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Alfred Robb - History

Alfred Robb - History

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Alfred Robb

(StwStr: t. 86; 1. 114'9"; b. 20'; dph. 4'; dr. 4'6"; s. 9.5 k.; cpl.30; a. 212-pdr. r., 212-pdr. sb.)

Alfred Robb—a wooden-hulled, stern-wheel steamboat built at Pittsburgh in 1860 operated on the Ohio River and the other navigable streams of the Mississippi watershed system until acquired by the Confederate Government at some now-unknown date during the first year of the Civil War for use as a transport.

Reconnaissance probes up the Tennessee River by Federal gunboats had convinced leaders of the Union Navy in the area that Southern forces had destroyed this vessel after the fall of Fort Henry, lest she fall into Northern hands. Nevertheless Alfred Robb remained safe and active until Lt. William Gwin— who commanded the side-wheel gunboat Tyler—seized her at Florence, Ala., on 21 April 1862. This capture and the burning of the steamer Dunbar in nearby Cypress Creek at about the same time cleared the Tennessee of the fast Confederate vessels afloat giving Union warships complete control of the river.

Gwin placed a crew of 11 men on the prize and renamed her Lady Foote to honor Flag Officer Andrew H. Foote—who then commanded the Western Flotilla of which Tyler was a part—and his wife. However, Foote found this action embarrassing and directed Gwin to restore the vessel's original name.

Since the Confederacy still held much of the Mississippi, it was impossible to send Alfred Robb to any Federal court then hearing admiralty cases. Hence, after the prize descended the Tennessee and Ohio Rivers to Cairo, III., she was fitted out there for service in the Western Flotilla without prior adjudication. Upon the completion of her conversion to a so-called "tin-clad" gunboat Alfred Robb began her Union service early in June 1862.

Apparently not commissioned, Alfred Robb—thereafter usually called simply Robb—departed Cairo on the night of 3 and 4 June, proceeded up the Ohio to Paducah, Ky., and ascended the Tennessee to Pittsburgh Landing where, two months before, Union gunboats had supported the river flank of Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant's embattled army, changing a highly probable defeat into a Union victory known to history as the battle of Shiloh.

Upon reaching that small riverside port, Robb—with "Second Master" Jason Goudy in charge—reported her arrival to Maj. Henry W. Halleck and began almost three years of protecting and supporting Union troops who were fighting to control the land between the Mississippi and the Appalachian Mountains.

Alfred Robb reached Pittsburgh Landing at a critical point in the war. On the Mississippi, the Western Flotilla was teaming up with the Ellet Ram Fleet to destroy the Confederacy's River Defense Fleet in a hard-fought engagement at Memphis, Tenn. Their victory gave the Union control of the river as far south as Vicksburg, Miss. Meanwhile, the powerful concentration of Federal forces which had prevailed at Shiloh moved south and captured Corinth, Miss. It then split, with Grant pushing toward Vicksburg along a path roughly parallel to the Mississippi while Buell's troops turned eastward in the general direction of Chattanooga, Tenn. To check the advance of these Union forces which were penetrating deep into the Confederate heartland defenders of the South struck back with guerrilla attacks, cavalry raids, and prolonged counter thrusts by whole armies. All these measures were designed to sever Northern lines of communication and supply. Union railroads, overland convoys of wagons, and supply ships quickly became favorite Confederate targets; and the importance of maintaining Union control of the rivers grew apace to assure Federal troops a steady flow of supplies and munitions.

Responsibility for keeping the Ohio and its tributaries safe for waterborne Union logistics was placed on the gunboats of the Western Flotilla. On 20 August 1862, the commanding officer of that organization, Commodore Charles H. Davis—recoenizing that ". the gunboat service of the upper rivers had suddenly acquired a new importance"—charged Comdr. Alexander M. Pennock, his fleet captain and the commanding officer of the Umon naval station at Cairo, with taking these small warships underhis ". special care . ." with Lt. LeRoy Fitch in immediate command.

Since she was already operating in this area Alfred Robb was one of Fitch's gunboats, and, but for occasional brief assignments on the Mississippi, she served on the upper rivers through the end of the Civil War. One of the highlights of her service occurred on the night of 3 February 1863 when she joined several other Union warships in beating off a fierce attack by some 4,500 Confederate troops against the small Federal garrison in Fort Donelson, Tenn. She again entered the limelieht on 19June 1863 when a landing party from her engaged a Confederate force of some 400 soldiers. Robb's commanding officer estimated that the Confederates lost about 50 men, killed or wounded, while his ship suffered the loss of only one man killed and two wounded.

After the end of the Civil War, Alfred Robb was decommissioned at Mound City, III., on 9 August 1865. Sold at public auction there on 17 August 1865 to H. A. Smith, the ship was redocumented as Robb on 9 September 1865 and served on the Mississippi River system until 1873.

The Robb family Bible

I’ve mentioned a number of times that my interest in the history of the Robb family was originally sparked by my father’s cousin Edna Robb (1915 – 1995), daughter of Thomas Bowman Robb (1887-1963). Edna visited England from New Zealand in 1972, when I was about 16, and apparently spent some time while she was here researching her roots. I met her at a family party in Monmouth Road, East Ham, just before she left for home, when I remember her talking about our shared Scottish ancestry, and even making bold claims about our descent from Rob Roy MacGregor.

Edna left behind a collection of typewritten sheets, a copy of which we took away with us, which appeared to reproduce information from a family Bible. Frustratingly, I don’t remember her saying where she obtained these documents, whether she or someone else was responsible for transcribing them, or who was now in possession of the originals. All my efforts to find out more, which have included contacting my surviving New Zealand relatives, have so far been in vain. Somewhere out there, perhaps, is a Robb family Bible, and I live in hope that the distant relative who has it will one day happen across this blog and get in touch.

Edna’s typewritten sheets marked the beginning of my passion for genealogy. I remember poring over them when we got home, trying to make sense of the links between the generations, and recoiling with a mixture of surprise and disbelief at the claim that we were descended from Scottish aristocracy – through the supposed link with Viscount Stormont. To date, I’ve been unable to find independent confirmation of this connection, or of the related claim that my (unnamed) 4 x great grandfather was somehow involved in the 1745 Jacobite rebellion.

From Edna’s pages, I was able to construct my first Robb family tree, tracing the family back through six generations to Charles Edward Stuart Robb (1779 – 1853), who was born in Aberdeenshire and moved with his family by way of Yorkshire to London in the early 19th century. The process of reconstruction wasn’t easy. The document was obviously written by various hands – a fact that’s disguised by it being retyped – and sections are not always clearly attributed to individual authors. But it provided a crucial starting-point, which I was able to build on, especially after records began to appear online in the last decade and sites such as Ancestry and Scotland’s People made tracing one’s roots infinitely easier.

I thought it would be useful to reproduce the document in full on this site. You’ll see that it divides naturally into three sections. The first block of text (down to and including the information about the Seagers) was obviously written by my great grandfather, Charles Edward Robb (born 1851) , as it refers to William Robb (1813-1888) as his father and to Charles Edward Stuart as his grandfather. The second section, which ends with 󈥴.6.80 W.Robb’ was obviously written by Charles’ father William (my great great grandfather), and includes crucial and fascinating information about the family’s roots in Fisherford, Aberdeenshire, the supposed connection with Viscount Stormont, and the clerical occupation of his uncle, Rev. William Robb. Charles then helpfully appends a note confirming when his father William wrote this ‘memorandum’.

The third section of the document is headed ‘Copied from the register in the family Bible Monday November 2nd, 1885.’ However, it was obviously updated after this, as it includes information about later events, such as William Robb’s death in 1888. This section must have been written, or copied, by Charles Edward Robb, since it refers to Fanny Sarah (Seager) Robb as ‘mother’ and describes ‘father’ (i.e. William) re-marrying (to Marianne Mansfield Palmer) in 1854. The sub-sections, separated by lines, helpfully provide details of the births, marriages and deaths of four generations. The sub-sections give details in turn about: Charles Edward Stuart Robb and his wife Margaret Ricketts Monteith their children William Robb and Fanny Sarah Seager and their children William Robb and Marianne Mansfield Palmer and their children Charles Edward Robb and his wife Louisa Bowman the children of Charles and Louisa, ending with the birth of Arthur Ernest Robb (my grandfather) in 1897.

The original document must have been updated for the last time in or after 1905, since the last event it records is the death of Charles’ wife Lousia (my great grandmother) in that year. Since the last contributor to the document was Charles, I suspect that the original and/or the family Bible is in the possession of one of his descendants. My grandfather, Arthur Ernest Robb, was the youngest child of a large family, and doesn’t appear to have inherited much in the way of family documents or heirlooms from his father. Of his older brothers, Charles William, a Royal Marine, died in Aden in 1904 and Thomas Bowman emigrated to New Zealand and similarly appears not have inherited any documents. That leaves Joseph John (born 1880) who married Alice and had a son Arthur (that’s the extent of my knowledge) and David Edward, who married Margaret Everard and had three children Charles, Frank and Enid (and whom I wrote about in these posts). It seems likely that any family Bible or related documents would be in the hand of Joseph’s or David’s descendants.

Here, then, is the document in full:

Grandfather: Charles Edward Stuart Robb. Born in Aberdeenshire.

Grandmother: Margaret Ricketts Monteith. Married at St. Mungo’s

Glasgow, 15 th October 1802.

Father: William Robb. Born at Richmond, Yorkshire 25 th October 1813.

Married Fanny Sarah Seager at St. George the Martyr, Queen Street,

Bloomsbury, London, 23 rd May 1836, who was born 22 nd November,

1814. She was the daughter of Samuel Hurst Seager and Fanny

his wife formerly Fowle. Her Brothers and Sisters were:

Elizabeth Seager ) These are all in New Zealand.

and Julia Seager who married Charles Lambert who is one

of the Clerks to the Commissioner of Lunacy, Whitehall

I don’t know much about my own Uncles and Aunts but I know my Father’s eldest brother Revd. William Robb was for some time Professor of Greek in the College of St .Andrews, Fifeshire. He never was married. I had an Uncle James who on my Uncle William’s death took possession of the property in Fisherford in Aberdeenshire and left children how many I don’t know, but have heard that James, the eldest went to America many years since. I had also an Uncle George who died many years ago leaving children but I don’t know how many. I had also an Aunt called Penelope, but with the exception of my Uncle William I never saw any of them or heard anything from them. The last I remember of my Uncle William is when I was 3 or 4 years of age seeing him on a visit to my Father’s at Malton in Yorkshire, when he stopped some time and used to take me on his knee and tell me to be a good boy and he would make a Gentleman of me. Since that time when he left Malton to return home I never heard anything of him till on my Father’s death in 1853 I found among his papers a letter from Bishop Law, Prime of Scotland telling him of the death of my Uncle which happened about 1838. My brothers and sisters who lived to grow up were:-

Charles Edward who was born in 1809 and died in 1836 (Sept.)

Matilda who was born in 1806 and died in 1870.

George William born 13 th October 1811. Died of influenza 1848.

Elizabeth born 1820 (21 st June), died 1863.

(I think these dates are right) and

John who I believe is now living, born 3 rd March 1816. I say

I believe he is living but have not seen him for 3 or 4

years nor would he ever let me know where to find him.

I believe he is in London as I am told he has been seen.

My mother Margaret Ricketts Monteith was the only daughter of John Monteith and Matilda his wife who was the daughter of Viscount Stormont who was engaged as well as my Father’s father in the affair of Prince Charles attempt to gain the crown 1745/6.

The above is a copy of a Memorandum written by my Father on the 20 th June, 1880.


Charles Robb, married Glasgow 15, Oct. 1802. Died 10 th June

1853. Age 72 years. Buried St. John’s, Waterloo Road.

Margaret Monteith, Died Decr. 1 st . 1843. Buried St. Martins

in the Fields. Age 62 years.

Matilda Born Aberdeen, Sunday March 17 th , Baptized March 31 st

1805, St Pauls Chapel, Married 1860, Frederick King.

George William, Born at Alloa Saturday 8 th November, Baptized

Nov. 23 rd 1806. Died February 26, 1807.

Isabella Maria. Born 15 April 1808, Died 7 May 1808 at Kilmarnock

Charles Edward. Born at Whitby Wednesday 7 February, Baptized

Feb 21 st 1810. Died 27 September 1836. Age 26 years.

Buried at St.Martin in the Fields.

George William. Born at Richmond, Yorkshire, Sunday 13 October

baptized 8 Nov. 1811, Died 8 th December 1847. Age 36 years.

William, Born at Richmond Yorkshire, Monday October 25 th ,

Baptized 19 th November 1813, Died August 4 th 1888, Age 75.

Elizabeth. Born at Malton, 21 st June Baptized July 12 th 1820

Married St. Martins in the Fields to Joseph Boden 22 nd

Feby. 1841, Died 10 th January 1860, age 39 years.

Buried at Tower Hamlets Cemetery.

John, Born at Malton, Tuesday 5 th March, Baptized St. Michaels

William Robb married May 23 rd 1836. Fanny Sarah Seager who was

born at St. Clements Danes Nov. 22 nd , 1814.

Fanny Margaret Monteith, Born February 1838, Died February 1840

Age 2 years. Buried at Spa Fields, London.

William Henry, Born 7 th April 1841,

Elizabeth Margaret, Born 1 st Decr, 1843.

Matilda Fanny, Born 8 th May, 1846.

Charles Edward, Born 22 nd Jany, 1851.

Mother died 26 th January 1851, buried at the Tabernacle

Father married 5 th June 1854 at St. Clement Danes to Marianne Mansfield Palmer who was born 4 th December 1830 at Longton, Staffordshire.

The Robbs

The Robbs -- oldest brother Dee Robb (guitar, vocals), Joe Robb (guitar, vocals), and youngest brother Bruce Robb (keyboards, vocals) -- began their lengthy careers in their hometown of Oconomowoc, WI…
Read Full Biography

Artist Biography by Bryan Thomas

The Robbs -- oldest brother Dee Robb (guitar, vocals), Joe Robb (guitar, vocals), and youngest brother Bruce Robb (keyboards, vocals) -- began their lengthy careers in their hometown of Oconomowoc, WI (near Milwaukee) as a teen-center pop group calling themselves Dee Robb & the Robbins. As Robby & the Robins, they recorded "Surfer's Life" for the Todd label, which has since appeared on numerous surf compilations. During a summer tour, their guitarist was facing the draft board, so the band had to shuffle the lineup and bring in their cousin, Craig Robb (real name Craig Krampf) as a replacement on drums. The band then changed names to the Robbs and soldiered on, playing soft rock harmony drenched pop in the vein of the Cowsills, the Monkees, or Paul Revere & the Raiders. Krampf and the three Robb brothers performed all across the Midwest, appearing as the opening act on bills with the top acts of the day. They were eventually discovered by music impresario Dick Clark, who had them perform at his Teen World's Fair in Chicago. Soon thereafter, the Robbs were signed to Mercury Records (the label that had, by then, signed the four Cowsill brothers before dropping the group after two singles) and recorded their first record, which was released in 1967. They appeared on TV's Where the Action Is and, along with Buffalo Springfield, opened for the Turtles. Clark later invited the Robbs to be regulars on his TV show, so the band moved to California. There they became the backing group for Del Shannon, Gene Pitney, Bobby Vinton, and others. The Robbs signed with Atlantic for a few singles. Then -- with Shannon's help -- signed with ABC's Dunhill Records and changed their name to Cherokee in the early '70s. As a country-rock outfit, they issued one album, produced by Steve Barri, which featured additional guest performances by former Byrds Chris Hillman and Sneaky Pete Kleinow. Each member of the original Robbs lineup ultimately left the group until only Krampf remained. He found continual and steady employ as a session drummer, while Dee, Joe, and Bruce Robb, meanwhile, turned to engineering and producing. They have since become quite successful as the owner/operators of their own Cherokee Studios, in West Hollywood, CA, and Cherokee Ranch Studios, which was located next to the Spahn Ranch in the '60s, before moving to Chatsworth, CA. The Robbs are award-winning producers/engineers of countless platinum artists, including Rod Stewart, John Cougar Mellencamp, Alice Cooper, and Steely Dan, to name a few.

A new blog about my Glasgow ancestors

24 Monday Jun 2019

I’ve started a new blog – Merchant City Cousins – that grows out of my research into the family of my 4th great uncle, George Robb, a merchant in early nineteenth-century Glasgow and the brother of my 3rd great grandfather, Charles Edward Stuart Robb.

John Knox, ‘Old Glasgow Cross or the Trongate’ , Glasgow Museums, via artuk.org

Although my search for information about George Robb began as an attempt to establish his connection with my own family, I soon became intrigued by his story, and that of his extended family, for its own sake. I discovered that he and his wife and children were part of a nexus of families linked by marriage that included merchants, manufacturers, plantation owners, lawyers, artists and administrators – many of them implicated in the infamous ‘triangular trade’ that connected Glasgow with Africa and the New World.

It is the story of that extended family – of interest in its own right, but also providing a fascinating insight into life in Glasgow, and the city’s links with the New World, in the nineteenth century – that I plan to tell in the new blog.

This surname is in the top 162,000 names in the US Census from 2010. (There must be at least 100 to make the list).

There are 13402 ROBB records listed in the 2010 US Census, and it is the Number 2686 ranked name. A ROBB makes up 4.54 of every 100k people in the population.

Other US Census data for ROBB
89.46% are White Alone (Non-Hispanic)
5.48% are Black Alone (Non-Hispanic Black or African American Alone)
2.31% are Hispanic or Latino origin
0.7% are Asian Alone (Non-Hispanic Asian and Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander Alone)
0.37% are American Indian (Non-Hispanic American Indian and Alaska Native Alone)
1.68% Non-Hispanic Two or More Races

Teddy Robb

Teddy Robb has a slight sense of grit lurking underneath his smooth delivery, and a hint of down-home charm is what distinguished him among the country vocalists singing a blend of pop, R&B, and country during the late 2010s. His pair of 2019 singles, "Really Shouldn't Drink Around You" and "Tell Me How," showcased how his light touch sounded equally at home on ballads and cheery, soulful pop.

Growing up in Akron, Ohio, Teddy Robb was besotted with sports and the outdoors as an adolescent. While he was attending Kent State, his head was turned by "Troubadour," a meditative 2008 hit by George Strait. "Troubadour" led Robb to pursue a career in country music. He started gigging in Ohio, eventually making it to Nashville in 2013. Once he arrived in the Music City, he began gigging on Broadway, slowly making connections in the country music business. He sharpened his voice by playing ski lodges in Vail, Colorado, then headed back to Nashville.

Robb signed to Monument in 2018, releasing his debut single, "Lead Me On," by the end of the year. "Really Shouldn't Drink Around You," a number written by Shane McAnally, Josh Osborne, and Old Dominion's Trevor Rosen, became Robb's second single in 2019. "Tell Me How" followed shortly afterward.

Early life

Hitchcock grew up in London’s East End in a milieu once haunted by the notorious serial killer known as Jack the Ripper, talk of whom was still current in Hitchcock’s youth two decades later. Although he had two siblings, he recalled his youth as a lonely one, with a father who was a stern disciplinarian it is said that he once ordered Alfred to appear at the local police station with a note saying that he had been misbehaving, whereupon the sergeant on duty (at the request of Hitchcock’s father) locked him up for a few minutes, a sufficient length of time to give Alfred a fear of enclosed spaces and a strong concern for wrongful imprisonment, both of which would figure in his later work. When he was not being disciplined, he was cosseted by an overly watchful mother, who used food as a balm—to which he would later trace his trademark paunch.

Hitchcock went to St. Ignatius College before attending the London County Council School of Marine Engineering and Navigation in 1913–14. He worked in the sales department at W.T. Henley’s Telegraph Works Company until 1918, when he moved to the advertising department. Giving in to his artistic side, Hitchcock enrolled at the University of London in 1916 to take drawing and design classes. His facility in that field in 1920 helped land him a spot designing title cards (which silent films required) for the American film company Famous Players–Lasky, which had opened a British branch in Islington. When Famous Players closed down its British branch in 1922, he stayed on at Islington. He worked on films for independent producers and came to assume more responsibility, working as an art director, production designer, editor, assistant director, and writer.


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Alfred, also spelled Aelfred, byname Alfred the Great, (born 849—died 899), king of Wessex (871–899), a Saxon kingdom in southwestern England. He prevented England from falling to the Danes and promoted learning and literacy. Compilation of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle began during his reign, circa 890.

What were Alfred’s military achievements?

Alfred spent much of his reign defending his kingdom of Wessex from Danish invaders. He won a great victory at the Battle of Edington in 878 but continued to struggle with Danish advances until 896, when the invasions ceased. His success in quelling the attacks was largely due to his superlative defensive strategy. Learn more.

What was Alfred like as a governor of his kingdom?

Alfred administered Wessex well and was a studious lawgiver. He promulgated an important code of laws after studying the principles of lawgiving from previous Anglo-Saxon law codes and from the Book of Exodus. His laws gave special attention to the protection of the weak. Learn more.

What was the importance of literacy and learning to Alfred’s rule?

Alfred considered learning and literacy to be crucial for the acquisition of wisdom and therefore necessary for men to live in accordance with God’s will. During his reign he insisted that freedmen of adequate means learn to read English, and he himself translated Latin texts into the vernacular for the benefit of his people. Learn more.

When he was born, it must have seemed unlikely that Alfred would become king, since he had four older brothers he said that he never desired royal power. Perhaps a scholar’s life would have contented him. His mother early aroused his interest in English poetry, and from his boyhood he also hankered after Latin learning, possibly stimulated by visits to Rome in 853 and 855. It is possible also that he was aware of and admired the great Frankish king Charlemagne, who had at the beginning of the century revived learning in his realm. Alfred had no opportunity to acquire the education he sought, however, until much later in life.

He probably received the education in military arts normal for a young man of rank. He first appeared on active service in 868, when he and his brother, King Aethelred (Ethelred) I, went to help Burgred of Mercia (the kingdom between the Thames and the Humber) against a great Danish army that had landed in East Anglia in 865 and taken possession of Northumbria in 867. The Danes refused to give battle, and peace was made. In this year Alfred married Ealhswith, descended through her mother from Mercian kings. Late in 871, the Danes invaded Wessex, and Aethelred and Alfred fought several battles with them. Aethelred died in 871, and Alfred succeeded him. After an unsuccessful battle at Wilton he made peace. It was probably the quality of the West Saxon resistance that discouraged Danish attacks for five years.

In 876 the Danes again advanced on Wessex. They retired in 877 having accomplished little, but a surprise attack in January 878 came near to success. The Danes established themselves at Chippenham, and the West Saxons submitted, “except King Alfred.” He harassed the Danes from a fort in the Somerset marshes, and until seven weeks after Easter he secretly assembled an army, which defeated them at the Battle of Edington. They surrendered, and their king, Guthrum, was baptized, Alfred standing as sponsor the following year they settled in East Anglia.

Wessex was never again in such danger. Alfred had a respite from fighting until 885, when he repelled an invasion of Kent by a Danish army, supported by the East Anglian Danes. In 886 he took the offensive and captured London, a success that brought all the English not under Danish rule to accept him as king. The possession of London also made possible the reconquest of the Danish territories in his son’s reign, and Alfred may have been preparing for this, though he could make no further advance himself. He had to meet a serious attack by a large Danish force from the European continent in 892, and it was not until 896 that it gave up the struggle.

The failure of the Danes to make any more advances against Alfred was largely a result of the defensive measures he undertook during the war. Old forts were strengthened and new ones built at strategic sites, and arrangements were made for their continual manning. Alfred reorganized his army and used ships against the invaders as early as 875. Later he had larger ships built to his own design for use against the coastal raids that continued even after 896. Wise diplomacy also helped Alfred’s defense. He maintained friendly relations with Mercia and Wales Welsh rulers sought his support and supplied some troops for his army in 893.

Alfred succeeded in government as well as at war. He was a wise administrator, organizing his finances and the service due from his thanes (noble followers). He scrutinized the administration of justice and took steps to ensure the protection of the weak from oppression by ignorant or corrupt judges. He promulgated an important code of laws, after studying the principles of lawgiving in the Book of Exodus and the codes of Aethelbert of Kent, Ine of Wessex (688–694), and Offa of Mercia (757–796), again with special attention to the protection of the weak and dependent. While avoiding unnecessary changes in custom, he limited the practice of the blood feud and imposed heavy penalties for breach of oath or pledge.

Alfred is most exceptional, however, not for his generalship or his administration but for his attitude toward learning. He shared the contemporary view that Viking raids were a divine punishment for the people’s sins, and he attributed these to the decline of learning, for only through learning could men acquire wisdom and live in accordance with God’s will. Hence, in the lull from attack between 878 and 885, he invited scholars to his court from Mercia, Wales, and the European continent. He learned Latin himself and began to translate Latin books into English in 887. He directed that all young freemen of adequate means must learn to read English, and, by his own translations and those of his helpers, he made available English versions of “those books most necessary for all men to know,” books that would lead them to wisdom and virtue. The Ecclesiastical History of the English People, by the English historian Bede, and the Seven Books of Histories Against the Pagans, by Paulus Orosius, a 5th-century theologian—neither of which was translated by Alfred himself, though they have been credited to him—revealed the divine purpose in history. Alfred’s translation of the Pastoral Care of St. Gregory I, the great 6th-century pope, provided a manual for priests in the instruction of their flocks, and a translation by Bishop Werferth of Gregory’s Dialogues supplied edifying reading on holy men. Alfred’s rendering of the Soliloquies of the 5th-century theologian St. Augustine of Hippo, to which he added material from other works of the Fathers of the Church, discussed problems concerning faith and reason and the nature of eternal life. This translation deserves to be studied in its own right, as does his rendering of Boethius’s Consolation of Philosophy. In considering what is true happiness and the relation of providence to faith and of predestination to free will, Alfred does not fully accept Boethius’ position but depends more on the early Fathers. In both works, additions include parallels from contemporary conditions, sometimes revealing his views on the social order and the duties of kingship. Alfred wrote for the benefit of his people, but he was also deeply interested in theological problems for their own sake and commissioned the first of the translations, Gregory’s Dialogues, “that in the midst of earthly troubles he might sometimes think of heavenly things.” He may also have done a translation of the first 50 psalms. Though not Alfred’s work, the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, one of the greatest sources of information about Saxon England, which began to be circulated about 890, may have its origin in the intellectual interests awakened by the revival of learning under him. His reign also saw activity in building and in art, and foreign craftsmen were attracted to his court.

In one of his endeavours, however, Alfred had little success he tried to revive monasticism, founding a monastery and a nunnery, but there was little enthusiasm in England for the monastic life until after the revivals on the European continent in the next century.

Alfred, alone of Anglo-Saxon kings, inspired a full-length biography, written in 893, by the Welsh scholar Asser. This work contains much valuable information, and it reveals that Alfred laboured throughout under the burden of recurrent, painful illness and beneath Asser’s rhetoric can be seen a man of attractive character, full of compassion, able to inspire affection, and intensely conscious of the responsibilities of kingly office. This picture is confirmed by Alfred’s laws and writings.

Alfred was never forgotten: his memory lived on through the Middle Ages and in legend as that of a king who won victory in apparently hopeless circumstances and as a wise lawgiver. Some of his works were copied as late as the 12th century. Modern studies have increased knowledge of him but have not altered in its essentials the medieval conception of a great king.

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War of the Rebellion: Serial 126 Page 0478 CORRESPONDENCE, ETC.

Tabular list of gun-boats, transports, steamers, wrecks, &ampc., captured from the enemy by the gun-boat flotilla, Western waters.

Name. Gun- Steame Wrecks Where captured.

boats rs. .

General Bragg 1 - - Memphis

Sumter 1 - - do

Little Rebel 1 - - do

General Price 1 - - do

Eastport 1 - - Savannah, Tenn.

H. R. W. Hill - 1 - Memphis

Alfred Robb - 1 - Tennessee River

Kentucky - 1 - Island Numbers 10

De Soto - 1 - do

Admiral - 1 - do

Mars - 1 - do

Sovereign - 1 - do

Victoria - 1 - do

New National - 1 - Memphis

Catahoula - 1 - do

Clara Dolson - 1 - White River

Red Rover - 1 - Island Numbers 10

Mohawk - - 1 do

Grampus - - 1 do

John Simonds - - 1 do

Yazoo - - 1 do

Prince - - 1 do

Winchester - - - do

Sallie Wood - 1 - Tennessee River

General Pillow - 1 - Fort Pillow

Fair Play - 1 - White River

Total - - -


Name. Estimated Remarks.


General Bragg $50,000 Transferred to the Navy


Sumter 50,000 Do.

Little Rebel 20,000 Do.

General Price 10,000 Do.

Eastport 20,000 Do.

H. R. W. Hill 8,000 Transferred to the Army

(commissary boat at Cairo.)

Alfred Robb 8,000 Transferred to the Navy


Kentucky 5,000 Returned to owners.

De Soto 30,000 Transferred to the Navy


Admiral 10,000 Taken immediate possession of

by the Army.

Mars 5,000 Do.

Sovereign 10,000 Transferred to the Navy


Victoria 15,000 Do.

New National 30,000 Do.

Catahoula 10,000 Taken immediate possession of

by the Army.

Clara Dolson 60,000 Transferred to the Navy


Red Rover 30,000 Do.

Mohawk 500 Rebel gun-boat. Sunk at Island

Numbers 10.

Grampus 5,000 Rebel transports. Sun at Island

Numbers 10.

John Simonds 6,000 Do.

Yazoo 8,000 Do.

Prince 15,000 Do.

Winchester 5,000 Do.

Sallie Wood 6,000 Recaptured and destroyed by the


General Pillow 1,000 Transferred to the Navy


Fair Play 8,000 Do.

Total 425,500

Statement showing amount of cash received, on what account disbursed, and balance remaining on hand June 30, 1863, by Captain George D. Wise, assistant quartermaster, U. S. Volunteers, Western Gun-boat Flotilla.

Amount. Amount.

Paid for general $592,713.39 Received $15,800.00

purchases from other


Paid for purchases Received

on account of 128,224.38 from

clothing, &c. Treasurer of 2,560,577.24

the United

States in


Paid for purchases Received

on account of 30,952.38 from

subsistence. Treasurer of

the United

States in 343,770.00





Paid for general 1,473,442.07


Transferred to

officers for 402,103.79


On hand June 30,

1863, with

Treasurer of the

United States on 36,303.34

certificated of


On hand June 30,

1863, in money, in 256,407.91

treasury at Saint


2,920,147.24 2,920,147.24

The above payments include the greater part of the cost of the first seven iron-clad gun-boats, together with the iron-clad gun- boat Benton also general purchases purchases of clothing, &c. commissary stores the payment of chartered transports of officers and men employed on captured and other Government steamers and tugs mechanics and laborers employed at naval depot at Cairo, Ill. together with the total amount transferred to the acting paymasters of the several gun-boats for pay of officers and men of the gun-boat flotilla.


Captain and Assistant Quartermaster.

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