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Bull's head from the Temple of Ninhursag

Bull's head from the Temple of Ninhursag

Repatriation of a Lebanese “Bull’s Head”

The Metropolitan Museum has handed over a Late Phoenician marble “Bull’s Head” to Manhattan Court Prosecutors after the owners dropped their federal lawsuit fighting the repatriation when presented definite proof of the artifacts origins from the Directorate General of Antiquities. Lynda and William Beierwaltes, Colorado art collectors, purchased the artifact in good faith for $1 million in 1996 from a London based dealer. In 2010 the Beierwaltes sold the marble “Bull’s Head” to Michael H. Steinhardt in 2010 who loaned the marble statue to the Met this past year. Curators at The Met raised concerns of the provenance of the object and contacted Lebanese authorities in July. Upon learning of the provenance dispute of the object, Steinhardt relinquished ownership of the object back to the Beierwaltes. The 2,300 year old statue will be returning to Lebanon for display at the National Museum of Beirut.

This case has become further complicated by the discovery of a second stolen Lebanese artifact found to have been purchased by the Beierwaltes based on a 1998 profile of the couple in Home & Country. The second antiquity “an archaic marble torso of a calf bearer,” was was purchased in 1996 for $4.5 through the same dealer, and similarly was later sold to Steinhardt in 2015. A warrant for its seizure was issued on October 10th and will be repatriated for display at the National Museum of Beirut following the owner’s relinquishment of claim.

Both antiquities were stolen from storage warehouses in Byblos during the Lebanese Civil War, along with 600 more artifacts, all ending up on the black market. The two objects were unearthed in 1967 at the excavations of the Temple of Eshmun, one of the best preserved Phoenician sites in Lebanon. The excavations at the site, representing the end of the Phoenician Period around 450 B.C., were held from 1963 to the start of the Lebanese civil war in 1975 and were led by French archaeologist Maurice Dunand. The statues are especially valuable as they are very characteristic of the time period and are made from marble, a resource not found in Lebanon and therefore imported to build the Temple of Eshmun.

The successful repatriation of these artifacts were due to careful recording of the excavations that provided photographic evidence of their provenance. Previously, eight other antiquities from the Temple of Eshmun have been successfully repatriated after being discovered in Switzerland by archaeologist Rolf Stucky. The lawsuit for these two objects highlights the importance of careful documentation of archaeological excavations. The looting of the Temple of Eshmun was the largest documented looting in the Lebanese civil war. However, countless more artifacts were looted during the war from illegal excavations with no documentation to prove provenance.

Met Museum Surrenders Another Ancient Sculpture to DA for Investigation

This ancient bull head may have been looted to from Lebanon. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, where it was on loan, has turned it over to the Manhattan DA. Courtesy of William and Lynda Beierwaltes.

For the second time in less than a month, New York’s Metropolitan Museum of Art has turned over an ancient work of art to the authorities under suspicions that it was looted. The piece in question, a 2,300-year-old marble bull’s head, is now believed to have been stolen from a warehouse in Lebanon during the civil war in the 1980s.

The statue, which is nearly a foot tall, has been on loan to the museum since 2010 and had been on display in the Greek and Roman galleries. It belongs to William and Lynda Beierwaltes, who paid over $1 million for it in 1996, according to the New York Times. Michael H. Steinhardt purchased the sculpture from the couple in 2010, only to insist on its return after learning of its potential provenance issues.

“Upon a Met curator’s discovery that this item on loan may have been stolen from government storage during the Lebanese civil war, the Museum took immediate action,” said Kenneth Weine, the Met’s chief communications officer, in a statement. “We contacted the Lebanese government and the lender, we took the item off display, and we have been working with federal and state authorities.”

This ancient bull head may have been looted to from Lebanon. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, where it was on loan, has turned it over to the Manhattan DA. Courtesy of William and Lynda Beierwaltes.

The Beierwaltes are separately suing the Lebanon antiquities directorate in federal court, claiming there is no evidence that the work was stolen, and that even if there was, the statute of limitations has expired. “The Beierwaltes are bona fide purchasers with clean hands,” the couple’s lawyer, William G. Pearlstein, told the Times. “By contrast, for more than 50 years, Lebanon has failed [to] take any action domestically or internationally to report any theft of the bull’s head.”

The bull’s head was discovered during excavations of in Temple of Eshmun in Sidon, Lebanon, in 1967. The museum gave the work over to Manhattan district attorney Cyrus R. Vance after a warrant was obtained on July 6.

The Manhattan district attorney’s office is also now in possession of an ancient vase from the Met collection, seized last week over suspicions it was stolen.

Paranormal Investigations

With a reputation for being the &ldquomost haunted&rdquo building in Toowoomba, paranormal fanatics are invited to join the &lsquoSouth East Paranormal&rsquo team for a Paranormal Investigation of the Royal Bull&rsquos Head Inn.

The night ghost tours in Toowoomba started in 2014 at the Royal Bull&rsquos Head Inn and proved to be quite popular so they have kept going. The local Toowoomba locals believe strongly in the paranormal.

The experts will guide participants through investigative procedures and are enthusiastically looking forward to sharing the evening with you.

All equipment will be supplied and the cost is $50.00 + booking fee per person.

This event is for persons 18 years and over.

For more information:

Call: 0490 363 719

Opportunities for visitors:

Request a guided tour (4-12 people) or read their one-pager for more information on the spirits. Ghost tours (1 hours) and hunts available by reservation. Haunted dining.

Days/times of operation:

Restaurant dining during regular hours. Haunted tours, dining and hunting by appointment or as scheduled event.


Haunted tours $15/person or $10/person if dining in.
Paranormal investigations (ghost hunts) $40/person or $30/person if dining in.

Handicap Accessible:

First floor dining and restrooms

TV shows aired on:

FOX23 News - Cobleskill tavern official 'haunted'

ABC News10 - Take a tour of 'Bull's Head Inn' the Capital Region Haunted Restaurant

Chicago bulls logo history and meaning

Actually, the bull fighting theme is rather common in Illinois. The team name could be “Matadors” or “Bullfighters”. Having pondered it a bit they decided to call it as simple as “Bulls”. And this was an excellent solution for promotion purposes. What creature can best others in terms of strength, power and force? A Bull can, especially if the bull comes from Chicago. Moreover, harsh and aggressive colors of black and red stress the message to savage extremes! Meaning of Chicago Bulls is as clear as the blue sky. The team will heave whoever might oppose it. And the branding perfectly matches all the team’s achievements.

The logo for Chicago Bulls was created by a professional designer in 1996. Head of enraged bull definitely catches the eye and there is team’s name between its horns. A font used in Chicago Bulls basketball logo is based on a certain font which is hard to guess though. Most experts imply that the initial font was Stymie Black. It is clear, symmetric and deliberately notched. Some say however that it is Rockwell Extra Bold that is altered.

Importance of Pashupatinath Temple

The specific installation time frame of Pashupatinath temple is still unknown. So, it is considered as the oldest and important temple of Kathmandu, probably the most ancient temple in Nepal. However, it is believed that the shrine was erected again in the fifteenth century by Lichhavi Emperor Shupuspa after the ex- structure was eaten by termites.

Gradually, numerous more shrines were constructed around this two-storied temple. Such as the Vaishnava, Ram Mandir from the 14th century and the Guhyeshwari Shakti peeth, which is stated in an 11th-century manuscript. It is a very important temple for Hindus and old heritage site fans.

The Bagmati River that passes close by Pashupatinath Temple is also one of the sacred watercourses in Nepal. 1000s of pilgrims from worldwide come to pay respect to this temple. Many Hindu devotees dive into this holy river every day and chant ancient Vedic mantras. It is claimed that once we take a bath it will release all the sin done by us. Besides of being Sacred River, from a few years ago this sacred water course is polluted vastly because of the highly populated area and people’s negligence.

Shiva lingam of Pashupatinath Temple – Features

Lingam: One of the unique highlights of Pasupatinath Shivalinga is that 4 heads facing towards different direction are shaped in the linga by itself. The east faced is known as Tatpurusha, the head or mouth facing northward is called as Vamadeva (Uma Maheshwor), the west facing Sadyojata (Barun) and the face pointing towards South is known as Aghora. The zenith point is called Ishana which is Nirakara (shapeless). And it also symbolizes the Hinduism’s 5 main elements i.e. earth, air, light, water, & ether.

Remember that it is prohibited to take a camera inside the main shrine, so it is impossible to take photos of Pashupatinath shivling, however somewhat it looks similar to below picture.

Another special aspect of this temple is only 4 priests are allowed and able to touch the holy idol. It is not allowed to touch by general people. Bhatt can perform Daily rituals while as Bhandari is only the helper and care giver of the Temple. Even Bhandari are not allowed to touch the Lingam.

Note: The main Priest of the Pashupatinath temple usually are from South India, because this system has been implemented from the 8th century, by the effort of Adi Shankaracharya to encourage cultural exchange. Bhatt is a highly educated Vedic scholar of Brahmin family. It is not easy to be Bhatta of Pasupati sanctuary, they must be well experienced plus have to pass the exam and should cover many criteria.

History/Story of Pashupatinath Temple of Nepal

In Hinduism, the supreme god Shiva used to appear as a different incarnation (Avatar) in the earth to control the difficult and dangerous situation to protect the living beings and or to destroy the evil. Pasupatinath is the incarnation of Lord Shiva, the term Pashupati is derived from the Sanskrit word called “Pashu” means an animal or living beings and “Pati and Nath “mean Protector and or Lord. I already stated that, the actual date about the findings of Pashupatinath Shivling was and is still unknown to anybody. Although, there are few traditional story and Legend about the lingam of the temple, which is given below.

1. Wish-fulfilling Kamdhenu Cow:

One-time Lord Shiva, who used to live at the Kailash Parvat, was feeling bored and he decides to fade out without informing anybody. Goddess Parvati, his spouse, was quietly tensed as Shiva failed to appear for several days. With her spiritual eyesight, goddess Parbati noticed that a gold-colored deer grazing along with herd at the jungle of beautiful valley of Kathmandu. The area is generally known as Mirgasthali now a day.

Goddess Parvati recognized Lord Shiva, who was in the form of handsome and good looking deer. She made a plan and left for Mirgasthali by masking herself just as deer to herd. After that, both God Shiva and goddess Parvati remained there for very long period together, having fun and emerging in deer’s lifestyle.

Both lords vanished from Kailash, the news about the absence of Shiva and Parvati was spreading widely in Sworga-Lok (heaven). The absence of lords seems golden period for Devils and monsters, so they grabbed an opportunity to give trouble to other deities by attacking them. Soon after them as well (victim) utilized their spiritual sight and discovered both Lord Shiva and Parvati living in the jungles of Mirgasthali (forest area next to the Pashupatinath Mandir).

With the intention to grab them, Lord Brahma and Vishnu made a master plan to seize the deer. Bishnu and Brahma tried out to hold the deer, Lord Brahama able to only acquire one of the horn. The horn shortly cracked into 3 pieces. One amongst the pieces fell in Gokarna, 2nd lost in Sleshmantak forest additionally the main part dropped and disappeared in the spot exactly where existing Shiva Linga of Pashupatinath is positioned.

Many years later, a cowboy noticed that one of the beautiful cow’s mammary gland of among of his herd always used to see empty. Cowherd is curious to know, one day he decided to track the activities of Kamdhenu and see what the real story behind it. In a quite manner, he follows her finally, he caught her as dropping whole milk on the ground.

Later he decides to dig at where the milk was poured, consequently, he found a beautiful 4 mouth shining lingam and after people started to setup a shrine and begin to pray it. The same location where we can see that linga within the main Pashupatinath temple. It is also said that after digging-out the boy turned into ash due to the deadly rays of a lingam.

2. Mahabharata

After completion of 18 days Kurukshetra battle, the winner Pandavas wished to make reparation of committing sin by killing same blood relative peoples and Brahmins, during the war with kaurav. So pandavas decided to pass the reigns of the kingdom to their descendants and directed to Kashi (Vanaras) to achieve blessing of Lord Shiva. It is said that Vanaras was the favorite place of Siva. However, deity Shiva planned to stay away from them because he was not happy with the consequent of the mega battle of Kurukshetra. So, he changed his appearance as a bull (Nandi) and left for the Himalayas.

After a few months later, when pandavas were unable to see Lord Shiva, they too headed towards Himalaya. Finally, Bhim the second brother of Pandavas is able to counter Nandi, they assumed that it must be Lord Siva. Bhima tried to catch the bull by grabbing the tail of it, but within a second it was disappeared. Later lord gets reappeared as different parts of Bull in a different location. Likewise, tail in Kedarnath, naval part in Madhyamayeshowor and so on. The head part in Doleshwor Mahadev in Bhaktapur Nepal. Thus after touching the body parts of Nandi-rupi Maheshwor, pandava had been got rid of sin.

Debated, some people believe as Pashupatinath is the part of the head and some saint trust that Pasupatinath is a place where pandavs saw and blessed by Shankar. I.e. when Bhima tried to hold the tail part of the bull, the tail got drop down in Kedarnath, Nandi started to run towards the eastern side (Nepal) dropping different parts at a different location, pandavs were continued to follow the Nandi. finally, they arrived in Kathmandu valley and Bull’s head dropped in Bhaktapur. At last lord, Shiva appeared and blessed them in the exact place where the Pashupati temple stands now.

The 12 Jyotirlingam in India, such as Kedarnath, Somnath, Shreesail mallikarjuna, Mahakal, Nageshwor, Omkareshwor, Bhimshankar, Trayambakameshwor, Baijanatha, Ghumeshwor, Biswanath, and Rameshwaram are trusted as a body part of Shankar and lingam of Pashupatinath temple in Kathmandu is recognized as head of Lord Shiva.

3. Devalaya Legend

A different history claims that there was only a lingam in this spot, where the Pashupatinath Mandir remains now. As per the demand and necessity, the temple was constructed to 5 stories under the supervision of Supuspadev. And later on many times, this temple had been refurbished at middle age period by malla king. It is said that Ananta malla has added a roof to it.

4. Lichhavi tale

Jaydev II was the last and well-known king of Lichchavi Empire and he had erected an inscription in the courtyard of Pashupati temple, which does show the lineage of the Lichchhavin dynasty. As outlined by his stone inscription, the Pashupatinath temple was constructed on around 300 AD by a Lichhavi king Supushpa Dev, was the first lichhavian who enter in Kathmandu valley.

The Architecture of Pashupatinath Temple

The temple has been designed in Nepali pagoda style. Simply many features of this highly ornamented temple are made up of beautifully carved wood, which gives a stunning outlook of ancient great architecture. The roof of this two-story sanctuary is dressed in gold-copper, its spire is made-up of gold and these golden pinnacle specifies the icon of religious thoughts. The four main gates (doors) are made up of Silver. Inside of Pashupatinath temple, we can see 6ft tall Shiva lingam with the same circumference, which is widely known as divinity stone (shiny hard black-stone). The statue of Nandi (Bull), just in front of the western gate of the main Pashupati shrine is concocted of Bronze.

Other Facts and attraction of Pashupatinath Temple area.

Entry or Darshan: Only the Hindus people, Nepali Buddhist, Sikh, and Jain group of Indian descent are allowed to enter within the main shrine of Pashupati. However, if you are of other religious conviction, you can move freely around its surroundings except for prime sanctuary. Furthermore, if you are of western origin who recently practicing Hinduism are also prohibited to enter into main temple complex.

Funeral Ceremony: Cremation Ghats lies at the southern side of the main sanctuary, just bank of the sacred river known as Bagmati. Many Hinduism followers wish to take their funeral to Arya Ghat after their death, the corpse covered by yellow colored cloth and laid down on the wooden pyre to burn it, to change into ashes. Simply, it is one of the famous places where the Hindus funeral ceremony is held. It is believed that those who will be cremated here, will take next rebirth in a human womb, not in an animal.

Sages or Holy man and women: Sandus, Yogis, Saints or Sadhvi (holy female) are nirvana seekers commonly seen within this Pashupatinath temple premise. They are totally aloof from general luxuries and some are believed to be achieving or trying to achieve “moksha” by deeply engaging on praying lords and thru meditation. Consuming Cannabis is one of the well-known uniqueness of Sadhus and even law appears neutral to them because it is used as a devotional offering to worship Lord Siva and later pooled among prayers. Hashish items are widely consumed by other general people too, once in a year, especially on Mahasivaratri festival. Even though it is illegal for common people, but smuggling will create sever consequence to anybody by law.

  • Nanga Baba.

  • Sadhu Baba at Pashupatinath

Kalki Murti: According to Hinduism, there are altogether 4 yugas (era) in 1 cycle and they are 1st Satya (golden age), 2nd Treta, 3rd Duwapar, and currently running 4th Kali Yuga, believed that 4th era was started after the end of Kurukshetra, Mahabharat war. Behind the main Temple of Pashupatinath, we can see an ancient idol of “Birupakchya” also known as Kalki statue. Lord Shankar is also acknowledged as Virupakchya Bhagawan (god). It is said that every year this half-body idol is gaining its height slowly when it would gain full-size, it is believed that the whole world will collapse. Means there would be the end of the Kali Yuga. Local People assumed that this statue will get buried in the ground at the end of the world and again gradually it reappears with the cycle of the time (era).

Festivals: Mainly Teej (women’s festival) and Mahashivaratri are the main events that bring the festive environment to Pashupatinath temple premise. Because thousands of devotee gather together and celebrate the event. While the shrine area gets covered by the female in the course of the Teej festival, several thousand ladies head over to the temple to soak in the sacred Bagmati River, worship lord and stay fasting whole day. Since this practice is supposed to make a blissful and lengthy relationship. Normally, on this occasion, many females dress red-colored saris, which are usually worn on wedding events traditionally and they try to enjoy singing and dancing.

  • Sadhu baba Enjoying During Maha-Shivaratri (by: Abhishek Singh)
  • Women’s festival Teej (photo by: Ganesh Poudel)
  • Nanga baba During Shivaratri Festival (by : Xiquinho Silva)

Maha-Shivaratri is a festival practiced by every Hindus follower in both Nepal and India. On Maha Shivaratri, wedded women of all ages wish for the well-being of their spouses, single ladies pray for a hubby like Shiva, considered as the good life partner. During Shivaratri the Pashupatinath mandir remains open for the entire night, the shrine gets lighted with traditional lamps and modern lighting system. Whole night Devotee enjoys by singing holy songs and dancing on it.

The fame of Shree Pashupatinath temple & Mahashivaratri festival is rapidly spreading around the world because of the Nirvana seekers and their activities. Many travelers from different countries arrive here just to enjoy this festival. 100’s of sages from different parts of India and Nepal usually arrive here during Maha Shivaratri festive. You can encounter different sect of babas over here, among them Nangababas are quite extraordinary. Nanga sages are the main attraction of the crowd, they are few in number and normally moving around being fully naked during the event. Smoking cannabis is common and allowed for them, they lost in trance and do different activities. Often they cover their body with ash. On this festival, hashish is legal for one day and is implemented to other folks too. Many of them (saints) are friendly, but some may beg money to take a snap with them.

How to reach Pashupatinath Temple?

It is very easy to approach at the Pashupati temple premise, simply because it lies within the Kathmandu valley, the capital city of Nepal. It takes approx. 40min from the central area of the metropolitan city. You can grab a bus from any place of Kathamandu. You can catch direct micro-bus from any spot on the ring road to Pashupatinath. If you are in the center part of the cities like Thamel and so on, it will be better to catch the bus or tampoo from Jamal or Ratnapark to Gausala (Pashupati area). Or alternatively, you can hire a taxi and bike too. If you don’t prefer to ride any vehicle, just buy a city map and move according to the direction shown by it.

Best time and seasons to visit Pashupatinath Temple

In the terms of the season, you can visit at any seasonal period but if you have planning to do any other activities like trekking or hiking, just call the best time to visit Nepal. The temple or mandir remains to unlock every day from 4 am to 7 pm for general prayer. However, the innermost point (also known as Garbagriha) where the lingam is established remain open from 5 am to 12 pm by Mool (main) Bhatta for morning rite. It remains closed for daytime and again unlocked for 5 to 7 pm for evening rite. Thus, the perfect time to visit the shrine is morning hours or late in the evening time.

Important Information for Pashupati Mandir visitors

To get into the Pashupatinath temple premises, a foreign-born individual has to pay only one thousand Nepali Rs (USD $10) as entry charge. To get more detail information about it and for your easiness, you can hire a licensed local guide or if you don’t wanna get info regarding rituals and convection, just pay the entrance fee and move in your own style.

Attention: you must be careful while touring inside Pashupatinath Temple area. Because hundreds of monkeys are encountered in every step. We even can’t notice where what and which time they snatch our stuff. Better keep your important stuff inside your bag, don’t let them guess that you are carrying any foodstuff with you. Always avoid eyes contact with them.


The Mission

The Black Bulls arrive at Raque for a mission, but most of them decide to have fun at the beach instead. While having fun on the beach the Black Bulls fun turns into a ruckus. When Asta remembers about the mission, Yami Sukehiro shows up and buries them up to their necks in the sand as punishment. He tells them that he has learned that the temple is at the bottom of the sea and that their only chance to get there is during the night of a full moon. He then tells Noelle Silva that she is the only one that can get them there and will have to surpass her limits to do it.

Later that night, while training to control her magic and thinking about how she has to get better, she hears a noise and finds Asta. They talk and decide to train together to help each other out. Asta notices someone is singing, and they discover it is a girl singing on a rock. Ώ]

The girl notices Asta and Noelle and gladly introduces herself. Noelle introduces herself and Asta and asks why Kahono is here. Kahono replies that she was practicing her singing and that she wants to be an idol. She notices that Asta is injured and heals him with her Song Magic. She then asks to be their friend, to which they agree. She advises Noelle not to suppress her mana too much or she will lose control of her magic. Kahono also tells her that using a good memory to obtain peace of mind works best, but Noelle only thinks about how her family looks down on her.

Noelle decides to continue training and is helped by Asta and Kahono for a few days. On the night of the full moon, Noelle has not yet been able to gain control. Asta tells her to stop thinking and just release all her mana. Noelle tells him that it will not go right, but he replies that he will save her if anything happens. She releases all of her mana and is about to fall unconscious when she hears the Black Bulls cheering her on. She thinks about how the Black Bulls have acknowledged her and manages to gain control of her Sea Dragon's Cradle spell. In her excitement, she loses control of her spell and falls into Asta's arms. She then looks for Kahono, who has left and is looking forward to meeting Noelle at the temple. ΐ]

Seabed Temple

Playing a Game

After being unable to find Kahono, Noelle gathers the rest of the Black Bulls in her spell and they head into the ocean. Once they reach the barrier of the Grand Magic Zone, they manage to get through the rough current and witness a beautiful view. A whirlpool magic of mana suddenly appears before them, at which Yami throws Asta, who manages to destroy the whirlpool. They make it to the Seabed Temple. The Black Bulls then head closer to the temple when they happen to see people, who cheerfully greet them. Yami asks the people for their boss with an angry look, and one of the people using an equally angry face tells them that they want the High Priest. The people then guide the Black Bulls to the temple.

When the Black Bulls enter the temple, they are suddenly attacked by a giant fish. Luck Voltia, Magna Swing, and Gauche Adlai easily defeat the fish, and the High Priest gladly greets them and reveals that the fish was made by his Game Magic. The High Priest reveals that he knows what they are after and that they are going to have play a game to get it. Α] After some convincing the Black Bulls agree to play, and the High Priest summons the temple's other priests and then scatters everyone (except Yami) to other locations within the temple, after which he explains the rules. Yami gets angry that he was not included but Gifso tells Yami that he is too strong, which causes Yami to join the priest in watching the battles.

When Asta, Magna, Luck, and Gauche encounter four priests, Gifso tells Yami that his priests are strong but is shocked when the priests are easily defeated. Β] Gifso says that the game is not over yet and that the three greater priests will not be defeated so easily. In the game, Finral Roulacase is hiding from the Hammerhead Shark Priest and tries to escape. Finral realizes that he cannot leave the area, and Gifso sends a monster fish after Finral. Elsewhere Charmy Pappitson is happily eating food when the Dolphin Priest suddenly appears. Charmy is ready to fight but the priest easily puts Charmy to sleep. Elsewhere Asta encounters the Swordfish Priest, who introduces himself as Kiato and reveals that his dream is to be a dancer whom everyone in the kingdom wishes to see. Kiato also reveals that people of the Seabed Temple cannot go to the Clover Kingdom but the High Priest will allow one to go if a priest wins the game. Kiato then starts to attack Asta, and Asta reveals his dream and manages to push Kiato back. Kaito gets excited about the fight, and Asta and Kiato charge at each other.

Elsewhere, Noelle encounters the Dolphin Priest. Noelle tries to bluff her way out of the fight since she only has defensive spells but the priest reveals that she is Kahono and says that she was waiting for Noelle to get to the temple. Γ] Elsewhere Yami and Gifso witness that Vanessa Enoteca was able to defeat the Anglerfish Priest. Yami says that he should have put money on the bet, while Gifso thinks about how he will be able to win if his son and grandchildren start to get serious. Back in the game, Noelle asks Kahono why she helped her back of the beach, to which Kahono says that while she was practicing her magic, she was also looking for people to bring to the temple to play the game. Noelle replies that Kahono only used her but Kahono says that they really are friends and that she is going to fight Noelle with everything she has.

Kahono then tries to put Noelle to sleep but Noelle counters by putting up a barrier. Kahono switches to an offensive spell to take down the barrier. Noelle attacks but the spell completely misses. Kahono asks what Noelle is doing, to which Noelle replies that she still cannot control her mana. Kahono tells her that Noelle is able to control her mana but does not want to hurt anyone. Kahono then tries to get her to fight seriously for her goal. Elsewhere Asta is battling Kiato and is having a difficult time reading his opponent's movements. Kiato says that Asta's sword is useless when not fighting against magic and tells Asta that he can give up if he wants. Asta thinks that he might lose but then decides to try and mimic his opponent's movements. Kiato says that that will not help Asta, but Asta says that he will mimic Kiato's Butoh Magic with his muscles. Asta then manages to dodge Kiato's attack and counters. Kiato's wonders what kind of reflexes Asta has, while Yami excitedly says that Asta's abilities are far greater than that.

Another Player

Elsewhere Luck and Magna are having a difficult time against Gio, who apologizes for what the High Priest is putting them through. Luck notices that the priest has a large amount of mana, and reasons that he is the strongest one. Gio then activates Sea God's Hammer to finish the fight quickly. Luck and Magna charge at the priest, when Vetto and three members of the Eye of the Midnight Sun crash into the temple and decide to join them. Δ] Back at Raque's beach Sekke Bronzazza is terrified after having witnessed Vetto defeat fifty Magic Knights. At the temple Luck and Magna witness Vetto crush Gio, and Luck thinks about how Vetto's mana far surpasses Yami's. Gio suddenly gets up and asks Vetto what he is doing here. Vetto tells him that they are here for the magic stone and that he will give everyone despair before stealing the stone. Vetto then sends three other Eye of the Midnight Sun members to search the area. Gio tells Vetto to leave, but Vetto says that the priest is going to have to make him. Gio attacks with his water hammer but Vetto protects himself. Vetto then uses his magic to easily take down Gio along with Luck and Magna.

Gifso is shocked that his son was defeated so easily and that he had never seen a person as powerful as Vetto. Yami decides to end the game to go fight, which Gifso asks who Vetto is. Yami tells him that Vetto is a high-ranking member of a terrorist group. Gifso then tells Yami that they cannot leave because of his magic. Yami decides to break the wall to leave but notices that a member of the Eye of the Midnight Sun has trapped him and the priest in Different Dimension Sphere. Vetto notices that Yami is here and tells Yami to watch as he kills all of Yami's comrades. Yami asks if he can talk to his comrades, to which Gifso says that Yami can. Yami then tells everyone that the Eye of the Midnight Sun is here and that they are have to surpass their limits to face them. Gifso then tells them that he is changing the rules to that they have unlimited amount of time and that they just have to defeat the Eye of the Midnight Sun members to pass. Asta and Kiato decide to postpone their fight in order to combat the next enemy. Elsewhere Vetto wonders who will be his next prey when Luck and Magna suddenly get up and say that they will not be defeated so easily. Vetto gets excited and says that he cannot wait until they succumb to despair. Ε]

Manga thinks about how they were able to get back up and wonders how they are going to fight Vetto, while Luck tells Vetto to come and attack them again. Magna wonders what is Luck thinking about, which Vetto suddenly charges. Luck dodges and counter but it does barely anything. Vetto compliments Luck and start to battle with Luck. While watch the battle, Magna think about how he first meet Luck and how wild and strong Luck is. Magna decides to join in and manages to land a blow on Vetto. Luck then thinks back to when he first meet Magna and how Magna is his first friend. Vetto manages to throw Luck on to Magna and says that play time is over. Magna and Luck tells Vetto that they are just warming up. Elsewhere Asta and Kiato are running to Luck and Magna's location, when Asta asks about how Kiato was able to make his moves hard to read. Kiato says that he enters into a trance while dancing. Asta and Kiato then continue on to Magna and Luck's location.

At the battle, Vetto tells Magna and Luck that the despair if all that is left for the two. Which Magna and Luck get back up and reply that they cannot be despair since they would be too embarrassed to face Asta. Magna and Luck continue the battle until they are to launch a composite spell at Vetto. Asta and Kiato reach their location and witness Vetto defeating Magna and Luck along with their spell. Vetto then goes in to finish Luck and Manga but Asta blocks the attack. Vetto tells Asta the he is going to inflict ten times to pain that Asta inflicted onto Licht. Asta replies that he is going to take up Luck and Magna's role and then takes out his second sword and attacks Vetto. Ζ] Gifso is shocked the Magna and Luck's combine spell did not leave a scratch on Vetto, which Yami says that Magna and Luck tries their hardest and that Asta should learn from them. At the battle, Vetto says that he will not come out unscathed after taking an Anti-magic attack. Asta asks what they are planning with all their mana, but Vetto replies that Asta does not need to know and that he is going to defeat Asta like the rest. Kiato notices that his father has been defeated, and thinks about how Vetto's mana is so massive that it is protecting him. Vetto then tells them that when he gets the Magic Stone, he will kill everyone in the Seabed Temple. Kiato tells Vetto that he will never allow that to happen and he along with Asta charge at Vetto. Asta and Kiato attack Vetto but he easily manages to push them back. Asta notices that Vetto is reading their movements and that Vetto is so fast that he cannot read his movement, and then talks when Kiato about how they will not fighting each other seriously before.

Vetto tells them that this fight is bring him since they are both weak. Asta and Kiato tells Vetto that they will show him was they are capable of and attack. Asta and Kiato think that they can win, when Vetto sends them both flying into a wall. Vetto tells them that attacks like that will not work with him, which Asta gets back up and says that he is not down yet. Vetto then tells Asta that he has and begins to explain Asta's weaknesses. Vetto says that Asta's first weakness is that Asta is weak against long ranged attack with no mana and throws a large boulder at Asta. Asta dodges but Vetto closes and attacks, while also saying that Asta is also weak to people who use their mana to enhance their physical strength. Asta tells Vetto that he does not care, which Vetto attacks Asta's arm. Vetto then grabs Asta and tells him that his third weakness is that he never gives up and that causes Asta to get multiple injuries during a battle. Vetto tells Asta to now feel despair but Asta bites Vetto's arm and says something but Vetto does not understand him. Vetto asks what Asta is saying, when his arm is suddenly hit and he drops Asta. Noelle and Kahono appear and tell Vetto that Asta said what do you get from giving up that. Η]

Elsewhere, Gauche is facing a member of the Eye of the Midnight Sun. Gauche thinks about how strong the guy is, while the guy continues to attack Gauche all the while saying that he is going to crush him. The guy manages to corner Gauche and going to finish him off, but Gauche suddenly appears behind the guy and defeats him. The guy wonder who he was facing, which the fake Gauche reveals that he is had transformed into Gauche midway through the fight and that he is Grey. Gauche says that there are still enemies around and that they should go look for them, which Grey agrees. Gauche then carries Grey to a passage when they suddenly notices Charmy. Gauche decides to wake her up, but notice something and suddenly trapped along with Grey. Gauche thinks about how Charmy and Grey are useless and that he will have to find a way to escape himself but suddenly remembers what Asta had said to him once. A Eye of the Midnight Sun member appears and explains that they are trapped within his magic and that they will have their mana drained. Gauche tells Grey what to do, which Grey transforms a boulder into a large piece of meat and Gauche tells Charmy the guy is after her meal. Charmy wakes up angry telling the guy to get away from her food, which the guy notices out terrifying Charmy's mana is. Charmy then uses her magic to slam the guy through some walls defeating him. Charmy then tries to eat the meat but notices that its not real. Gauche then talks to Grey about how they can use his ability to transform objects to their advantages. Grey notices that his mana is drained and says it, which Gauche and Charmy think about how they have never seen Grey's true form. Grey's transformation wears off and Charmy and Gauche are shocked to find out that Grey is really a girl. Grey tells them that its embarrassing and to not look at her, which Gauche says that he will look at a picture of his sister but Charmy tells Grey that she is good looking. Grey replies that she rather die then have people look at her, which Charmy says that she is cute and asks how old Grey is. Grey says that she is 24, which Charmy is shocked that Grey is older and Gauche says that Grey should be happier since Charmy is not the same age as her. ⎖]

Elsewhere, Vetto tells Noelle and Kahono that he hopes that they will entertain him. Noelle notices that Luck and Magna have been defeated and wonders how strong Vetto is. Asta says that he is not done yet and attacks, but Vetto easily hits him towards a wall. Kahono uses her magic to soften Asta landing. Kahono notices her brother and yells at him to remember their promise and wake up. Kiato wakes up and thinks about how if he did not use his magic to lower the impact of Vetto's attack then he would not have a head. Noelle is surprised that Kahono has a brother, which Kahono says that does and then they both says that they have the same dream of going to the surface. Kiato and Kahono then attack Vetto using combination magic, which Vetto says that its interesting. Kiato reveals that this magic was born from the their worship of the water god, and also says that is proof of the bond that they share with the people. Kiato also tells Vetto that he will not be able to break it, but Vetto easily rips off Kiato's leg and attacks Kahono's neck. The High Priest tries to save his grandchildren with his magic, but Vetto easily destroys them. Vetto reveals that he has a dream of them crushed and a bond of blood, which the priest wonders what Vetto is talking about. Vetto grabs Kahono's hair and asks what it feels to taste despair, but notices the look in Kahono's eye and says that he does not like it. Vetto decides to rip her limbs off, but Noelle tells him to let her go. Vetto tells her that her words will not stop him, which Noelle thinks that her magic might hit Kahono and wonders if her spell would harm Vetto. Vetto tells Noelle to just watch from their, which Noelle thinks about how everyone has fought with their lives on the line. Noelle then hears Kahono voice saying that its alright to attack and she will win since she can control her mana now. Noelle releases her mana, which the High Priest says that the temple is shaking and Yami comments that Noelle has finally woken up. Vetto wonders where all the mana is coming from, which Noelle tells Vetto that its the final warning and to get his hands off her friend. ⎗]

Demonic Power

Vetto realize the kind of mana that Noelle has and asks if she is royalty. Noelle says that she is and that it does not matter because she is a member of the Black Bulls and is going to make him pay for hurting her friends. Vetto tosses Kahono aside and tells her to attack with her full power because he will direct it back at her. Noelle says that she will put him down and fires a powerful spell that manages to rip off Vetto's arm and even blasts through the wall. Yami says that Noelle managed to far surpass her limits, while the High Priest says that Noelle is a goddess in her own right. Yami also thinks about how Noelle is a far greater offensive magic user then he thought. Vetto yells in pain and remembers what Licht told him once, along with a tragic moment is him life. Vetto reveals that he has a third eye and thanks them for calling him out to here, which shocks Noelle and Yami. Noelle wonders about the third eye and the sinister mana that Vetto has. Vetto then uses Demon Magic to restore his left arm which shocks everyone. Yami thinks that Vetto and the terrorist group is a lot more dangerous then he thought and tells Noelle to run. Vetto says that he is going to give Noelle a taste of her own medicine and uses his demon magic to fire a blast. Asta steps in front and saves Noelle from the blast by cutting through it with his sword. Asta says that they have not given up yet, which Vetto says that they are going to taste true despair from now on. ⎘]

Noelle remembers a story she once heard and thinks about how Vetto resemble the devil in the story. Finral is hiding close by and thinks about how Vetto is stronger then the boss of the Eye of the Midnight Sun and that they should be escaping through the whole the Vetto had made with his power. Noelle asks Asta how he is able to move, which Asta replies that Kahono use her healing magic little by little to heal him. Asta then suggests that they find a way to heal Kahono and Kiato after they defeat Vetto. Asta then compliments Noelle on how powerful she is and to leave the rest up to him. Finral wonders what Asta is thinking, which Vetto asks what Asta can do with his body in that shape. Asta tells Vetto that he will not give up until he achieves his dream. Vetto tells Asta that he will teach him a lesson by getting rid of all the trash. Vetto then uses his magic to attack Gio, Kahono, Kiato, Magna, and Luck, but Vanessa shows up and rescues them all while restraining Vetto. Vanessa tells Asta that his words gave her power too, which Asta tells her thanks. Vetto tells Vanessa that her magic cannot restrain him and breaks free. Vetto then fires a magic blast but Finral wraps the magic back at Vetto who diverts the attack. Finral tells them that he has to try his best too, while wondering why he is going this. Vetto tells them that no matter how many there are, they will not be able to defeat him. Vanessa tells Noelle to user her remaining mana to protect the wounded while telling Asta he has to be the one to attack since his attacks would effect Vetto.

Vanessa and Finral say that they will support Asta while he attacks. Asta then charges, but Vetto attacks with a magic blast. Finral diverts the attack back, which Vetto easily deflects. Vetto thinks about how Finral is diverting all his long-ranged attacks and decides to attack head on. Finral then warps Asta behind Vetto, but Vetto figured that they do that and goes to attack. Vanessa creates a string in front of Asta who uses it to change direction to jump into another portal, to land an attack on Vetto from below. ⎙] Vetto stated that he's done it and goes for an attack . Vanessa pulls Asta back to them and tells Asta that he is doing a good job, which Asta replies that they are doing the most work. Noelle is amazed by the team work and how good both Vanessa and Finral are. Vetto thinks about how the wound is not healing and that Asta's sword is the only thing that can defeat him. Vetto also thinks about the two who are supporting Asta and how Vanessa is the more dangerous one for magic is hard to see. Vetto tells them that their teamwork is making him sick, and charges while saying that he will not give them a sliver a hope.

Asta continues his assault by attacking and jumping through portals. Vanessa notices that Vetto has gotten their time down, and says that she is going to surpass her limits. Vanessa wonders why Asta is giving her so much strength and that she was right to leave her home to be with the Black Bulls. Vanessa also thinks about how the thread of fate is always in ones own hand and tells Asta to do what he need to do since she will help him, which Asta tells her that he is in her hands. Finral remembers when he was a child and that his brother was always praised. Finral also remembers when his brother was made head of the family and how he just decided to run away from everything. Finral also remembers why Yami chose him for the Black Bulls and thinks about how he will make the Black Bulls the best. Finral tells Asta to trust him and just jump, which Asta says that Finral already has his trust. Asta continues to attacks while jumping through portals, which Vetto asks how long they will be able to continue to attack like this. Finral and Vanessa thinks about how they will not betray Asta trust. Vetto tells them to fall into despair already, which Asta replies that they do not have time for that nonsense while thrusting his sword through Vetto. ⎚] Vetto yells which Asta, Finral, and Vanessa thinks that they have won. Vetto grabs Asta's arms and states that his attack did not work and he let them hit him so that they will feel the most despair. Finral, Vanessa, and Noelle are shocked, which Vetto repeat the word despair over and over while breaking Asta's arms. Asta replies that its not over yet, which Vetto is shocked.

Noelle, Finral, and Vanessa are shocked, which Vanessa quickly pulls Asta back and thinks about how Asta is not normal and that he will rise to the top. Vanessa uses her threads to keep Asta's in place, which Asta thanks her for. Asta says that he can still fight, which Vanessa thinks that she understands why Asta was not born with any mana. Vanessa says that they will fight again, which Finral replies that they will do it as many times as it takes. Asta quickly grabs his other sword and heads towards Vetto, which Vetto wonders why Asta will not feel despair. Asta tells Vetto that he cannot feel despair since there is someone he cannot lose to and that his promise will not lose to despair. Asta begins the same attack like last time, which Vetto says that they are all insects that he can easily destroy but suddenly notices that he cannot read Asta's moves anymore. Vetto notices that the magic that was strengthening him is weakening and thinks about how he has been fighting while completely relying on magic. Vetto also thinks about how he was the one who lost his weapon and not Asta, and pulls the sword out. Vetto says that its impossible for him to lose to mere humans, which Asta tells him that he has not won against anyone since no one has surrendered to Vetto. Vetto tells Asta to shut up, and thinks about how he has a chill running down his spine since his magic armor and confidence has cracked. Vetto then thinks about how Asta is not a beast like him but a despair-eating demon. Asta then attacks Vetto and tells him that he has lost. ⎛]

Noelle notices that Vetto's mana is gone, and says that we have won. Asta looks at Vetto and asks how he likes him now. Vanessa then pulls Asta back, which Vanessa and Finral hug Asta. Finral and Vanessa tells Asta how he did a good job, which Asta replies that they are killing him. They let go which Finral says that he thinks Asta is crazy for putting his trust in them, which Asta tells him that they are the ones that Yami had brought into the squad before him so of course he would trust them. Noelle tells them that they are forgetting something, which they all compliment her. Vanessa then says that they should celebrate, but they tell her that they have to restrain Vetto. While on the ground, Vetto remembers a moment of his childhood and Licht's dream back then. Vetto also thinks that it was the humans that had taken his hope from him. Vetto then starts to release his mana, which Finral, Vanessa, and Noelle notices. Vetto thinks about how humans are the ones that took him off his path and that he will blow the water temple to the heavens. Finral notices that Vetto is doing the same attack that Licht uses a while back, but comments about how it is more powerful. Vanessa comments about how strong it is as it is burning her threads and that they cannot get close to him. Asta tells them that they will have to just put him down again, which Finral asks what should they do. Vanessa then encourages Finral which he glad accepts.

Finral, Vanessa, Noelle, and Asta prepare to attack Vetto, when Yami suddenly shows up. Noelle stated that Yami was captured, which Yami replies that he had escaped. Elsewhere, the high priest is riding a monster toy and comments about how he is glad that he did not let Yami participate in the game since it would have been boring. The high priest then heads to where Kiato and Kahono are. Elsewhere, Asta comments about how they are strong now that Yami is here and that should put Vetto down. Yami tells Asta that he is more than enough to defeat Vetto since he cannot stay on the sidelines anymore, and compliments them for going a good job. Yami turns to Vetto and thinks about how he was only able to surpass his limits was because he was watching them. Yami releases his mana and states that he was able to grow some more and obtain new spells. Vetto yells out the word despair, which Yami tells him to shut up and that it does not matter how strong Vetto is since his spell can cut through dimensions. Yami then uses his spell which cuts through Vetto's mana and Vetto himself, which Yami then thanks Vetto for taking care of his men. ⎜]

Game End

As Vetto dies, Yami tells him that he had never fallen into despair and also tells Vetto to now go meet his maker. Asta, Noelle, Finral, and Vanessa quickly rush over to Yami and compliment him on defeating Vetto. Yami swings his sword at them and tells them to get away from him. Nero suddenly appears and pecks Asta on his forehead multiple times. Asta says that he was wondering where Nero was, but notices that Nero has the magic stone and compliments Nero for finding it. The High Priest suddenly shows up and hugs his grandchildren while apologizing for what happened to them because of his silly game. The priest then kneels before the Black Bulls and thanks them for defeating the terrorist. The priest also says that he will grant them anything, which Yami says that they will take the magic stone. The high priest is surprised by the stone and tells them that they can have it. Yami says that the priest did not know what the stone looked like, which the priest replies that he did not know about the stone and that he had looked into their minds to find what they were after. Charmy, Gauche, and Grey arrive ready to fight, but they notice that the boss is not there.

Later most of the Black Bulls members are resting in a room. Gauche complains that they have to stay their for a day, which Finral replies that he had used to much mana in his fight. Finral then comments about how he did not know that Grey was a cute girl, which Grey says to not look at her since it is embarrassing. Vanessa tells Finral to stop looking at Grey or she will gauge his eyes out, and tells Grey that she will not make it in the world if she is easily embarrassed. Magna then says that Vanessa needs to learn a bit of modesty, but Vanessa just insults him. Luck just says that he wants to fight again. Charmy says that she is hungry, which someone asks why Charmy's only injury is her empty stomach. Magna then complains about how they were useless, which Luck tells him that that is were there current power it at. The people of the undersea temple show up and start to cheer which the Black Bulls hear. One of them comments about how a day has come where they are thanked. Luck says that he wants to get stronger, which Magna says that he will get stronger then him. Vanessa says that being cheered for is nice, which Grey says that she wants to get over her embarrassment. Gauche just says that he wants to see Marie.

Elsewhere Noelle is visiting Kahono and Kiato, who are being healed. Noelle apologizes to Kahono for not being able to protect her voice. Kahono just thanks Noelle for protecting her home and also says that she has not given up on her dream. Kahono continues to say that she will get healed so she can go to the surface again and for Noelle to come to her concert when she get makes it big. Noelle smiles and says that Kahono better save her the best seat, and leaves. Kahono then notices the look on her brothers face and asks what is the matter, which Kiato says that he is in love. Kiato also says that he will also head to the surface when he's healed and to show Noelle his dance of love. Kahono just thinks that her brother does not have a shot at Noelle.

At another location Yami is holding a funeral service for Vetto, when he notices Asta and asks what he is doing here. Asta compliments Yami on how good he is a using ki, which Yami tells Asta to answer the question or he will hurt him. Asta says that he was exploring since they are leaving tomorrow, and that he had found some flowers where he put them by Vetto. Asta says that he can never forgive what Vetto had done, but also says that something had happened to Vetto that caused him to hate the world. Asta also says that Vetto was the one that was in the deepest of despair. Yami then asks if Asta is a fool, which Asta is surprised. Yami tells Asta to answer the question, which Asta says that he is a fool. Yami replies that its good, and that fool only have to not think things through and just have to chase after their dreams. Yami then pulls Asta's headband over his eyes, which Asta says that he cannot see and that he cannot pull his headband up since his arms are broken. Elsewhere, the people are still cheering for the Black Bulls, which Magna wonders how long they are going to cheer for and Gauche wonders how much energy they have. ⎝]

Bull's head from the Temple of Ninhursag - History

1. The Hinnom Valley is located just to the southeast of Old City Jerusalem.

2. The Hinnom Valley joins the Kidron Valley just to the southeast of Old City Jerusalem.

3. Today it looks nothing like it did during the Old and New Testament periods.

4. It was an ugly place where ugly things happened.

Historical Background

1. In the Hinnom Valley, the city dumped its waste and burned their trash.

Because the Hinnom Valley is located on the southeast side of Jerusalem, the prevailing winds carry the winds away from the city. For this reason, it became the city dump.

Dead animals from the temple sacrifices were thrown there to rot and be eaten by worms and maggots.

The city sewage was emptied here.

It was smelly, ugly, burning, crawling with worms, full of rot, and full of disease.

2. During the Old Testament period, many of the Israelites sacrificed their children to the false gods of Molech and Baal in the Hinnom Valley.
Leviticus 20:2: You shall also say to the sons of Israel: &ldquoAny man from the sons of Israel or from the aliens sojourning in Israel who gives any of his offspring to Molech, shall surely be put to death the people of the land shall stone him with stones.&rdquo

3. What did worship to Molech entail?

It is believed that idols of Moloch were giant metal statues of a man with a bull&rsquos head. Each image had a hole in the abdomen and outstretched forearms that made a kind of ramp to the hole. A fire was lit in or around the statue and babies were placed in the statue&rsquos arms or in the hole. When a couple sacrificed their firstborn, they believed that Moloch would ensure financial prosperity for the family and future children.

It was a custom to beat drums and play music loudly. Some believe this was done to drown out the babies&rsquo screams from reaching the ears of their parents.

4. What did worship to Baal entail?

Baal worship was rooted in sensuality and involved ritualistic prostitution in the temples. At times, appeasing Baal required human sacrifice, usually the firstborn of the one making the sacrifice.

5. With its pagan history and burning sewer stench, Jerusalem's Hinnom Valley serves as a vivid metaphor for both the Christian and Jewish concept of hell.

6. By Jesus' time in the New Testament, the Greek translation of Hinnom Valley, &ldquoGehenna,&rdquo became a synonym for hell. For this reason, the English New Testament versions of the Bible translate Gehenna as hell.

Places of Interest

5. Field of Blood. Place Judas hanged himself after betraying Christ.

Valley of Hinnom in the Bible

1. The Prophet Jeremiah strongly condemned the worship of Molech.
Jeremiah 32:31&ndash35: This city has aroused my anger and wrath, from the day it was built to this day, so that I will remove it from my sight 32 because of all the evil of the children of Israel and the children of Judah that they did to provoke me to anger&mdashtheir kings and their officials, their priests and their prophets, the men of Judah and the inhabitants of Jerusalem. 33 They have turned to me their back and not their face. And though I have taught them persistently, they have not listened to receive instruction. 34 They set up their abominations in the house that is called by my name, to defile it. 35 They built the high places of Baal in the Valley of the Son of Hinnom, to offer up their sons and daughters to Molech, though I did not command them, nor did it enter into my mind, that they should do this abomination, to cause Judah to sin.

2. Several of the Kings of Israel worshipped Molech and Baal.
2 Chronicles 28:1&ndash4: Ahaz was twenty years old when he became king, and he reigned sixteen years in Jerusalem and he did not do right in the sight of the Lord as David his father had done. 2 But he walked in the ways of the kings of Israel he also made molten images for the Baals. 3 Moreover, he burned incense in the valley of Ben-hinnom and burned his sons in fire, according to the abominations of the nations whom the Lord had driven out before the sons of Israel. 4 He sacrificed and burned incense on the high places, on the hills and under every green tree.

2 Chronicles 33:5&ndash6: For he [King Manasseh] built altars for all the host of heaven in the two courts of the house of the Lord. 6 He made his sons pass through the fire in the valley of Ben-hinnom and he practiced witchcraft, used divination, practiced sorcery and dealt with mediums and spiritists. He did much evil in the sight of the Lord, provoking Him to anger.

3. God destroyed the nations that previously lived in Israel because of their evil worship of false gods.
Deuteronomy 20:16&ndash18: But in the cities of these peoples that the Lord your God is giving you for an inheritance, you shall save alive nothing that breathes, 17 but you shall devote them to complete destruction, the Hittites and the Amorites, the Canaanites and the Perizzites, the Hivites and the Jebusites, as the Lord your God has commanded, 18 that they may not teach you to do according to all their abominable practices that they have done for their gods, and so you sin against the Lord your God.

4. When Christ wanted to communicate the concept of coming judgment and hell, He used Gehenna (Hinnom) as an example.
Mark 9:42&ndash49: Whoever causes one of these little ones who believe to stumble, it would be better for him if, with a heavy millstone hung around his neck, he had been cast into the sea. 43 If your hand causes you to stumble, cut it off it is better for you to enter life crippled, than, having your two hands, to go into hell, into the unquenchable fire, 44 where their worm does not die, and the fire is not quenched. 45 If your foot causes you to stumble, cut it off it is better for you to enter life lame, than, having your two feet, to be cast into hell, 46 where their worm does not die, and the fire is not quenched. 47 If your eye causes you to stumble, throw it out it is better for you to enter the kingdom of God with one eye, than, having two eyes, to be cast into hell, 48 where their worm does not die, and the fire is not quenched. 49 For everyone will be salted with fire.

Luke 12:5: But I will warn you whom to fear: fear the One who, after He has killed, has authority to cast into hell yes, I tell you, fear Him!

Faith Lesson from the Hinnom Valley

1. Worship of false gods is ugly and destructive. Today, in a metaphorical sense, we can also sacrifice our children on the altar of false idols if we neglect God and don't raise our children to fear Him.

2. Hell is a true reality even though it might seem unjust or uncomfortable.

3. Coming judgment is certain and will take place.

4. Are we genuinely saved and walking with God so we will escape the judgment to come?

School Excursions

Children study history at school but what&rsquos the most fun way to learn? A school excursion of course!

Heritage education is important as it helps the students connect to the past and immerse in the culture of yesteryear.

School groups will take a journey back to the past when Royal Bull&rsquos Head Inn at Drayton was the centre of the town.

Life was very different from today.
Through this school program with links to the History curriculum. It allows students to be immersed in life as it was in the 1800&rsquos.
, students will explore, recognise and appreciate the history of their local area by examining the remains of the past and considering why they should be preserved.

The history of the Royal Bull&rsquos Head Inn can be divided into three key periods to facilitate student investigation and learning:

  • 1847-1875 when the Royal Bull&rsquos Head Inn operated as an hotel and tavern
  • 1879-1973 when the Inn was used as a family home and post office up until 1952
  • 1973 to the present. It is owned by the National Trust and operated as a museum.

Key themes that are the focus of the accompanying work programs are:

  • The building&rsquos function as a community hub throughout its history (inn, post office, museum)
  • Changes in technology over the period of the building&rsquos history (e.g. cooking, washing, transport)
  • The role of museums and heritage places in our society &ndash the contribution of individuals and groups to the development of Australian society (e.g. pioneers, explorers, pastoralists)
  • Development of colonial society and the Australian colonies (e.g. the expansion of the Darling Downs and the development of Toowoomba).

The National Trust has prepared an Australian Curriculum Work Program, in the History subject area, that relates to Royal Bull&rsquos Head Inn.
This education program provides opportunities for students to develop historical understanding.