and-bailey Norman castle.  Radiocarbon dating of organic remains from within the Motte indicates that it was probably built post-1066 (a dyke builder is recorded in the town at the time of the Domesday Book).   The castle was a high-status residence and an administrative centre for large estates (including the Earldom of Cornwall).  Through the High and Late Middle Ages the close proximity of the royal castle and court helped fuel Berkhamsted's growth, prosperity and sense of importance.  It created jobs for the local population, both within the castle itself and also, for example, in the large deer park    and in the vineyard, which were maintained alongside the castle. 
After Robert, Count of Mortain, the castle passed to his heir William, who rebelled against Henry I and lost the castle to the king. In 1155 Henry in turn gave it to his favourite Thomas Becket, who held it till 1165. Becket was later alleged to have spent over £300 on improvements to the castle, a claim that led Henry to accuse him of corruption and may have contributed to his downfall.  Henry II extensively used the castle, making it one of his favourite residences. Both King Richard I and King John gave the castle to their queens, Berengaria of Navarre and Isabella of Angoulême, respectively. In King John's reign, Geoffrey Fitz Peter (c. 1162–1213), [Notes 6] Earl of Essex and the Chief Justiciar of England (effectively the king's principal minister) held the Honour and Manor of Berkhamsted from 1199 to 1212. During his time in the castle he was responsible for the foundation of the new parish church of St Peter (the size of which reflects the growing prosperity of the town) two hospitals, St John the Baptist and St John the Evangelist (one of which was a leper hospital), which survived until 1516 and for the layout of the town.    In December 1216, the castle was besieged during the civil war, known as the First Barons' War, between King John and barons supported by Prince Louis (the future Louis VIII of France). Louis captured the castle on 20 December 1216 after twenty days using siege engines and counterweight trebuchets.  
In 1227, Henry III's younger brother, Richard of Cornwall, was given the manor and castle, beginning the long association of the castle with the Earls and later the Dukes of Cornwall.   [Notes 7] Richard redeveloped the castle as a palatial residence and the centre for the administration of the Earldom of Cornwall. Richard's coat of arms as Earl of Cornwall, along with bezants, is included in Berkhamsted's coat of arms. Richard's wife, Sanchia of Provence, died in the castle in 1260. Richard was succeeded by his son, Edmund, 2nd Earl of Cornwall, who founded Ashridge Priory, a college of the monastic order of Bonhommes, in 1283. In 1300, after Edmund died, Edward I ("Longshanks") took the castle he subsequently granted it to his second queen, Margaret of France. In 1309, Edward I's and Margaret's son, Edward II, granted Berkhamsted to his favourite, Piers Gaveston. In 1317, the castle was given to Edward II's queen, Isabella of France. 
Edward III further developed the castle and gave it (as part of the Duchy of Cornwall) to his son, Edward, the Black Prince, who expanded the hunting grounds. The castle was used to hold royal prisoners, including John II of France. In 1361, Edward, the Black Prince, and Joan, the Maid of Kent, spent their honeymoon in Berkhamsted. The Black Prince was supported at the Battle of Crecy by local bowmen Everard Halsey, John Wood, Stephen of Champneys, Robert Whittingham, Edward le Bourne, Richard of Gaddesden and Henry of Berkhamsted (who was rewarded with 2d a day and appointed porter of Berkhamsted Castle after he saved the prince's baggage at the Battle of Poitiers). Richard II inherited Berkhamsted Castle in 1377 and gave it to his favourites, Robert de Vere and John Holland.
In 1400, Henry IV lived in the castle after he deposed Richard, and he used the castle to imprison others attempting to obtain the throne. During this time, Geoffrey Chaucer – later famous for writing The Canterbury Tales – oversaw renovation work on the castle in his role as Clerk of the Works at Berkhamsted. It is unknown how much time he spent at Berkhamsted, but he knew John of Gaddesden, who lived in nearby Little Gaddesden and was the model for the Doctor of Phisick in The Canterbury Tales. Henry V and Henry VI owned the castle, the latter making use of it until he was overthrown in 1461. In 1469, Edward IV gave the castle to his mother, Cecily Neville, Duchess of York, who was the last person to live in the castle. 
Recent history of the castle Edit
In 1833, the castle was the first building to receive statutory protection in the United Kingdom. In 1834, construction of the railway embankment demolished the castle's gatehouse and adjacent earthworks.  Today the castle ruins are managed by English Heritage, on behalf of the Duchy of Cornwall (which still owns the site), and are freely open to the public.  
Medieval market town (12th to 15th centuries) Edit
The town continued to develop separately on the old Akeman Street 0.4 miles (0.6 km) to the south of the castle and to the west of St Peter's Church with a triangle formed by Mill Street, Castle Street and Back Lane pointing towards the castle.   In 1156, Henry II officially recognised Berkhamsted as a town in a royal charter, which confirmed the laws and customs enjoyed under Edward the Confessor, William I and Henry I, and freed the town's merchants from all tolls and dues. The charter also stated that no market could be set up within 7 miles (11 km) of the town. 
The town became a trading centre on an important trade route in the 12th and 13th centuries, and received more royal charters. In 1216, Henry III relieved the men and merchants of the town from all tolls and taxes everywhere in England, and the English Plantagenet possessions in France, Normandy, Aquitaine and Anjou.  The growing wool trade brought prosperity to Berkhamsted from the 12th century until the early Tudor period.   Four wealthy Berkhamsted wool merchants were amongst a group in Bruges to whom Edward III wrote in 1332,   and Berkhamsted merchants sold cloth to the royal court. 
In 1217, Henry III recognised by royal charter the town's oldest institution, Berkhamsted's pre-existing market.   [Notes 8] Trades within medieval Berkhamsted were extensive: early in the 13th century the town had a merchant, two painters, a goldsmith, a forester, two farriers, two tailors, a brewer of mead, a blacksmith, carpenters, wood turners, tool makers, a manufacturer of roofing tiles and wine producers.   In the mid–13th century, a banker, the wealthy Abraham of Berkhamsted, financier to the Earl of Cornwall, lived in the town this was unusual for a small town in a time of heightened persecution of Jews. 
A 1290 taxation list mentions a brewer, a lead burner, a carpenter, leather workers, a fuller, a turner, a butcher, a fishmonger, a barber, an archer, a tailor, a cloth-napper, a miller, a cook, a seller of salt and a huntsman.  At this time, larger houses of merchants and castle officials appeared on the south side of the high street (including 173 High Street, the oldest known extant jettied building in England). In 1307 Berkhamsted was a large town by English medieval standards with an estimated population of 2,000 to 2,500.  In 1355, there were five butchers, two bakers, nine brewers, two cobblers, a pelter, a tanner, five cloth dyers, six wheelwrights, three smiths, six grain merchants, a skinner and a baker/butcher.  In the 14th century, Berkhamsted (recorded as "Berchamstede") was considered to be one of the "best" market towns in the country.  In a survey of 1357, Richard Clay was found to own a butcher's shop twelve feet (four metres) wide, William Herewood had two shops, and there were four other shops eight feet (two metres) in length. In 1440, there is a reference to lime kilns. 
The town benefited when Edmund, 2nd Earl of Cornwall founded Ashridge Priory in 1283, two miles (three kilometres) away and within the castle's park. At the foundation of the abbey, the Earl donated a phial claimed to contain Christ's blood. Pilgrims from all over Europe passed through the town to see the holy relic. The abbey grew quite wealthy as a result. Edward I held parliament at the abbey in 1290 and spent Christmas there.  Berkhamsted burgesses sent two members to parliament in 1320, 1338 and 1341, but the town was not represented again.  In the mid-14th century, the Black Prince took advantage of the Black Death to extend the castle's park by 65 acres (26 ha), eventually producing a park covering 991 acres (401 ha).  In the 15th century, the town was reaffirmed as a borough by a royal charter granted by Edward IV (1442–1483), which decreed that no other market town was to be set up within 11 miles (18 km).
Castle abandoned, the town in decline (16th to late 18th centuries) Edit
In the 16th century, the town fell into decline after abandonment of the castle following the death of Cicely Neville, Duchess of York in 1495, and the rise of the nearby town of Hemel Hempstead (which was granted a Charter of Incorporation by Henry VIII on 29 December 1539). The population of the town in 1563 has been estimated at only 545.  In 1580, the castle ruins and the park were leased by Elizabeth I to Sir Edward Carey, for the nominal rent of one red rose each year.   Stone from the castle was used to build Berkhamsted Place, a local school, and other buildings in the late 16th century.   Brewing and maltings was noted as one of the town's principal industries in the reign of Elizabeth.  Around 1583, a new market house was erected west of St Peter's Church at the end of Middle Row (alternatively named Le Shopperowe or Graball Row). The market house was destroyed in a fire in 1854.
In 1612, Berkhamsted Place was bought by Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales for £4,000. Henry died later that year, and bequeathed the house to his brother Charles (later King Charles I),  who leased the property to his tutor, Thomas Murray, and his wife, Mary Murray, who had been his nurse and Lady of the Privy Chamber to the prince's mother. John Norden wrote in 1616 that the making of malt was then the principal trade of the town.  In 1618, James I reaffirmed Berkhamsted's borough status with a charter. Following surveys in 1607 and 1612 the Duchy of Cornwall enclosed 300 acres (121 ha) from the Common (now known as Coldharbour farm) despite local opposition led by Rev Thomas Newman. In 1639 the Duchy tried to enclose a further 400 acres (162 ha) of the Berkhamsted and Northchurch Commons, but was prevented from doing so by William Edlyn of Norcott. The castle's park, which had reached 1,252 acres (507 ha) by 1627, was broken up over the next two decades, shrinking to only 376 acres (152 ha), to the benefit of local farmers.   In 1643, Berkhamsted was visited by a violent pestilential fever. 
Born in Berkhamsted, Colonel Daniel Axtell (1622 – 19 October 1660), a Baptist and a grocer's apprentice, played a zealous and prominent part in the English Civil War, both in England and in the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland. He participated as a lieutenant colonel in Pride's Purge of the Long Parliament (December 1648), arguably the only military coup d'état in English history, and commanded the Parliamentary Guard at the trial of King Charles I at Westminster Hall in 1649. During Cromwell's Protectorate, he appropriated Berkhamsted Place. Shortly after the Restoration of the monarchy under Charles II, the unrepentant Axtell was hanged, drawn and quartered as a regicide.  After the Restoration, the town lost its charter granted by James I and its borough status. The surveyor of Hertfordshire recommended that a new tenant and army officers were needed at Berkhamsted Place "to govern the people much seduced of late by new doctrine preacht unto them by Axtell and his colleagues."  The population of the town in 1640 and in the 1690s was estimated at 1075 and 767, respectively.  The town was a centre of religious nonconformity from the 17th century: over a quarter of the town were Dissenters in the second half of the century,  and in 1700, there were 400 Baptists recorded as living in Berkhamsted.  Three more shops are mentioned in the row next to the church, and the Parliamentary Survey of 1653 suggests that the area near the Market House was used for butchery. 
Development of the modern town (19th and 20th centuries) Edit
19th century urban growth Edit
In the 17th and 18th centuries Hemel Hempstead, with its thriving market, eclipsed Berkhamsted as the major town in the area.  Georgian Berkhamsted barely extended beyond the medieval triangle and the High Street. With the coming of the Industrial Age, Berkhamsted was well placed at a gateway through the Chilterns, between the markets of London and the industrial Midlands. The town became a link in the growing network of roads, canals and railways. These developments led Berkhamsted's population to expand once again. In 1801, the population of St Peter's parish had been 1,690 and by 1831, this had risen to 2,369 (484 houses). An 1835 description of the town found that "the houses are mostly of brick, and irregularly built, but are interspersed with a fair proportion of handsome residences".  The town's population increased as "hundreds of men arrived to build the railway line and needed lodging"  by 1851, the population was 3,395,  From 1850 large estates around Berkhamsted were sold, allowing for housing expansion. In 1851 the Pilkington Manor estate, east of Castle Street, was sold, and the land developed both as an industrial area and for artisans' dwellings. In 1868 streets of middle-class villas began to appear on the hill south of the High Street.   Lower Kings Road was built by public subscription in 1885 to join Kings Road and the High Street to the station.  In 1887, John Bartholomew's Gazetteer of the British Isles recorded the population at 4,485.  
19th century industry and utilities Edit
Industries in the 19th century included:
- Timber: In the mid-18th century, Berkhamsted had been noted for turned wood products. Based on the extensive woodland resources of the area (principally alder and beech), the milling and turning of wood was the town's most prominent industry in the 19th century. The Crimean War contracts for supplying the army with lance poles and tent pegs led to major expansion.  The largest manufacturer was East & Sons.
- Brush making: An offshoot of the timber industry. The largest employers were Goss Brushworks at the west end of the High Street (closed 1930s) and T.H. Nash in George Street (closed 1920s). 
- The Canal trade provided a considerable economic stimulus to the town, enabling the development of industries which involved bulk transport of materials. These included timber and malt. 
- Boat building: Berkhamsted also became a centre for the construction of the barges needed for the canal trades.  A yard for building canal barges and other boats, between Castle Street and Raven's Lane wharves, was one of three important boatyards in Hertfordshire. It was owned by John Hatton until 1880 and then by William Costin until 1910, when it was taken over by Key's, the timber merchants which in 1969 was bought by another timber merchant J. Alsford before being redeveloped into flats in 1994. At this site, next to the canal, is the Berkhamsted Canadian totem pole.
- Watercress: The construction of the canal had helped to drain the marshy areas along the valley of the River Bulbourne. In 1883, the Berkhamsted Times congratulated Mr Bedford on having converted the remaining "dirty ditches and offensive marshes" into watercress beds. 
- Chemical: Cooper's sheep dip works. William Cooper was a vet who arrived in Berkhamsted in the early 1840s and experimented in treatments for scab in sheep. He formulated an innovative arsenic and sulphur sheep-dip.  The Cooper family firm was later inherited by his nephew, Sir Richard Cooper, 1st Baronet.
- Nurserymen: Henry Lane's nurseryman business, founded in 1777, became one of the largest employers in the town in the 19th century. Extensive nurseries are shown on the 1878 Ordnance Survey 25 inch plan, at the western end of the town.
- Iron working: Wood's Ironworks was set up in 1826 by James Wood. 
Utilities in the 19th century included:
- Gasworks: The Great Berkhamsted Gas, Light & Coke Co., at the junction of Water Lane and the Wilderness, was set up to provide street lighting in 1849. In 1906, the Berkhamsted Gas Works moved to Billet Lane it closed in 1959. 
- Water and sewage: The Great Berkhamsted Waterworks Company was set up in 1864 on the High Street (on the present site of W.H. Smith and Boots). Mains drainage was first supplied in 1898–99, when effective sewerage was installed. 
Provision for the destitute Edit
In 1725 "An Account of Several Workhouses" records a parish workhouse in Berkhamsted, and a parliamentary report of 1777 refers to a parish workhouse for up to 34 inmates in Northchurch. A small "wretched, straw-thatched" house was used to house poor families in Berkhamsted, on the corner of what is now Park View Road, until it was demolished in the 1820s. In 1831 a bequest of £1,000 by the Revd George Nugent led to a new parish workhouse being set up on the site of a workhouse which had operated in a row of tenements on the High Street (at the Kitsbury Road junction) known as Ragged Row.  The "Berkhampstead Poor Law Union" was formed in June 1835 covering ten parishes centred on the town. The Union took over the existing Berkhamsted parish workhouse, and by August 1835 it had become the sole workhouse for the union. The workhouse had no schoolroom, so in 1849 the Poor Law Board recommended that pauper children be sent to the local National School. However in 1858 the school complained about the state of the children attending from the workhouse. A fever ward was erected in 1855, and a full-time nurse was engaged in 1868. The workhouse system officially came to an end in 1930, and control over the workhouse was given to local council. Nugent House, the Berkhamsted workhouse, finally closed in 1935 and its function was relocated to Hemel Hemspstead.   In 1841, the Countess of Bridgewater built a soup kitchen for the local poor within the ruins of Berkhamsted Castle. The soup kitchen was used by an estimated 15 per cent of the population of Berkhamsted (about 500 people) during the winter months, until at least 1897. The building still stands connected to the cottage in the castle grounds why it was placed outside the town and inside the ruins of the historic castle is unknown. 
Land dispute: The Battle of Berkhamsted Common Edit
The Battle of Berkhamsted Common played an important part in the preservation of common land nationally.  After 1604 the former Ashridge Priory became the home of the Edgerton family. In 1808-1814 Francis Egerton, 3rd Duke of Bridgewater, demolished the old priory, and built a stately home, Ashridge House. In 1848 the estate passed to the Earls Brownlow, a branch of the Egerton family. 
In 1866, Lord Brownlow of Ashridge House (encouraged by his mother, Lady Marian Alford) in an action similar to many other large estate holders tried to enclose Berkhamsted Common with 5-foot (1.5 m) steel fences (built by Woods of Berkhamsted) in order to claim the land as part of his family's estate. In response to the enclosure action and in defence the historic right of the public to use the ancient common land, Augustus Smith MP and George Shaw-Lefevre organised local people and 120 hired men from London's East End to dismantle the fences on the night of 6 March, in what became known nationally as the Battle of Berkhamsted Common.    
Lord Brownlow brought a legal case against Smith for trespass and criminal damage, Smith was aided in his defence by Sir Robert Hunter (later co-founder of the National Trust in 1895) and the Commons Preservation Society. Lord Justice Romilly determined that pulling down a fence was no more violent an act than erecting one. The case, he said, rested on the legality of Brownlow's action in building the fence and the legal right of people to use the land. He ruled in favour of Smith. This decision, along with the Metropolitan Commons Act 1866, helped to ensure the protection of Berkhamsted Common and other open spaces nationally threatened with enclosure. In 1926 the common was acquired by the National Trust.   
First World War Edit
During the First World War, under the guidance of Lt Col Francis Errington, the Inns of Court Officers' Training Corps trained men from the legal profession as officers. Over the course of the war, 12,000 men travelled from Berkhamsted to fight on the Western Front. Their training included trench digging: 8 miles (13 km) of trenches were dug across the Common (of which 1,640 feet (500 m) remain). The Inns of Court War Memorial on the Common has the motto Salus Populi Suprema Lex—the welfare of the people is the highest law—and states that the ashes of Colonel Errington were buried nearby.   
20th century urban developments Edit
In 1909 Sunnyside and later in 1935 Northchurch were added to Berkhamsted Urban District. Shortly after 1918 much of the extensive estate belonging to Berkhamsted Hall, at the east end of the High Street, was sold many acres west of Swing Gate Lane were developed with council housing. More council housing was built at Gossoms End. Development on the north side of the valley was limited until the sale of the Ashridge estate in the 1930s, after which housing appeared at each end of Bridgewater Road.  In the second half of the 20th century , many of the old industrial firms in Berkhamsted closed, while the numbers of commuters increased. 
After the Second World War, in July 1946, the nearby town of Hemel Hempstead was designated a New Town under the New Towns Act ("New Towns" were satellite urban developments around London to relieve London's population growth and housing shortages caused by the Blitz). In February 1947 the Government purchased 5,910 acres (2,392 ha) of land and began construction. As a result Hemel Hempstead's population increased from 20,000 to over 90,000 today, making it the largest town in Hertfordshire.  In 1974, the old hundred of Dacorum became the modern district of Dacorum formed under the Local Government Act 1972, based in Hemel Hempstead.
Berkhamsted is situated 26 miles (42 km) northwest of London within the Chiltern Hills, part of a system of chalk downlands throughout eastern and southern England, believed to have formed between 84 and 100 million years ago in the Cretaceous Period when the area was a chalk-depositing marine environment.  The town is located in a narrow northwest to southeast valley falling from 590 feet (180 m) above sea level to 344 feet (105 m). The valley is at the southernmost limit of the Pleistocene glaciation ice erosion throughout the Chiltern scarp, giving it a smooth rounded appearance, with alluvial soils in the valley bottom and chalk, clay and flint on the valley sides.   In the early Mesolithic period (Middle Stone Age, mid to late 8th millennium BC), the local upland was mostly pine woodland and the low area of central Berkhamsted probably a grass-sedge fen. In the 6th Millennium BC the dense deciduous forest became well established. By the Mid to late 3rd millennium BC during the Neolithic period (the New Stone Age) human activity can be seen in wood clearances the woodland being then dominated by lime trees, with alder trees growing on the flood plain. The River Bulbourne, a chalk stream, runs through the valley for 7 miles (11 km) in a southeast direction, starting at Dudswell and the adjoining village of Northchurch and running through Berkhamsted, Bourne End and Boxmoor, where it merges with the River Gade at Two Waters in Apsley, near Hemel Hempstead. Rich in eels and other fish, it was fast-moving and full, and prone to frequent localised flooding.  The river created a marsh environment (at times referred to as an 'unhealthy swamp') in the centre of the valley.   The river powered the watermills (recorded in 1086) and fed the three moats of the large Norman Motte and Bailey castle, that stands close to the centre of the town where a small dry combe joins the Bulbourne valley.
The countryside surrounding the town includes parts of the Green Belt and the Chilterns Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. The Urban Nature Conservation Study (UNCS) recognises the town's hinterland as a biodiversity resource. The hills gently rise to an undulating and open plateau, which has a mix of arable farmland, common land and mixed oak, ash and beech woodland. On the northeast side of town are the Berkhamsted and Northchurch commons, the largest in the Chilterns at 1,055 acres (427 ha), and forming a large arc running from Northchurch, through Frithsden and down to Potten End. Ownership of Berkhamsted Common is divided between the National Trust and Berkhamsted Golf Club. Beyond the common is the 5,000-acre (2,000 ha) historic wooded parkland of Ashridge once part of Berkhamsted Castle's hunting park, it is now managed by the National Trust. Ashridge is part of the Chilterns Beechwood Special Area of Conservation (SAC), a nationally important nature conservation area, and is also designated as a Site of Special Scientific Interest. Agriculture is more dominant to the south of the town close to the Buckinghamshire border there are two former large country estates, Ashlyns and Rossway. The ancient woodland at Dickshills is also located here.   
The layout of Berkhamsted's centre is typical of a medieval market settlement: the linear High Street (aligned on the Akeman Street) forms the spine of the town (roughly aligned east–west), from which extend medieval burgage plots (to the north and south). The surviving burgage plot layout is the result of a comprehensive plan carried out at the beginning of the 13th century, most probably instigated by Geoffrey fitz Peter.   The town centre slowly developed over the years and contains a wide variety of properties that date from the 13th century onwards. The modern town began to develop after the construction of the Grand Junction Canal in 1798. The canal intersects the river at numerous points, taking most of its water supply and helping to drain the valley. The locality became further urbanised when the London to Birmingham railway was built in 1836–37.   The townscape was shaped by the Bulbourne valley, which rises 300 feet (91 metres) on either side at its narrowest point the residential area is elongated and follows the valley's topography.   The southwest side of the valley is more developed, with side streets running up the steep hillside on the northeast side, the ground gently slopes down to the castle, railway, canal and small river, was less available for development. Today, Berkhamsted is an affluent,  "pleasant town tucked in a wooded fold in the Chiltern Hills"  with a large section of the settlement protected as a conservation area.  
Neighbouring settlements Edit
Traveling on the high street away from the town, along the Bulbourne valley south-eastwards towards London, the A4251 road passes through the village of Bourne End and the large new town of Hemel Hempstead (8 miles (13 km) distant). To the south south-east is the large village of Bovingdon. Taking the A416 road south from Berkhamsted, along the Chiltern Hills into Buckinghamshire lies the nearby hamlet of Ashley Green and the fellow market towns of Chesham (4.7 miles (8 km) distant) and Amersham. Further southwest is the village of Great Missenden and to the west is the small market town of Wendover.
Along the A4251 and valley northwestwards is the adjoining village of Northchurch, and the hamlets of Dudswell and Cow Roast, the village of Wigginton and the small market town of Tring (6.7 miles (11 km) distant) and the county town of Buckinghamshire Aylesbury at (13.9 miles (22 km) distant). Following the Chiltern Hills northwards, to the north-northwest the is the village of Aldbury situated to the north of Berkhamsted are the villages of Ringshall and Little Gaddesden (5.4 miles (9 km) distant) finally located to the north-east of the town are the villages and hamlets of Potten End, Frithsden and Great Gaddesden. The nearest large settlements to the north of Berkhamsted are the Bedfordshire towns of Dunstable (11.1 miles (18 km) distant) and Luton (13.8 miles (22 km).
Like most of the United Kingdom, Berkhamsted has an oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification Cfb).
|Climate data for Berkhamsted|
|Average high °C (°F)||6 |
|Average low °C (°F)||3 |
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||69.3 |
Near-real-time weather information can be retrieved from Berkhamsted Weather Station page on the Met Office Weather Observation website. 
Berkhamsted has a town council, the first tier of local government that represents the local people to two higher tiers of local government, Dacorum Borough Council and Hertfordshire County Council. The modern district of Dacorum based in Hemel Hempstead was formed in 1974 under the Local Government Act 1972 the local government district's main population centres include Hemel Hempstead, Tring and the western part of Kings Langley. With Berkhamsted accounting for just over 12 per cent of the district's population of 153,300 in 2017. 
Berkhamsted is split into three local government Wards—East, West and Castle. In the 2015 town council elections the political composition of the council was Conservative 12 Liberal Democrat 3.  Following the 2019 town council elections the political composition of the council changed to Liberal Democrat 10 Conservative 3 Green 2.  In the 2021 local elections on 6 May, the Berkhamsted seat at Hertfordshire County Council was won with 51.8 per cent of the vote by the Liberal Democrat Nigel Taylor, compared to the Conservative vote of 29.8per cent. 
The Hertfordshire Local Information System (HertsLIS) website (based on data from the Office for National Statistics and other UK government departments) has the following data regarding the 7,363 households in Berkhamsted in 2011. 72 per cent of homes were owner occupied (34 per cent owned outright and 38 per cent owned with a mortgage) compared to 63 per cent for England. 26.5 per cent of homes were rented (13 per cent each for social rented and private rented) compared to a national figure of 34.5 per cent. In 2011, 77 per cent of household spaces in Berkhamsted were houses or bungalows and 23 per cent were flats or maisonettes. 30 per cent of houses and bungalows were detached compared to 22 per cent nationally: 47 per cent of dwellings are semi-detached or terraced, compared to 55 per cent nationally. In third quarter of 2017 the average price of houses and flats in Berkhamsted was £724,900, compared to £474,400 for Hertfordshire, and £304,500 for England. Detached houses were £1,070,600 compared to £424,400 nationally.  Berkhamsted was shown as the best place to live in southeast England in the Sunday Times 'Best Places to Live 2018' list, with the average prices of different types of homes in Berkhamsted ranging from £273,760 for starter homes to £999,920 for family homes, with rents from £850 to £2,490 per calendar month.   
Employment and economic wellbeing Edit
In mid-2016, the Office for National Statistics estimated the working age population of Berkhamsted (males and females aged 16 to 64) as 11,400, i.e. 62 per cent of the town's population. People from Berkhamsted were employed as follows: 17.5 per cent worked as managers, directors and senior officials 27.5 per cent professional occupations and 8.5 per cent in associate professional and technical occupations 10 per cent were employed in administrative and secretarial occupations 7 per cent in skilled trades 6 per cent Caring, leisure and other service occupations 5 per cent were in sales and customer service occupations 3 per cent were in process, plant and machine operatives and 5.5 per cent worked in elementary occupations. 
According to HertsLIS in 2011, 76 per cent of Berkhamsted residents between the ages of 16 and 74 were employed (of which: full-time, 43 per cent part-time, 13 per cent self-employed, 14 per cent) and 24 per cent economically inactive (retired, 13 per cent long-term sick/disabled, 2 per cent).  1.5 per cent of Berkhamsted households included a person with a long-term health problem or disability, while nationally this figure is 4.05 per cent.  In April 2013, according to the Office for National Statistics on benefit claimants by constituency, the number of claimants on Jobseeker's Allowance (unemployment benefit) in Berkhamsted's South West Hertfordshire parliamentary constituency was 1.7 per cent, compared to 7.8 per cent for the UK. 
Looking at broad ethnic heritage in 2011, HertsLIS data found that 90 per cent of residents were described as white British. Of the remainder, 1 per cent were Irish, 4 per cent were of other white origin, 1.7 per cent were described as mixed or multiple ethnic, 2.1 per cent were Asian or Asian British, 0.3 per cent were black African/Caribbean or black British and 0.3 per cent were Arab or any other ethnic group. Regarding religious beliefs in 2011, of the 92 per cent of residents who stated a religious preference, 30 per cent were non-religious and 59 per cent were Christian other faiths included 0.4 per cent Buddhist, 0.5 per cent Jewish, 0.5 per cent Muslim and 0.1 per cent Sikh. 
Relationships and education Edit
In 2011 the marital and civil partnership statuses of residents aged 16 and over were as follows: 28 per cent single, 56 per cent married, 0.1 per cent in a registered same-sex civil partnership, 2 per cent separated, 8 per cent divorced or legally dissolved same-sex civil partnership, and 6 per cent widowed or surviving partner from a same-sex civil partnership. Looking at the qualifications table, 12 per cent of residents had no qualifications, 10 per cent reached level 1, 13 per cent achieved level 2, 2 per cent had apprenticeship qualifications, 10 per cent were level 3 and 49 per cent achieved level 4 or above.  In 2018 the Sunday Times found 76 per cent of young people went on to higher education. 
In 1762, this section of Akeman Street became part of the Sparrows Herne Turnpike Road, a main thoroughfare between London and Aylesbury, and was notorious for its rutted and pitted state even after becoming a toll road. Many coaching inns thrived along its route, including, in Berkhamsted, the King's Arms (where the exiled King Louis XVIII of France carried on a romance with Polly Page, the innkeeper's daughter).   The town's historic high street is now the A4251. A bypass, originally proposed in the 1930s, was opened in 1993, and the main A41 road now passes southwest of Berkhamsted. A study of car ownership in Berkhamsted, Northchurch and Tring found that 43–45 per cent of households had two or more cars (compared to the county average of 40 per cent and the national average of 29 per cent). Conversely, the proportion of households who did not own a car was 14–20 per cent (about 7 per cent lower than the national average).  Local bus routes passing through Berkhamsted town centre provide links to Hemel Hempstead, Luton, Watford and Whipsnade Zoo. Services include the 30, 31, 62, 207, 500 (Aylesbury and Watford), 501, 502 and 532. Buses are managed by Hertfordshire County Council's Intalink transport service.  
In 1798, the Grand Junction Canal (built by William Jessop) from the River Thames at Brentford reached Berkhamsted. It had reached Birmingham in 1805.  Castle Wharf, the port of Berkhamsted, on the south side of the canal between Ravens Lane and Castle Street, was the centre of the town's canal trade, navigation and boat building activities. It was a hub of the country's inland water transport system, linking the ports and industrial centres of the country. Goods transported included coal, grain, building materials and manure. Timber yards, boating wharves, breweries, boat building and chemical works flourished as a result of the canal, with over 700 workers employed locally. It is still known as the "Port of Berkhamsted". Separately, Francis Egerton, 3rd Duke of Bridgewater (the "Canal Duke" and "father of the inland waterway system"), lived in Ashridge, near Berkhamsted. The canal became part of the Grand Union Canal in 1929. Once an important trade artery, today the Grand Union Canal, Canal Fields and river provide an open space, recreational opportunities, and a wildlife corridor running east–west through the centre of the town.
In 1834, after opposition from turnpike trusts and local landowners was resolved, the first Berkhamsted railway station was built by chief engineer Robert Stephenson. Though the castle was the first building to receive statutory protection from Parliament, the railway embankment obliterated the old castle barbican and adjacent earthworks. Most of the raw materials used to build the railway were transported by the canal.  The present station was built in 1875 when the railway was widened. It is unusual on its line, in that most of the original buildings have been retained. The 'large trunk station' is located immediately next to Berkhamsted Castle on one side and overlooks the Grand Junction Canal on the other. The station is 28 miles (45 km) north-west of London Euston on the West Coast Main Line.  '
One and a half million journeys are made annually to and from Berkhamsted, the vast majority by commuters to and from London.  Principal services, operated by West Midlands Trains, run between London Euston and Milton Keynes Central, with additional trains running to Northampton and Birmingham New Street. Southern also runs an hourly service direct to East Croydon via Clapham Junction.
In 1986, farming, service and light industry were characteristic local employers.  In 2015, schools and retail (predominantly Waitrose) were the town's largest employers these are both situated in Berkhamsted Castle ward.  The Berkhamsted West ward (especially around Billet Lane, close to the canal and railway) is where most of the town's small to medium-sized industrial firms are located. The British Film Institute (BFI) is an important local employer to the south of Berkhamsted. As in many settlements, local industry has declined, and more people commute elsewhere to work. Of the employed residents living in both Berkhamsted and Tring, 35 per cent live and work in the towns, while 65 per cent commute to workplaces away from the towns, particularly to London.  Of the 7,100 people who work in Berkhamsted, 58 per cent commute to Berkhamsted to work. In 2011, 9.5 per cent of Berkhamsted residents (aged 16 to 74 in employment) worked mainly at or from home 52 per cent drove to work by car (2.5 per cent as a passenger in a car) 22 per cent travelled by public transport and 13 per cent cycled or walked to work. In 2011, an average commute to work was 21 kilometres. 
In November 2014, the Academy of Urbanism's Urbanism Awards found Berkhamsted's High Street to be a "vibrant" and "bustling" road, which "worked extremely well as a quality high street."  They considered the layout for the street to be exemplary for its time (it was put in place after the bypass was built in the early 1990s), creating a "pleasant" and "successful" shopping environment and providing a good "range of specialist shops and numerous cafes, restaurants and pubs", together with the "strong supermarket" offering set in "well-crafted re-configured streetscape". The long high street had 100 per cent retail occupancy, independent traders and a "cafe culture".  The Academy considered the good working collaboration between individual businesses and the Chamber of Trade to be a particularly strong aspect of the street. In the 2017 Vitality Index of 1000 retail locations in the UK carried out by Harper Dennis Hobbs, Berkhamsted was ranked as the 16th best shopping location in the country. (The index measured the quality of retail locations, including factors such as how well the retail mix met the needs of the local community, the number of vacant shops, and the proportion of 'undesirable' shops such as pawnbrokers and bookmakers.)  Coming top in the south-east region in Sunday Times 2018 Best Places to Live, Berkhamsted was described as 'affluent and attractive its medieval centre is filled with chic shops and great places to eat', with 76 per cent of shops being independent stores. Berkhamsted has an active Transition Town community.  
Independent schools Edit
Berkhamsted School is an independent public school. It was founded in 1541 by Dean John Incent, (c. 1480–1545)   Born in Berkhamsted circa 1480, John Incent was the Dean of St Paul's Cathedral in London from 1540 to 1545 (during the early years of the English Reformation).
Incent was noted as one of the agents of the Lord Chancellor Thomas Cromwell responsible for the sequestration of religious properties during the Dissolution of the Monasteries  Incent financed the foundation of Berkhamsted school from the combined revenues of the town's two medieval hospitals, St John the Baptist and St John the Evangelist, which he had closed down in 1516. In 1523 he took the lands of the two former hospitals and joined them to his own land, donating the enlarged estate towards the creation of a school. In 1541 he obtained a royal charter for "one chauntry perpetual and schools for boys not exceeding 144 to be called Dean Incent's Free School in Berkhamstedde".  John Incent died intestate 18 months after his school opened. To protect the school from legal challenges, school was incorporated by an Act of Parliament as The Free Schole of King Edwarde the Sixte in Berkhampstedde. Amongst the school's former students was the author Graham Greene.  The school's oldest building, the Old Hall, was built in 1544 and is Grade I listed. Contemporary records state that Incent "builded with all speed a fair schoole lartge and great all of brick very sumptuously", and "when ye said school was thus finished, ye Deane sent for ye cheafe men of ye towne into ye school where he kneeling gave thanks to Almighty God".  In 1988 the school merged with Berkhamsted School for Girls (another large independent private school in the town), which had been founded in 1888.    The school has 1,500 fee paying pupils, aged 3 to 18.
Egerton Rothesay School, an independent school founded in 1922, has 150 pupils between the ages of 5 and 19. 
State schools Edit
In the 1970s, the town adopted a three-tier state school education system, but reverted to the two-tier system of primary and secondary schools in 2013. 
Primary schools are: Victoria (founded in 1838), Bridgewater, Greenway, St Thomas More, Swing Gate, Thomas Coram and Westfield.  The secondary school is Ashlyns School, a Foundation school with 1,200 pupils aged 11 to 19 years it is a specialist language college. The school started in the 18th century, when Thomas Coram, a philanthropic ship's captain, was appalled by the abandoned babies and children starving and dying in London. He campaigned for a hospital to accommodate them and was successfully granted a royal charter "for the Maintenance and Education of Exposed and Deserted Children" in 1739. Three years later, in 1742, he established the Foundling Hospital at Lamb's Conduit Fields in Bloomsbury, London. It was the first children's charity in the country and a precedent for incorporated associational charities everywhere.  The school moved to its purpose-built location in Berkhamsted in 1935. The residential home side at Berkhamsted closed following the Children Act 1948, when family-centred care replaced institutional care. In 1951 Hertfordshire County Council took over running the school.    The large school contains stained glass windows, especially around the chapel, a staircase and many monuments from the original London hospital. The school's chapel formerly housed an organ donated by George Frideric Handel.  The school was used a backdrop to the 2007 comedy film, Son of Rambow. 
Business school Edit
Ashridge Executive Education is located in the Grade I listed Ashridge House, the former stately home of the Duke of Bridgewater, set in 190 acres (77 hectares) of rolling parkland, 2 miles outside Berkhamsted.  The house occupies the site of the earlier Ashridge Priory, a college of the monastic order of Bonhommes founded in 1283 by Edmund, 2nd Earl of Cornwall, who resided in the castle. After the Dissolution of the Monasteries, Henry VIII bequeathed the property to his daughter, Elizabeth. In 1800, it was the home of Francis Egerton, 3rd Duke of Bridgewater, affectionately known as the Father of Inland Navigation.  Ashridge House was constructed between 1808 and 1814 to a design by James Wyatt with later work by his nephew Jeffrey Wyattville. Architecture critic Nikolaus Pevsner described it as the "largest of the romantic palaces near London . a spectacular composition". In 1928 Urban Hanlon Broughton purchased the house as a gift for the Conservative Party intended to commemorate Bonar Law. For its first 15 years, it became a "College of Citizenship" established to help the party develop its intellectual forces in struggles with socialist organisations such as the Fabian Society. It became a cross between a think-tank and a training centre, and Arthur Bryant was its educational adviser. 
In 2015 Ashridge merged with Hult International Business School, an American business school with campuses in seven cities around the world.  Its activities include open and tailored executive education programmes, MBA, MSc and Diploma qualifications, organisation consulting, applied research and online learning. Ashridge is the only UK specialist business school with degree awarding powers, giving it the equivalent status to a university in awarding its degrees.
The oldest extant church locally is St Mary's in the adjacent village of Northchurch. Between 1087 and 1104, there is reference to a chaplain called Godfrey and to a chapel of St James with parochial status within St Mary's Berkhamsted's parish. The chapel situated close to St Johns, located close to St John's Lane, was the base for a small community of monks, the Brotherhood of St John the Baptist, in the 11th and 12th centuries.   [Notes 9]
During King John's reign, Geoffrey Fitz Peter, was instrumental in the foundation the parish church of St Peter, and in 1222, Robert de Tuardo, was registered as the first known rector.  Because of the church's proximity to the castle, the reigning monarch was patron of Berkhamsted rectors for several centuries. In 1648, St Peter's Church was requisitioned during the English Civil War by General Fairfax as a military prison to hold soldiers captured from the siege of Colchester.  The poet William Cowper was christened in St Peter's,  where his father John Cowper was rector. 
The parish church of St Peter, is one of the largest churches in Hertfordshire, stands on the high street.  The church is in the Latin cross plan, with an 85-foot (26 m) clock tower at the crossing and measures 56 yards (51 m) from the west door to the east window, and the width across the transepts is 30 yards (27 m). The oldest part of the church is the chancel, which is dated at c. 1200 it is in the Early English style common in that period.  Further additions were made up until the 15th century in 1871, it underwent a restoration by William Butterfield. There are two altar tombs with alabaster effigies dating from the 14th century: the tombs are of a knight (thought to be Henry of Berkhamsted, one of the Black Prince's lieutenants at the Battle of Crecy) and his lady. There are two other Anglican churches in the town – 'St Michael and All Angels' (Sunnyside)(original building 1886) and 'All Saints' Church & St Martha's' (built in 1906, to cater for the growing population in the west end of the town). In 1842 a detached churchyard to St Peter's Church was established, using land to the rear of Egerton House (where the Rex cinema now stands) on Rectory Lane. It expanded to 3.275 acres and was phased out of use in 1976. In 2016 The Friends of St Peter's Berkhamsted received £907,000 in a grant from the Heritage Lottery Fund and the Big Lottery Fund from the National Lottery (United Kingdom) - as one of 12 sites across the country sharing £32m. The grant is to restored heritage features and create a new green community space in the town.  
The town has a strong Non-conformist tradition, in 1672 a survey found that there were 400 Anglian conformists and 150 Non-conformists in Berkhamsted, when such beliefs could bring you foul of the law. The Baptist community in Berkhamsted, dates from 1640 making it one of the oldest nationally first gathering in secret, they built a large chapel in 1722, and moved to their current place of worship at the junction of Ravens Lane on the High Street in 1864.  A Quaker community is present in the town from the second half of the 17th century, they opened their Meeting House in 1818 on the High Street opposite St John's Well Lane.  The Congregationlists can be traced back to 1780, they now worship combined with the Presbyterian church at St Andrew's United Reformed Church on the corner of Castle Street and Chapel Street.  The Methodists arrived with the hundreds of men who came to build the railway, via various places of worship, today they share All Saints' Church with the Anglians.  The Evangelist (Latter Day Saints) began life has part of the Plymouth Bretheren, their Hope Hall opened in 1875, which was rechristened the Kings Road Evangelical Church in 1969.  The Roman Catholic tradition from the 17th to 20th century appears to be limited, General de Gaulle worshiped at their original Church of the Sacred Heart in Park View Road, they moved to a larger modern church in 1980 on Park Street. 
Literary connections Edit
Geoffrey Chaucer was clerk of works at Berkhamsted Castle from 1389 and based his Doctor of Phisick in The Canterbury Tales on John of Gaddesden, who lived in nearby Little Gaddesden. William Cowper was born in Berkhamsted Rectory in 1731. Although he moved away when still a boy, there are frequent references to the town in his poems and letters. In the Victorian era, Cowper became a cult figure and Berkhamsted was a place of pilgrimage for his devotees. Maria Edgeworth, a prolific Anglo-Irish writer of adults' and children's literature who was a significant figure in the evolution of the novel in Europe, lived in Berkhamsted as a child in the 18th century.  Between 1904 and 1907, the Llewelyn Davies boys were the inspiration for the author and playwright J. M. Barrie's Peter Pan.  A little later, novelist Graham Greene was born in Berkhamsted and educated at Berkhamsted School, alongside literary contemporaries Claud Cockburn, Peter Quennell, Humphrey Trevelyan and Cecil Parrott.  Children's authors H. E. Todd and Hilda van Stockum both lived in Berkhamsted. The comic character Ed Reardon from Radio 4's semi-naturalistic radio drama Ed Reardon's Week resides in Berkhamsted.
The Rex Cinema is regarded by some, including The Daily Telegraph, as Britain's most beautiful cinema.  Described by Dame Judi Dench as "absolutely awe-inspiring", in 2014, the Rex was declared Britain's Best Cinema in the inaugural Guardian film awards.   Built in 1937 the Rex is recognised by English Heritage as a fine example of a 1930s art deco cinema.  The cinema was designed by architect David Evelyn Nye for the Shipman and King circuit.  Closed in 1988, the cinema was extensively restored in 2004 and has become a thriving independent local cinema.  The Rex frequently has sold-out houses for evening showings, the cinema is a "movie palace with all the original art deco trimmings" (its interior features decorations of sea waves and shells). Inside is a step "back into the golden age of film" when going to the movies was an experience the cinema features luxurious seating and two licensed bars. It is managed by its owner James Hannaway, who introduces films. Sometimes there is a question and answer session with directors and actors involved in the films these sessions have included Dame Judi Dench, Charles Dance, Mike Leigh and Terry Jones. 
Prior to the cinema's construction, an Elizabethan mansion, Egerton House, had occupied the site at the east end of the high street for 350 years. The house was occupied briefly (1904–07) by Arthur and Sylvia Llewelyn Davies, whose children were J. M. Barrie's inspiration for Peter Pan. 
British Film Institute National Archive at King's Hill Edit
Rarely open to the public, the BFI National Archive's "The J. Paul Getty, Jr. Conservation Centre" in Berkhamsted is the archive of the British Film Institute.  With over 275,000 feature, non-fiction and short films (dating from 1894) and 210,000 television programmes, it is one of the largest film archives in the world. Two of the archive's collections were added to the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) UK Memory of the World Register, in 2011.  The archive collects, preserves, restores and shares the films and television programmes which have shaped and recorded British life and times since the development of motion picture film in the late 19th century. The majority of the collection is British-originated material, but the archive also features internationally significant holdings from around the world and films that feature key British actors and the work of British directors.
The Berkhamsted Bowmen are the oldest archery club in England.  Founded in 1875 Berkhamsted Cricket Club competes in the Herts League and in 2015 it ran twenty-five separate teams. The club is based at the Berkhamsted Community Cricket and Sports Club, Kitcheners Field, Castle Hill, Berkhamsted. The nine Berkhamsted and Hemel Hempstead Hockey Club teams are based just outside the town at Cow Roast, playing their matches at Tring School. There are two Bowls clubs, Berkhamsted and Kitcheners. 
The town's football club, Berkhamsted FC, play in the Southern Football League Division One East, part of the 8th Level in the English League (the town's football ground is at Broadwater). The team was formed in 2009 after the demise of Berkhamsted Town FC, which had been established in 1895. Founded in 1996, Berkhamsted Raiders CFC football club was recognised as the FA Charter Standard Community Club of the Year at the English Football Association Community Awards in 2014 and awarded the UEFA Grassroots Silver Award in 2015 for their work across the local community. The club in 2015 had more than 800 affiliated players, including 90 girls and 691 boys in the youth set-up, 29 ladies, 20 seniors and 20 veterans: who are spread across 65 teams at different levels.  
There is a sports centre off Douglas Gardens, managed by the Dacorum Sports Trust (Sportspace). The facilities comprise a large indoor multi-purpose sports hall, squash courts, swimming pool and outdoor all-weather pitch. This facility is complemented by dual use of the leisure facilities of Ashlyns School and Berkhamsted Collegiate School. A deficit in leisure space is compounded by a high level of sports participation locally and consequent heavy use of outdoor sports pitches. Berkhamsted and the surrounding area has a variety of road cycling and mountain biking routes, including traffic-free off-road routes in Ashridge Estate.  The town was visited by the Tour of Britain in 2014. 
The majority of Berkhamsted's eighty-five listed or scheduled historical sites are on in the high street and the medieval core of the town (a significant number of them contain timber frames). Four are scheduled, one is Grade I, seven are Grade II*, the remaining 75 are Grade II.   In addition to the sites noted in the article above (such as the castle and schools) the following structures and locations are of interest:
- is a Victorian façade hiding what is considered to be the oldest extant jettied timber-framed building in Great Britain, dated by dendrochronology of structural timbers to between 1277 and 1297.  The building was originally thought to have been a jeweller or goldsmith's shop with a workshop behind. It is now believed to have been a jettied service wing to a larger aisled hall house, which has since disappeared.  It represents an early example of transition in carpentry technology, from the use of passing braces to crown posts. The 13th century origin of the structure was discovered by chance in 2000 by builders who had begun work on what appeared to be a Victorian property. The shop was, from 1869, Figg's the Chemists post-restoration (with expertise and a £250,000 grant from English Heritage), the shop is currently used as an estate agency. Dr Simon Thurley, Chief Executive of English Heritage, said "This is an amazing discovery. It gives an extraordinary insight into how Berkhamsted High Street would have looked in medieval times." 
- 125 High Street, a house and shop opposite St Peter's Church, is a timber-framed building with a wing that is one bay of a 14th-century open hall. The layout suggests that it once had a second bay of similar size – a length of 26 feet (8 m) in all. This was an unusually large house its size and central position suggests a manor house or other high status house, possibly supporting the castle. The building underwent extensive alterations in the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries. 
- The Swan, 139 High Street, contains the remains of a medieval open hall. Parts of the roof date from the 14th century, and the street range was extended and a chimney stack added c. 1500. It sits on the ancient junction with the old Roman road of Akeman Street (High Street) and the main route between Berkhamsted and Windsor Castle (Chesham Road). 
- Castle Street began life as the medieval lane from the town's high street to the drawbridge of the royal castle. At the other end of the lane was the parish church of St Peters. In the 16th century, next to the church, Berkhamsted school was founded, while in the 17th century there were seven public houses among the street's trade outlets. 
- To the northwest of Berkhamsted stand the ruins of Marlin's Chapel, a 13th-century chapel next to a medieval fortified farm. The walls and moat surrounding the modern farm still remain and are reputed to be haunted. 
- 129 High Street is the Grade II* listed house known as Dean Incent's House. (John Incent, Dean of St Paul's, founded Berkhamsted School.) A 15th century half-timbered house, the interior has original exposed timber framing and several Tudor wall paintings. The building incorporates part of an even older structure and was used as public meeting place before the Court House was built. The house is not normally open to the public. 
- The Court House, next to the church, dates from the 16th century, and is believed to lie on the site of the medieval court where the Portmote [Notes 10] or Borough Court was held. 
- Sayer's Almshouses, were the legacy of John Sayer, chief cook to Charles II, at 235–241 High Street, comprise a single-storey row of almshouses built in 1684. 
- The Bourne School, at 222 High Street, was the legacy by Thomas Bourne (1656–1729) (Master of the Company of Framework Knitters) to build a charity school in Berkhamsted for 20 boys and 10 girls. The front was rebuilt in 1854 in Jacobean-style red brick it is not clear if any part of the building predates 1854. In 1875, the pupils were transferred to the National School and the funds used for scholarships. 
- The site now occupied by the Pennyfarthing Hotel dates from the 16th century, having been a monastic building used as accommodation for religious guests passing through Berkhamsted or going to the monastery at Ashridge. , a Victorian gothic market house and town hall, designed by architect Edward Buckton Lamb (built in 1859, extended in 1890, restored in 1983–1999), was built by public subscription from Berkhamstedians.  It comprised a market hall (now the Copper House restaurant), a large assembly hall and rooms for the Mechanics' Institute. When Berkhamsted became part of the new Dacorum Borough Council (based in Hemel Hempstead), there were plans to demolish the building, these plans were stopped by a ten-year citizens' campaign during the 1970s and 1980s, which eventually ended at the High Court. 
- The Berkhamsted Canadiantotem pole sits adjacent to the canal, close to Castle Street Bridge. In the early 1960s, Roger Alsford, a great-grandson of the founder of the timber company, James Alsford (1841–1912), went to work at the Tahsis lumber mill on Vancouver Island. During a strike, he was rescued from starvation by a local Kwakiutl community. Alsford's brother, William John Alsford, visited the island, and in gratitude for the local people's hospitality, commissioned a totem pole from the Canadian First Nations artist Henry Hunt.  The western red cedar pole, 30 feet (9 m) high and 3 feet (1 m) in diameter, was carved by Hunt at Thunderbird Park, a centre for First Nation monuments. The completed pole was shipped to Britain and erected at Alsford's Wharf in 1968. Alsford's warehouses were replaced in 1994 by a private housing development which limit access to the pole, so that it can be viewed only at a distance from the public road. It is one of only a handful of totem poles in the United Kingdom, others being on display at the British Museum and Horniman Museum in London, Windsor Great Park, Bushy Park and the Yorkshire Sculpture Park.  The carvings on the totem pole represent four figures from First Nations legend: at the top sits Raven, the trickster and creator deity he sits on the head of Sunman, who has outstretched arms representing the rays of the sun and wears a copper (a type of ceremonial shield) Sunman stands on the fearsome witch-spirit Dzunukwa at the base is the two-headed warrior sea serpent, Sisiutl, who has up-stretched wings.  is a country estate and stately home. Ashridge House is a large Gothic Revivalcountry house built between 1808 and 1814. Since 2015 it has been the home of Hult International Business School's Ashridge Executive Education programme (see above for more information about the building). The surrounding country estate is a park managed by the National Trust, consisting of 5,000 acres (2,000 ha) of native broadleaf woodlands, commons and chalk downland on a Chiltern ridge just to the north of Berkhamsted.  Ashridge has been featured many times in film and television series due to its distinction as an area of natural beauty. Scenes were filmed for Sleepy Hollow at Golden Valley and Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire at Ashridge's ancient Frithsden Beeches Wood.  The climbable monument to Francis Egerton, 3rd Duke of Bridgewater, a tall Doric column with urn (a Grade II* listed building), stands in a grove within Ashridge.
Twin towns Edit
The town also has an informal relationship with Barkhamsted, Connecticut, in the United States. The latter presented a gavel and block on 4 July 1976, the U.S. bicentennial, which Berkhamsted Town Council now uses in meetings.
- ^ Æthelgifu's will is one of only seventeen existing wills in Old English, and it is the most extensive of them. It gives much more detail on slave and land ownership in this period than any other document, and shows that a woman could have considerable wealth. The will is written on vellum in a minuscule hand, and the original still exists an American consortium bought it in 1969, and it is now in New Jersey. 
- ^ This left an exclave of the St Mary's parish, which later became the village of Bourne End, southeast of Berkhamsted.
- ^ Historians in the past, have believed the town was of Mercian importance or in the existence of a pre–Norman conquest fortification (there is reference to land called "Oldeburgh"). The Anglo-Saxon word burgh hints at a pre-conquest fortification. The notable early 20th century historian G. M. Trevelyan, including earlier historians such as Samuel Lewis and Sir Henry Chauncy, believed that the town was once an important Mercian settlement.  Two medieval ditches have been excavated in recent years, both of which were discovered on Bridgewater Road, north of the river, that may have been part of a ditch that surrounded the early medieval town. 
- ^ Edmer Ator was evidently a senior landholding noble who had held 36 places over 7 counties prior to the Norman conquest, as recorded in the Domesday Book. 
- ^ Later in the Middle Ages the Tring Hundred merged with the Danais Hundred, "which overlapped it", to form the Dacorum Hundred. Danais referred to Danish settlers in the area. A monk writing about this area described it as "the Hundred of the Danes", using the word Daneis. The word was later incorrectly transcribed as "Danicorum" and subsequently shortened to "Dacorum". 
- ^ The patronymic is sometimes rendered "Fitz Piers", since he was the son of Piers de Lutegareshale, forester of Ludgershal.
- ^ One of the wealthiest men in Europe, Richard, 1st Earl of Cornwall, was elected King of Germany, or Holy Roman Emperor, in 1256.
- ^ The market had been in existence since at least 1086. It was originally held on a Sunday, but by this charter it was changed to Monday, as the rector of the new St Peter's Church objected to the noise. The market is now held on a Saturday.
- ^ For many centuries, the Berkhamsted town fair was held on the feast day of St James the Greater rather than on Petertide, which suggests that an older parish church before St Peter's was built in the 13th century. 
- ^ Also referred to as portmanmoot or portmoot. The name had Anglo-Saxon origins the court had aspects both of court and of council meeting. 
- ^"Community Profiles - Summary Profile Selection: Berkhamsted Geo-type: Large Settlements A to B". The Hertfordshire Local Information System (HertsLIS). Community Information and Intelligence Unit, Hertfordshire County Council . Retrieved 26 November 2017 .
- Berkhamsted Conservation Area Character Appraisal & Management Proposals (PDF) (Report). Dacorum Borough Council. 2015. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016 . Retrieved 5 February 2015 .
- "The Changing Landscape of the Chilterns" (PDF) . Chilterns Historic Landscape Characterisation Project. Chilterns Conservation Board and Buckinghamshire County Council. 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 March 2016 . Retrieved 20 January 2015 .
- ^Hastie 1999, p. 73.
- "Berkhamsted Town Guide". Berhamsted Town Council . Retrieved 19 November 2017 .
- Salzman, L.F (1939). "Romano-British remains: Roads". A History of the County of Oxford: Volume 1. Victoria County History, London. pp. 271–281 . Retrieved 15 February 2019 .
- "Berkhamsted Castle". Chilterns Conservation Board . Retrieved 17 February 2015 .
- ^ ab
- Historic England. "173 High Street, Berkhamsted (1246942)". National Heritage List for England . Retrieved 8 April 2015 .
- ^ ab
- "Restoration boost for oldest shop". BBC News. 26 February 2003 . Retrieved 17 September 2014 .
- "Berkhamsted, Hertfordshire. Best Places to Live in the UK, 2019". The Sunday Times Best Places to Live 2019. News Corp UK & Ireland Limited. 14 April 2019 . Retrieved 15 August 2019 .
- ^ abHastie 1999, p. 60.
- Mills, David (2011). A Dictionary of British Place-Names. Oxford University Press. p. 53. ISBN978-019960908-6 .
- Caroline Taggart (2011). The Book of English Place Names: How Our Towns and Villages Got Their Names. Random House. p. 153. ISBN978009194043-0 .
- ^ abcdefgPage 1908, pp. 162–179
- ^Cobb 1883, Appendix I.
- Langston, Brett. "Berkhampstead Registration District". GENUKI. Archived from the original on 4 December 2015 . Retrieved 31 March 2015 .
- Herman, Judi (1 April 2010). "Joseph Millson talks about loving life in Berko". BBC . Retrieved 13 November 2014 .
- Bolton, A. "Finds record for: WAW-C4A5F5". The Portable Antiquities Scheme. Archived from the original on 8 December 2017 . Retrieved 23 October 2015 .
- ^ abHastie 1999, p. 7.
- ^Thompson & Bryant 2005, pp. 2-5.
- "Berkhamsted Official Guide 2004" (PDF) . Retrieved 3 October 2014 .
- "Berkhamsted Police Station Berkhamsted Hertfordshire Archaeological Evaluation" (PDF) . Cotswold Archaeology. January 2015 . Retrieved 4 April 2015 .
- ^ ab
- Dyer, James (2001). Discovering Prehistoric England (2nd ed.). Princes Risborough, UK: Shire. pp. 19–20. ISBN978-074780507-6 .
- ^ abcdefg
- Semmelmann, Karin (July 2004). "343–351 High Street, Berkhamsted Herts. Desk-Based Archaeological Assessment" (PDF) . Heritage Network . Retrieved 17 September 2014 .
- ^ abThompson & Bryant 2005, p. 3.
- ^ abc
- "Archaeological Desk-Based Assessment of Land at Gossoms End, Berkhamsted, Hertfordshire" (PDF) . Report 2013-1334. nps archaeology. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 September 2014 . Retrieved 10 December 2014 .
- ^ abc
- "Area 117 Upper Bulbourne Valley" (PDF) . Landscape Character Assessment for Dacorum. Dacorum Borough Council. 2004. pp. 93–96.
- "Cow Roast Pottery". Dacorum Heritage Trust . Retrieved 1 October 2014 .
- "The National Slag Collection: A simple catalogue" (PDF) . Retrieved 23 December 2014 .
- McDonnell, J.G. (June 1982). "Ancient Monuments Laboratory Report 3971" (PDF) . A survey of the iron working industry in England 700BC to 1600AD. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 December 2014 . Retrieved 24 December 2014 .
- ^ abThompson & Bryant 2005, p. 4.
- Griffiths, Claire Hunn, Jonathan (August 2004). Archaeological Desk-Based Assessment : Castle Wharf, Bridge Street Berkhamsted Hertfordshire (PDF) (Report). Archaeological Services & Consultancy Ltd.
- ^Hastie 1996, p. 14.
- ^ ab
- "St Mary's church – Our History". Archived from the original on 12 March 2012 . Retrieved 31 July 2011 .
- "Northchurch Roman Villa". Dacorum Heritage Trust . Retrieved 20 September 2014 .
- Historic England. "Berkhamsted Common Romano-British villa, dyke and temple (1020914)". National Heritage List for England . Retrieved 19 October 2014 .
- Historic England. "Site of Roman building, N of Berkhamsted Castle (1005253)". National Heritage List for England . Retrieved 20 September 2014 .
- ^Whitelock 1968, p. 14.
- ^Thompson & Bryant 2005, pp. 5-6.
- ^ abWilliamson 2010, p. 152.
- ^Hastie 1999, p. 16.
- ^ abThompson & Bryant 2005, p. 5.
- "4/01211/12/MFA – Redevelopment And Alterations To Provide Mixed Retail Development With Associated Car Parking, Servicing, Landscaping And Other Associated Works" (PDF) . Retrieved 29 November 2014 .
- ^ abPage 1908, pp. 245-250.
- ^Remfry 1998, p. 9.
- ^ ab
- Presenter: Sam Willis, Director: Ben Southwell (4 December 2014). "1. Instruments of Invasion". Castles: Britain's Fortified History. 5.05 – 6.20 minutes in. BBC. BBC 4.
- ^ ab
- Mills, Peter (1996). "The Battle of London 1066" (PDF) . London Archaeologist. 8 (3): 59–62.
- Carter, Laura. " ' Essentially an historical play': Berkhamsted pageant play, 1922". Redress of the Past. Archived from the original on 28 November 2014 . Retrieved 13 November 2014 .
- ^Page 1908, p. 165.
- "History of Berkhamsted Castle". english-heritage.org.uk . Retrieved 18 August 2017 .
- Historic England. "Berkhamsted motte and bailey castle (1010756)". National Heritage List for England . Retrieved 18 August 2017 .
- "Name: Edmer Ator". Open Domesday. Archived from the original on 9 October 2014 . Retrieved 7 December 2014 .
- ^Thompson & Bryant 2005, pp. 6, 12.
- ^ ab
- "Place: Berkhamsted". Open Domesday . Retrieved 21 November 2014 .
- ^ ab
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Berkhampstead" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 3 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 782.
- ^Slater & Goose 2008, pp. 226–227.
- ^ ab
- "Berkhamsted Conservation Area Character Appraisal & Management Proposals" (PDF) . Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016 . Retrieved 23 September 2014 .
- "About Dacorum". Dacorum Heritage Trust . Retrieved 20 January 2015 .
- Marjorie Chibnall (1991). Proceedings of the Battle Conference 1990. Boydell & Brewer Ltd. pp. 134–. ISBN978-0-85115-286-8 .
- ^ abc
- Hatcher, John Miller, Edward (2014). Medieval England: Towns, Commerce and Crafts, 1086–1348. Routledge. p. 27. ISBN978-131787287-0 .
- Historic England. "Berkhamsted motte and bailey castle (1010756)". National Heritage List for England . Retrieved 20 September 2014 .
- Jim Leary, Elaine Jamieson and Phil Stastney (2018). "Normal for Normans? Exploring the large round mounds of England" . Current Archaeology (published April 2018) (337) . Retrieved 8 January 2019 .
- "The Round Mounds Project". Radiocarbon dates from 10 castle mounds – results of year 1. University of Reading. 7 October 2016 . Retrieved 6 January 2019 .
- ^ abWilliamson 2010, p. 219.
- ^ abHastie 1996, p. 202.
- ^Rowe 2007, p. 132.
- ^ abThompson & Bryant 2005, p. 6.
- ^Liddiard 2005, pp. 111–112.
- Spigelman, James J. (2004). Becket & Henry: The Becket Lectures. Sydney, Australia: St Thomas More Society. p. 146. ISBN978-064643477-3 .
- ^ abMackenzie 1896, p. 128
- ^ abCobb 1883, pp. 14, 72.
- ^Hastie 1999, p. 17.
- "History of the Magna Carta 1216 Berkhamsted (siege)". 2014 Magna Carta 2015 Committee / HCL Technologies . Retrieved 8 October 2014 .
- ^ abcdRemfry 1998.
- ^Brown 1989, p. 52.
- ^Pettifer 1995, p. 105
- Richards, Jeffrey (1995). "The role of the railways". In Wheeler, Michael (ed.). Ruskin and Environment: The Storm-cloud of the Nineteenth Century. Manchester: Manchester University Press. p. 125. ISBN978-071904377-2 .
- "Ancient Monuments". Duchy of Cornwall . Retrieved 21 November 2014 .
- ^ abThompson & Bryant 2005, p. 10.
- Maher, Shane (January 2014). 300 High Street, Berkhamsted, Hertfordshire (PDF) (Report). Construct Archaeology Ltd.
- ^ abcdefBirtchnell 1988.
- ^Slater & Goose 2008, pp. 240–241.
- ^ abcThompson & Bryant 2005, p. 9.
- "Hertfordshire". Gazetteer of Markets and Fairs in England and Wales To 1516 Hertfordshire. British History Online . Retrieved 5 February 2015 .
- ^ abcSlater & Goose 2008, p. 240.
- ^Hillaby & Hillaby 2013, pp. 50-52.
- ^Slater & Goose 2008, p. 56.
- "Berkhamsted Conservation Area Character Appraisal & Management Proposals" (PDF) . Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016 . Retrieved 24 December 2014 .
- ^Page 1905, pp. 386-387.
- ^Rowe 2007, pp. 131–144
- ^ abSlater & Goose 2008, Table 5.3.
- ^Thompson & Bryant 2005, p. 12.
- ^Mackenzie 1896, p. 130.
- ^Thompson & Bryant 2005, pp. 10, 13.
- Hands, Joan (10 November 2010). "The "extraordinary" market that put Hemel Hempstead on the map". Dacorum Heritage Trust . Retrieved 1 October 2014 .
- ^ abcThompson & Bryant 2005, p. 26.
- "Cunningham, David, −1659". Social Networks and Archival Context (SNAC) . Retrieved 20 October 2014 .
- ^Cobb 1883, pp. 46–47.
- Sumner Chilton Powell (1 May 2011). Puritan Village: The Formation of a New England Town. Wesleyan University Press, 1 May 2011. p. 22. ISBN9780819572684 .
- Thomson, Alan (2004). "Axtell, Daniel (bap. 1622, d. 1660)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/928. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
- ^Reece 2013, p. 122.
- ^ abcHastie 1999, p. 102.
- Reid Doster, G. (1977). "Discipline and ordination at Berkhamsted General Baptist Church, 1712–1718" (PDF) . Baptist Quarterly. 27 (3): 128–138. doi:10.1080/0005576X.1977.11751481.
- Historic Building Assessment: site adjacent to 3 & 4 Church Gates, Church Lane, Berkhamsted, Hertfordshire (PDF) (Report). Archaeological Services & Consultancy Ltd. November 2004. p. 12.
- Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge (1835). "The Penny Cyclopaedia of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge". Knight . Retrieved 10 December 2014 .
- ^ abcThompson & Bryant 2005, p. 23.
- "Market Towns Of Hertfordshire (from SDUK Penny Cyclopedia)" . Retrieved 24 September 2014 .
- ^Hastie 1999, p. 68.
- "Berkhamsted Hertfordshire". A Vision of Britain through Time. University of Portsmouth . Retrieved 17 March 2015 .
- ^ abcdThompson & Bryant 2005, p. 24.
- ^Thompson & Bryant 2005, pp. 22,25.
- ^ abThompson & Bryant 2005, p. 25.
- ^ abThompson & Bryant 2005, p. 27.
- "The Workhouse - Berkhampstead/Berkhamsted, Hertfordshire" . Retrieved 26 July 2015 .
- Carstairs Phillip (11 April 2016). "Berkhamsted Castle and the Countess of Bridgewater's soup house: magic kingdoms and heterotopias in Hertfordshire" . Retrieved 29 August 2016 .
- Mabey, Richard (7 November 2015). "The queen beech ruled the land, even when she fell". New Statesman . Retrieved 7 November 2015 .
- "The Battle of Berkhamsted 150th Anniversary Walk" (PDF) . National Trust . Retrieved 19 November 2017 .
- ^Sanecki 1996, p. none.
- "Herts History: The Battle of Berkhamsted". Hertfordshire Life. 14 March 2016 . Retrieved 27 March 2016 .
- "The Battle of Berkhamsted Common". National Trust . Retrieved 19 November 2017 .
- "Marian Alford". National Trust . Retrieved 15 January 2020 .
- "Mr. Shaw-Lefevre on the Preservation of Commons". The Times. 11 December 1886. p. 10.
- Ashbrook, Kate. "Modern commons: a protected open space?" (PDF) . Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 April 2020 . Retrieved 24 October 2014 .
- "Exhibition and commemorative walk marks anniversary of battle to save Berkhamsted Common". Hemel Gazette. Johnston Publishing Ltd. 12 October 2015. Archived from the original on 13 March 2016 . Retrieved 14 October 2015 .
- "Berkhamsted, Hertfordshire: Where the Law was Trained for War" . Retrieved 11 November 2014 .
- "WWI commemorative edition" (PDF) . Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 December 2014 . Retrieved 29 November 2014 .
- Cross, Michael (2 July 2014). "In search of the Inns of Court trenches". The Law Society Gazette. Law Society. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015 . Retrieved 1 March 2015 .
- ^Thompson & Bryant 2005, p. 32.
- Berkhamsted Local History & Museum Society (15 March 2013). Berkhamsted Through Time. Amberley Publishing Limited. pp. 18–. ISBN978-1-4456-2686-4 .
- "War and boom prompted an exodus from city to town". The Dacorum Heritage Trust Ltd. 20 April 2011 . Retrieved 25 July 2015 .
- Catt, John. "Geology on your Doorstep". Hertfordshire Geological Society . Retrieved 28 December 2014 .
- "Domesday Reloaded 1986: Farming in Berkhamsted". BBC . Retrieved 21 September 2014 .
- ^Hastie 1996, p. 8.
- ^ abc
- "Spatial Strategy for the town of Berkhamsted" (PDF) . Emerging Core Strategy 2009. Dacorum Borough Council. 2009.
- "Berkhamsted and Northchurch Common". Chilterns Conservation Board . Retrieved 19 September 2014 .
- ^Hastie 1996, p. 10-11.
- ^Hastie 1996, p. 8-9.
- ^Thompson & Bryant 2005, p. 7.
- Hobbs, Thomas (26 April 2014). "Berkhamsted backlash against 'lowering the tone with a Lidl ' ". The Grocer . Retrieved 1 October 2014 .
- ^ ab
- "Let's move to Berkhamsted, Hertfordshire". 12 December 2009 . Retrieved 30 September 2014 .
- "Conservation areas" . Retrieved 4 February 2015 .
- "Weather: Averages for Berkhamsted". Microsoft . Retrieved 9 April 2015 .
- "Observation Site: Berkhamsted Weather Station". Wow Weather Observations Website. metoffice.gov.uk . Retrieved 15 February 2019 .
- "East of England Region". Civic Heraldry of England . Retrieved 9 March 2021 .
- "Hertfordshire South West parliamentary constituency - Election 2019". BBC News . Retrieved 14 December 2019 .
- "Data Sources". Community Information and Intelligence Unit, Hertfordshire County Council . Retrieved 29 January 2019 .
- ^Dacorum BC - Election Results - Berkhamsted Town Council, Accessed 10 May 2015
- "Town & Parish Elections - Thursday, 2nd May, 2019". dacorum.gov.uk . Retrieved 8 December 2020 .
- "Election results for Berkhamsted (7)". Hertfordshire County Council. Hertfordshire County Council. 8 May 2021.
- "Data Sources". Community Information and Intelligence Unit, Hertfordshire County Council . Retrieved 19 November 2017 .
- ^ abc
- "Berkhamsted, Hertfordshire — best places to live in the UK 2018". Times Newspapers Limited. 18 March 2018 . Retrieved 19 March 2018 .
- "York named Britain's 'best place to live' by guide". BBC. 18 March 2018 . Retrieved 19 March 2018 .
- "Berkhamsted named best place to live in South East of England by The Sunday Times". Hertfordshire Mercury. 16 March 2018 . Retrieved 21 March 2018 .
- ^ abcde
- "Data Sources". Community Information and Intelligence Unit, Hertfordshire County Council . Retrieved 19 November 2017 .
- . Economic Wellbeing Profile : Selection: Berkhamsted Geo-type: Large Settlements A to B. Hertfordshire County Council . Retrieved 29 January 2019 .
- "Unemployment: the key UK data and benefit claimants for every constituency" . Retrieved 21 September 2014 .
- "The History of the Sparrows Herne Turnpike" . Retrieved 21 December 2014 .
- ^ ab
- "Places of Historical Interest". Dacorum Borough Council . Retrieved 20 March 2015 .
- ^ ab
- Tring, Northchurch and Berkhamsted Urban Transport Plan – Volume 1 (PDF) (Report). Prepared by AECOM for Hertfordshire County Council. May 2013 . Retrieved 21 September 2014 .
- "Map of bus routes in Berkhamsted". Intalink Partnership, Hertfordshire County Council. Archived from the original on 14 April 2015 . Retrieved 8 April 2015 .
- "List of bus routes in Berkhamsted". Intalink Partnership, Hertfordshire County Council . Retrieved 8 April 2015 .
- Roscoe, Thomas (1839). The London and Birmingham railway, with the home and country scenes on each side of the line. London: Charles Tilt. Facing page 64.
- "The Grand Junction Canal – London's Long-distance Link". London Canal Museum . Retrieved 1 October 2014 .
- "On track for a rivalry on the railways". Dacorum Heritage Trust. 15 December 2010 . Retrieved 11 November 2014 .
- "Berkhamsted Railway Station". The ABC Railway Guide . Retrieved 6 April 2016 .
- "Berkhamsted: benefits of HS2 – Network Rail" (PDF) . Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 August 2014 . Retrieved 19 September 2014 .
- "Berkhamsted" . Retrieved 14 November 2014 .
- "Best commuter hotspots: Make your money go further" . Retrieved 19 September 2014 .
- Dyckhoff, Tom (12 December 2009). "Let's move to Berkhamsted, Hertfordshire". The Guardian . Retrieved 19 September 2014 .
- McGhie, Caroline (22 January 2014). "London's super suburbs: the most valuable property markets" . Retrieved 19 September 2014 .
- Hawkins, Kate (28 November 2014). "High Street Berkhamsted". Academy of Urbanism . Retrieved 30 November 2014 .
- "Berkhamsted High Street could be named UK's best road". Berkhamsted and Tring Gazette. 11 November 2014 . Retrieved 12 November 2014 .
- "Data: Britain's 50 most vibrant retail locations". Retail Week. 26 June 2017 . Retrieved 9 July 2017 .
- "Queen helps celebrate Berkhamsted School's 475th birthday" (video) . The Daily Telegraph. 6 May 2016 . Retrieved 27 September 2017 .
- ^ abBirtchnell 1988, p. 30.
- ^Hastie 1999, p. 122.
- ^Hastie 1999, pp. 17, 120.
- ^Hastie 1999, p. 114.
- " ' Three into two' is future for Berkhamsted schools". Berkhamsted & Tring Gazette. JPIMedia Ltd. 18 July 2012 . Retrieved 27 January 2019 .
- "Directory - Schools & Education". Berkhamsted Town Council. 11 September 2018 . Retrieved 27 January 2019 .
- Banerjee, Jacqueline. "One. Captain Coram and the Foundling Hospital" . Retrieved 22 August 2015 .
- ^ abHastie 1999, p. 116.
- "Foundling Hospital". National Archives . Retrieved 11 November 2014 .
- Harris, Rhian (5 October 2012). "The Foundling Hospital". BBB . Retrieved 11 November 2014 .
- "Rambow revisited in teen movie". Hemel Today. JPIMedia Ltd. 19 March 2008 . Retrieved 27 January 2019 .
- ^Hastie 1999, p. 120.
- "Governance". www.independent.co.uk. The Independent. 12 December 2010 . Retrieved 18 August 2016 .
- ^Sanecki 1996, p. 30
- Berthezène, Clarisse (2005). "A glimpse at the archives of a Conservative intellectual project". Contemporary British History. 19: 79–93. doi:10.1080/1361946042000303873. S2CID144485487.
- "Governance". Ashridge.org.uk. Archived from the original on 2 April 2016 . Retrieved 5 June 2016 .
- ^Thompson & Bryant 2005, pp. 7-8.
- ^Sherwood 2008, p. 227.
- ^Cobb 1883, p. 114 Appendix IV.
- ^Birtchnell 1988, p. 102.
- Alumni Oxonienses 1500–1714. Abannan–Kyte. 1891. pp. 338–365 . Retrieved 16 December 2010 .
- "Hertfordshire HER & St Albans UAD: St Peter's Church, Berkhamsted". Heritage Gateway . Retrieved 25 November 2010 .
- ^Birtchnell 1988, pp. 30–32.
- "Boost to cemetery transformation project in Berkhamsted after appointments made". Berkhamsted and Tring Gazette. 2017 Johnston Publishing Ltd. 21 November 2017 . Retrieved 27 November 2017 .
- "Lottery cash for Charlton and Milburn boyhood football park". 14 January 2016 . Retrieved 27 November 2017 .
- ^ abHastie 1999, p. 104.
- ^Hastie 1999, p. 105.
- ^Hastie 1999, p. 106.
- ^Hastie 1999, p. 107.
- ^Birkin 2003, p. 46.
- ^ ab
- "Berkhamsted Official Guide 2004" (PDF) . Retrieved 15 December 2014 .
- Rees, Jasper (9 January 2006). "Is this Britain's most beautiful cinema?". The Daily Telegraph . Retrieved 1 October 2014 .
- "The Act of Killing wins Guardian Film Awards best film". BBC News. 7 March 2014 . Retrieved 18 September 2014 .
- "Guardian film awards winners 2014". The Guardian. 7 March 2014 . Retrieved 1 October 2014 .
- Historic England (26 February 1988). "Rex Cinema (1078110)". National Heritage List for England . Retrieved 7 January 2019 .
- ^Eyles & Skone 2002, pp. 19-24.
- "Silver screens". The Economist. 14 June 2014 . Retrieved 20 January 2015 .
- Parkins, Jamie (4 September 2012). "Cine-files: The Rex, Berkhamsted". The Guardian . Retrieved 1 October 2014 .
- ^Birkin 2003, p. 102.
- "Heritage Open Days 2015: 10 of the best secret sites". Telegraph Media Group Limited 2015. 11 September 2015 . Retrieved 11 September 2015 .
- "In pictures: BFI National Archive recognised by Unesco". BBC News. 26 May 2011 . Retrieved 1 October 2014 .
- "Club Directory". Dacorum Sports Network . Retrieved 5 April 2015 .
- "Berkhamsted Raiders named as Europe's football pioneers". Berkhamsted & Tring Gazette. 15 October 2015 . Retrieved 15 October 2015 .
- "Sir Geoff Hurst hails the heroes of grass-roots football". The Daily Telegraph. 11 August 2014 . Retrieved 18 October 2015 .
- "Off-road adventures around Berkhamsted". Archived from the original on 4 March 2016 . Retrieved 5 April 2015 .
- "Tour of Britain 2014". Archived from the original on 2 November 2014 . Retrieved 5 April 2015 .
- "List entry - The List - Historic England". Search Results = berkhamsted, Hertfordshire, Dacorum. Historic England 2015 . Retrieved 10 August 2015 .
- "CONSERVATION AREA CHARACTER APPRAISALS AND POLICY STATEMENTS" (PDF) . Dacorum Borough Council. May 2004 . Retrieved 3 August 2015 .
- Kennedy, Maev (27 February 2003). "Victorian facade hides the oldest shop in England". The Guardian . Retrieved 19 September 2014 .
- "Oldest Shop In England Uncovered At Berkhamsted". Archived from the original on 20 September 2014 . Retrieved 19 September 2014 .
- ^Thompson & Bryant 2005, pp. 10-11.
- ^Hastie 1996, p. 206.
- Historic England. "129 High Street, Berkhamsted (1356570)". National Heritage List for England . Retrieved 2 August 2011 .
- "The Law Dictionary". 4 November 2011 . Retrieved 27 December 2014 .
- "A Dictionary of Medieval Terms and Phrases". 2004 . Retrieved 27 December 2014 .
- Alsford, Stephen. "Medieval English Towns — Glossary" . Retrieved 27 December 2014 .
- ^Thompson & Bryant 2005, p. 15.
- ^Thompson & Bryant 2005, p. 20.
- ^ abHastie 1999, p. 66.
- ^Tearle 1998, p. 21.
- ^Tearle 1998, p. 3.
- ^Tearle 1998, p. 7.
- ^Hastie 1999, p. 52.
- "Special trees and woods — Frithsden Beeches". Chilterns Conservation Board. Archived from the original on 13 June 2011 . Retrieved 16 February 2010 .
- "Twin towns". Dacorum Borough Council. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016 . Retrieved 23 September 2014 .
- Birkin, Andrew (2003) . J.M. Barrie and the Lost Boys. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. ISBN978-0-300-09822-8 .
- Birtchnell, Percy (1988). Short History of Berkhamsted. Berkhamsted: Book Stack. ISBN978-187137200-7 .
- Brown, Reginald Allen (1989). Castles from the Air. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN978-052132932-3 .
- Cobb, John Wolstenholme (1883). Two Lectures on the History and Antiquities of Berkhamsted (2nd ed.). London, UK: Nichols and Sons. OCLC693003587.
- Eyles, Allen Skone, Keith (2002). Cinemas of Hertfordshire (revised ed.). Hatfield: Hertfordshire Publications. ISBN978-0-9542189-0-4 .
- Hastie, Scot (1996). A Hertfordshire Valley. Kings Langley, UK: Alpine Press. ISBN978-0-952863106 .
- Hastie, Scot (1999). Berkhamsted, an Illustrated History. Kings Langley, UK: Alpine Press. ISBN978-0-9528631-1-3 .
- Hillaby, Joe G. Hillaby, Caroline (2013). The Palgrave Dictionary of Medieval Anglo-Jewish History. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN978-1-137-30815-3 .
- Liddiard, Robert (2005). Castles in Context: Power, Symbolism and Landscape, 1066 to 1500. Macclesfield, UK: Windgather Press. ISBN978-095455752-2 .
- Mackenzie, James Dixon (1896). Castles of England: Their Story and Structure. Volume 1. New York: Macmillan. OCLC12964492. |volume= has extra text (help)
- Page, William (1905). The Victorian History of the County of Buckingham. Volume 1. London: Constable. |volume= has extra text (help)
- Page, William, ed. (1908). The Victoria History of the County of Hertfordshire. Volume 2. London: Constable. OCLC59519149. |volume= has extra text (help)
- Pettifer, Adrian (1995). English Castles: a Guide by Counties. Woodbridge, UK: Boydell Press. ISBN9780851156002 .
- Reece, Henry (2013). The Army in Cromwellian England 1649 – 1660. Oxford University Press. ISBN978-0-19-820063-5 .
- Remfry, Paul (1998). Berkhamsted Castle. Dacorum Heritage Trust. ISBN978-0-9510944-1-9 .
- Rowe, Anne (2007). "The distribution of parks in Hertfordshire: Landscape, lordship and woodland". In Liddiard, Robert (ed.). The Medieval Park: New Perspectives. Macclesfield, UK: Windgather Press. pp. 128–145. ISBN978-1-9051-1916-5 .
- Sanecki, K.A. (1996). Ashridge – A Living History. Chichester, UK: Phillimore. ISBN978-1-86077-020-3 .
- Sherwood, Jennifer (2008). "Influences on the growth of medieval and early modern Berkhamsted". In Wheeler, Michael (ed.). A County of Small Towns: the Development of Hertfordshire's Urban Landscape to 1800. Hatfied, UK: Hertfordshire Publications. pp. 224–248. ISBN978-190531344-0 .
- Slater, T.R. Goose, Nigel (2008). A County of Small Towns: the Development of Hertfordshire's Urban Landscape to 1800. Hatfield, UK: University of Hertfordshire Press. ISBN978-190531344-0 .
- Tearle, John (1998). The Berkhamsted Totem Pole. Lillydown House. ISBN978-0952813118 .
- Thompson, Isobel Bryant, Stewart (2005). Extensive Urban Surveys: Berkhamsted, Revision 2005 (PDF) (Report). Historic Environment Unit, Hertfordshire County Council.
- Whitelock, Dorothy (1968). The Will of Æthelgifu. Oxford: Roxburghe Club, Oxford. OCLC108189.
- Williamson, Tom (2010). The Origins of Hertfordshire. Hatfied, UK: Hertfordshire Publications. ISBN978-190531395-2 .
140 ms 7.6% Scribunto_LuaSandboxCallback::match 120 ms 6.5% Scribunto_LuaSandboxCallback::getAllExpandedArguments 100 ms 5.4% Scribunto_LuaSandboxCallback::gsub 80 ms 4.3% Scribunto_LuaSandboxCallback::getEntityStatements 60 ms 3.3% gsub 40 ms 2.2% recursiveClone 40 ms 2.2% [others] 380 ms 20.7% Number of Wikibase entities loaded: 1/400 -->
Isca Dumnoniorum: An in-depth look at Exeter's bloody Roman past
They came, they saw, they conquered. Beneath the bustling streets of Exeter, under its homes and shops, lies a fascinating and bloody Roman past.
From AD55 Exeter was known as Isca Dumnoniorum, a thriving town, administrative centre for the South West and armoured fortress for the war machine of the Second Augustan Legion - who had sailed the Channel to conquer Britain for the unstoppable Roman Empire.
Around 5,000 expertly trained legionaries and 500 cavalry were housed in timber barracks and, inside the rectangle of stone walls surrounding Roman Exeter, was a forum, a basilica, markets, shops and even public baths.
The awe-inspiring public baths are now buried underneath layers of soil at the Cathedral Green, one of the greatest Roman remains ever uncovered (and then covered up again) in the UK.
Intricately detailed, the baths were said to be more advanced than those unearthed in Italian towns of Pompeii and Herculaneum.
The two-millenia-old remains were found in the 1970s. It was no surprise that plans were brought in, and ultimately failed, to unearth them as a tourist attraction.
Today the most visible evidence of the town are the walls throughout, repaired and rebuilt throughout the Anglo Saxon, medieval and Civil War periods - reflecting the need for defence throughout turbulent times.
Exeter&aposs Roman name, Isca Dumnoniorum, almost certainly derives from how close it is to the River Exe. A Latin and Briton mesh of words that describe flowing water, the phrase &aposfull of fish&apos, and the name given to the fierce local tribe: The Dumnonii.
54 and 55BC: Julius Caesar lands in Britain but does not conquer. The Dumnonii tribe occupy Devon and Cornwall.
54 and 55BC: Julius Caesar lands in Britain but does not conquer. The Dumnonii tribe occupy Devon and Cornwall.
41AD: Claudius becomes Emperor and orders invasion of Britain which begins in AD43.
50-55: Roman Second Legion reaches Devon and fortresses are established in what will become Exeter, then known as Isca .
60: Second Legion fails to provide help to other legions fighting Boudicca.
75: Second Legions leaves Exeter. The Roman town Isca Dumnoniorum starts to develop.
100: Exeter public baths are built.
180: Work on new stone walls for the town is carried out.
337: Roman Empire’s frontiers come under attack as emperors fight for power.
360: Isca Dumnoniorum starts to shrink.
410: Roman legions have left Britain and Isca Dumnoniorum is all but abandoned as it begins to decay.
476: The Roman Empire falls when the last emperor, Romulus Augustus, resigns.
Fifth century to ninth century: Few pottery shards are found but little evidence of extensive occupation of the area. There are several Saxon invasions.
928: King Athelstan repairs the walls of Exeter and occupation begins again.
1971: Roman fortress is discovered in the centre of Exeter.
2010: Second fort is discovered shedding further light on the Roman occupation of the area.
2017 and 2019: Further evidence of Roman occupation of West Quarter, including Lime Kiln under Fore Street shopping arcade