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SMS Goeben

SMS Goeben


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SMS Goeben

SMS Goeben was a Moltke class battlecruiser that spent the First World War operating with the Turkish navy, mostly in the Black Sea. She had been sent to the Mediterranean in October 1912 as part of the German response to the First Balkan War, spending time at Constantinople, Venice, Pola and Naples. She was still in the Mediterranean, with the light cruiser Breslau when Archduke Franz Ferdinand was assassinated at Sarajevo. Fearing war the commander of the squadron, Admiral Souchon, put into Pola for a refit. Despite only being three years old, the Goeben needed 4,460 new boiler tubes. She would soon benefit from the improved performance this gave.

At the end of July, the Goeben was at Messina. She then received orders to attack the ports about to be used to transfer units of the French army home from North Africa. Accordingly, the Goeben and the Breslau, sailed west, and on 4 August the Goeben bombarded the port of Philipeville, rather too soon to find any French troop ships.

Having left Philipeville, the two German ships then ran into the British battlecruisers Indefatigable and Indomitable. War had not yet been declared between Germany and Britain, so the two squadrons warily circled each other, before the Germans continued east at high speed. The British attempted to shadow the German ships, but Goeben’s recent boiler refit meant that she had a significantly higher top speed than either of the British battlecruisers and the Germans soon pulled away. They then returned to Messina to take on more coal, a move that helped hide them from the British, who had decided to stay six miles off the Italian coast after Italy declared her neutrality. From Messina the two German ships escaped east towards Constantinople. This was one option that had not occurred to the British admirals in the Mediterranean, who believed the Dardanelles to be closed to either side after learning that the Turks had laid minefields.

Contrary to German expectations, as the Goeben and the Breslau entered the Aegean, they were denied permission to enter the Dardanelles. After spending a nervous couple of days in the Aegean, Admiral Souchon decided to risk a direct approach, arriving outside the straits at 5pm on 10 August and calling for a pilot. Much to his relief a Turkish steamboat came out and shepherded the two German ships through the straits.

Turkey remained neutral until November 1914. The status of the two German ships remained ambiguous. They remained under the command of Admiral Souchon and were manned by German crews, but were officially offered to the Turks, and flew the Turkish flag. They were even given Turkish names (the Goeben officially became theYavuz Sultan Selim), but many of their operations had more to do with German than Turkish interests. The most obvious example of this came on 29 October, when apparently without the knowledge of the Turkish government the Goeben bombarded the Russian port of Sevastopol and sank the Russian ship Prut, which may or may not have been a minelayer. The Turkish government responded by passing a motion of neutrality, but on 1 November the Russians declared war on the Ottoman Empire.

The Goeben spent most of the rest of the war operating in the Black Sea, taking part in a number of inconclusive clashes with the Russian Black Sea Fleet. Amongst them was a short duel with the Russian flagship Evstafi on 18 November, which saw both sides take minor damage. On 26 December the Goeben ran into two mines in the Bosporus, causing damage that kept her out of action until the following spring.

She was back at sea by the end of March, when she was sighted by Russian aircraft at the northern end of the Bosporus. She was also at sea on 3 April supporting an attack on Russian troop ships at Odessa. At the end of the month she made two appearances at the Dardanelles. On 27 April she was fired on by HMS Queen Elizabeth and on 30 April by HMS Lord Nelson, retreating quickly on each occasion.

Her final sortie came in January 1918. By this point the war with Russia was over, and so the new German commander, Vice-admiral von Rebeur-Pachwitz, decided to launch an attack on the British squadron outside the Dardanelles, apparently without Turkish knowledge. The Germans had very limited knowledge of the British minefields outside the straits. A recently captured map marked a number of previously unknown fields, but was itself not inclusive.

The Goeben and the Breslau got under way at 4.00pm on 19 January. At 3.30am the next morning they exited from the Dardanelles, heading towards a weak British squadron at Kephalo. The first blow came at 6.10am, when the Goeben hit a mine, but without taking much damage. The sortie continued, and at 7.40am the two German ships opened fire on the British monitors Raglan and M 28, quickly sinking them. It was then decided to continue on to Mudros to bombard a more powerful British squadron known to be based there. This move turned out to be disastrous. At 8.30am the Breslau hit a mine. The Goeben attempted to tow her to safety, but at 8.55 hit a mine herself. Four more mines then exploded around the Breslau, and the Germans were forced to abandon her.

The Goeben’s troubles were not over. At 9.48am she hit a third mine, developing a list to port. Finally, at 11.30 she ran aground on Nagara Point (inside the Dardanelles). Here she was save from direct naval attack, but came under repeated attacks from British aircraft and from monitors firing over the Gallipoli peninsula. She was finally towed to safety by the Turkish battleship Turgut Reis at 3.45pm o 26 January. The next day a British submarine managed to get past the defences of the straits, only to find her target gone.

The Goeben was not fully repaired until after the end of the war. She then became fully Turkish property, remaining in service until 1948. She was not fully decommissioned until 1960, surviving until 1971.

Displacement (loaded)

25,300t

Top Speed

25.5kts

Range

4,120 nautical miles at 14kts

Armour – deck

3.2in-1in

- belt

10.7in-4in

- bulkheads

8in-4in

- battery

8in-6in

- barbettes

9in-1.2in

- turrets

9in-2.4in

- conning tower

14in-3.2in

Length

611ft 11in

Armaments

Ten 280mm (11.1in) SKL/50 guns
Twelve 150mm (5.9in) SKL/45 guns
Twelve 88mm (3.45in) SKL/45 guns
Four 500mm (19.7in) submerged torpedo tubes

Crew complement

1053 normal
1355 at Jutland

Launched

28 March 1911

Completed

28 August 1912

Broken up

1971

Captains

1912-1914

Kapitän zur See Phillip

1914-1918

Kapitän zur See Richard Ackerman

1918

Kapitän zur See Stoelzel

1918

Korvettenkapitän Lampe

Books on the First World War |Subject Index: First World War


SMS Goeben

Az SMS Goeben [m 1] a Német Császári Haditengerészet Moltke-osztályú csatacirkálója, korabeli német megjelöléssel nagycirkálója (Großer Kreuzer) volt. Nevét a Francia-német háború egyik sikeres német tábornagya, August Karl von Goeben után kapta. Testvérhajójával, a Moltkéval az első német csatacirkáló, a von der Tann nagyobb méretű változatai voltak, erősebb páncélozottsággal és egy további két ágyús lövegtoronnyal felszerelve. Az új német csatacirkálók jelentősen erősebb páncélzatúak voltak a velük egyidőben épült brit Indefatigable-osztály egységeinél. [2]

A Goeben 1912-es hadrendbe állítása után a Breslau könnyűcirkálóval együtt a Földközi-tengeri Divíziót alkotva teljesített szolgálatot és Isztambul volt a támaszpontja. Az első világháború kitörése az Adriai-tengeren érte, ahonnan előbb az észak-afrikai francia kikötőt, Philippeville-t lőtte, majd az üldözésére küldött brit kötelékeket lerázva Isztambulba, a még semleges Törökországba hajózott, ahol pár nap múlva átadták törököknek. Yavuz Sultan Selim (röviden: Yavuz) néven az oszmán flotta zászlóshajója lett, megtartva német legénységének nagy részét. 1914 novemberében több fekete-tengeri orosz kikötőt lövetett, amivel kiprovokálta az antant hatalmak hadüzenetét. Elsősorban az orosz flotta ellen harcolt a Fekete-tengeren, de jelen volt a Dardanellák ostrománál is. 1918 januárjában kihajózott a Dardanellák elé és az imbroszi csatában megsemmisített két brit monitort, de egy újabb brit támaszpont megtámadásához továbbhajózva három aknára is ráfutott és súlyosan megsérült. Emiatt a háborúban jelentős szerepet már nem tudott játszani. A sèvres-i békeszerződés értelmében Törökországnak át kellett volna adnia a hajót Nagy-Britanniának, de a lausanne-i békeszerződés alapján már megtarthatta.

A hajó nevét előbb 1930-ban Yavuz Selimre, majd 1936-ban TCG Yavuzra [m 2] rövidítették, amit 1954-ig viselt. 1938-ban a fedélzetén szállították át Kemál Atatürk holttestét Isztambulból İzmitbe. Egészen 1950-ig a török flotta zászlóshajója maradt. Az 1960-as évek elejéig tartották hadrendben, így fél évszázadot töltött aktív szolgálatban. A kiöregedett hadihajót a török kormányzat több alkalommal megpróbálta értékesíteni, felkínálta Németországnak is eladásra, hogy múzeumhajóként állíthassák ki, de a német fél ettől elzárkózott. A hadihajót így 1973-1976 között lebontották. A Goeben volt a Császári Haditengerészet egykori hajói közül a legtovább megmaradó egység és a leghosszabb ideig szolgáló dreadnought-típusú hadihajó. [3]


Daftar isi

Deskripsi umum [ sunting | sunting sumber ]

SMS Goeben adalah kapal tempur jenis penjelajah dengan panjang 186,6 meter, lebar 29,4 meter. Bobot kosong dari SMS Goeben adalah 25.400 ton. Kecepatan penuh dari kapal ini dapat mencapai 25,5 knots (47,2 km/jam 29,3 mpj). Ώ] Pada kecepatan 14 knots (26 km/jam 16 mpj), daya jelajah dari kapal ini dapat mencapai 4.120 mil laut (7.630 km 4.740 mil). Kapal ini dipersenjatai oleh oleh 10 buah meriam utama SK L/50 berkaliber 28 cm yang terpasang pada lima buah kubah meriam di sekeliling kapal. Kapal ini juga dilengkapi oleh 4 torpedo bawah air berkaliber 50 cm. Ώ]

Meriam utama [ sunting | sunting sumber ]

Penempatan 10 buah meriam utama pada SMS Goeben dapat dibagi kedalam lima indeks yakni A,B,C,D dan E. Posisi dari meriam utama yang memiliki indeks "A" berada pada garis tengah haluan kapal. Meriam "B" terletak diantara dua cerobong pembuangan di bagian sisi kanan kapal dan berada dekat dengan bagian luar dari pembatas dek kapal. Meriam "C" dan "D" berada di bagian tengah, tepat di belakang tiang buritan kapal. ⎗] ⎘] Meriam "C" memiliki posisi yang lebih tinggi dari "D" dan keduanya menghadap ke arah belakang dari dek utama kapal. ⎗] Meriam "E" diletakan di sisi kiri kapal dan berada di antara cerobong pembuangan. ⎗] ⎘] Tiga dari meriam utama ini terletak segaris pada garis tengah panjang kapal yang bertujuan untuk menjaga keseeimbangan kapal. Penempatan meriam utama ini membuat empat meriam bekerja secara optimum saat kapal menembak target yang berada di salah satu sisi kapal. Meriam A, C, D, dan E dapat digunakan untuk menembak suatu target yang berada di sisi kiri kapal, sementara meriam A, B, C, dan D dapat digunakan untuk menembak suatu target yang berada di sisi kanan kapal. Jika kapal ini dalam posisi melarikan diri dari suatu kejaran kapal lainnya, maka meriam B, C, D, dan E dapat diarahkan ke belakang kapal untuk menembak kapal pengejar. ⎗] Namun, saat terjadinya peristiwa pengejaran Goeben dan Breslau di Laut Tengah, hanya terdapat satu atau dua meriam yang dapat diarahkan. Sebaliknya, jika SMS Goeben melakukan pengejaran, maka meriam A, B, dan E dapat digunakan untuk menembak target yang melarikan diri. ⎘]

Meriam sekunder [ sunting | sunting sumber ]

SMS Goeben memiliki 12 meriam dengan kaliber 15 cm. Meriam ini diletakan pada celah-celah yang terpasang di sekeliling dek kedua kapal. ⎗] Bagian dalam dari sisi kapal yang digunakan sebagai tempat peletakan meriam ini dilapisi oleh zirah untuk melindungi kru operasional di lambung kapal. ⎘] ⎗] Enam buah meriam dipasang pada bagian kiri, enam bagian lainnya dipasang pada bagian kanan untuk menembak target yang berupa kapal kecil atau kapal torpedo secara serentak. Salah satu meriam yang terdapat di bagian kiri dan kanan kapal dapat diarahkan ke bagian belakang dan depan kapal untuk menembak suatu target jika diperlukan. ⎗] Untuk pertahanan dari serangan udara, SMS Goeben dapat dikatakan memiliki cukup sedikit meriam anti pesawat dengan kaliber 88mm yang diletakan di berbagai lokasi. Empat buah meriam anti pesawat diletakan di depan tiang pengawas, dua lainnya dibelakang tiang ini, dan dua lagi berada di dek bagian depan dek utama. Terdapat juga 12 torpedo bawah air dengan kaliber 500mm yang terpasang pada kapal ini. ⎘] ⎗]

Lapisan pelindung [ sunting | sunting sumber ]

Kapal ini memiliki desain dengan lapisan pelindung yang lebih tebal jika dibandingkan dengan tipe kapal penjelajah lainnya pada saat itu. Namun, lapisan pelindung ini lebih tipis jika dibandingkan dengan kapal tempur besar pada umumnya. ⎗] Lapisan pelindung yang menyelimuti dek SMS Goeben memiliki ketebalan bervariasi mulai dari paling tebal dengan ketebalan 76,2mm pada ruang mesin dan amunisi dan 25,4 mm pada bagian yang membutuhkan lebih sedikit perlindungan. ⎘] ⎗] Untuk melindungi kapal dari serangan torpedo, bagian sabuk kapal dilindungi oleh lapisan pelindung dengan rentang ketebalan 280-100mm. Bagian sabuk atas hingga bawah air (posisi meriam "A" hingga "D"), dilindungi oleh lapisan pelindung setebal 280mm. ⎗] Ketebalan lapisan pelindung pada sabuk kapal kemudian mulai dikurangi menjadi 100mm mendekati bagian haluan dan buritan. ⎘] Dinding-dinding sekat kapal memiliki rentang ketebalan 200-100mm. Disekeliling meriam dengan kaliber 15 cm diberi lapisan pelindung dengan ketebalan 230mm, kemudian menipis menjadi 30mm disekitarnya. ⎗] Bagian atas-depan meriam utama memiliki lapisan pelindung setebal 230mm sementara bagian belakan memiliki lapisan pelindung setebal 61mm. Menara pengamat memiliki lapisan pelindung paling tebal yakni setebal 355mm dan dibagian tertipisnya dilindungi oleh lapisan setebal 5mm. ⎘] ⎗]

Sistem penggerak [ sunting | sunting sumber ]

Sistem penggerak kapal terdiri dari 4 buah pendidih Schulz Thornycroft berbahan bakar batubara yang kemudian menghasilkan uap untuk menjalankan 4 buah turbin uap Parsons. ⎘] ⎗] Turbin-turbin ini membutuhkan uap yang dihasilkan oleh pendidih Schulz Thornycroft untuk menggerakan 4 batang engkol penggerak, yang mana tiap engkolnya menghasilkan daya setara 85.782 tenaga kuda (63.968 kW). Baling-baling kapal ini sendiri memiliki diameter 3.74m. Sistem penggerak ini kemudian memungkinkan SMS Goeben bergerak maju dengan kecepatan 25,5 knot (47.2 km/j 29.3 mpj) dengan kecepatan maksimum sebesar 28.4 knot (52.6 km/h 32.7 mpj) untuk jarak yang pendek. ⎗] Jarak tempuh kapal ini bergantung ketersediaan batu bara sebagai bahan bakar dan juga kebutuhan makanan dari kru kapal. Gudang penyimpanan bahan bakar mampu menampung hingga 3.300 ton batu bara. Kemudian ditambahkan pula nantinya tangki untuk menampung 200 ton minyak. Jarak lokasi serangan mendadak yang dapat dilakukan oleh SMS Goeben juga bergantung pada bahan bakar dan cuaca lautan. ⎗] Daya jelajah kapal ini dapat mencapai 4.120 mil laut (7,630 km 4,740 mi) pada kecepatan 14 knots (26 km/j 16 mpj), dan daya maksimum operasional kapal ini sejauh 6.500 mil laut (12,038 km 7,480 mi) jika melaju dengan kecepatan 10 knot. ⎘] ⎗]

Tambahan lainnya [ sunting | sunting sumber ]

Goeben juga memiliki dua buah derek yang masing-masing diletakkan di samping cerobong pembakaran di bagian tengah kapal. Derek ini umumnya berfungsi untuk menaikkan kebutuhan kapal mulai dari batu bara hingga makanan. ⎘] ⎗] Selain itu, derek ini juga dapat digunakan untuk menaikan dan menurunkan sekoci atau kapal-kapal kecil lainnya yang diangkut pada kapal ini. Sekoci dan kapal-kapal kecil yang terdapat pada kapal ini dapat digunakan sebagai transportasi oleh kru kapal untuk menuju ke pantai dari kapal atau sebaliknya. Kapal-kapal dan sekoci ini sebenarnya tidak ditujukan sebagai kapal penyelamat jika nantinya SMS Goeben tenggelam. Alih-alih, kru kapal yang jumlahnya dapat mencapai 1350 orang diberikan jaket pelampung dan raket karet untuk mengantisipasi peristiwa ini. ⎗]


Why was the SMS Goeben not preserved?

The Japanese have only one. And some of the credit for that goes to the man who beat them red.

Battleship Mikasa - Restoration | Naval Historical Society of Australia

History lost in time

Mikasa, Aurora and HMS Warrior. it's great that these ships are still around.

I realize that keeping warships of the size and complexity "alive" or at least "preserved" is difficult, but it is doable. It's just a shame that a good opportunity was wasted here.

I am more of an aircraft-buff and preserving those is obviously easier. However, there are a few cases where there were no aircraft of a certain type around anymore and people then made the effort of building replicas. I myself was lucky enough to see both an Me 262-replica fly (twice!) and a FW 190-replica (which has been destroyed in an accident since though). It is also possible for enthusiasts to rebuild a tank or a vehicle. I just don't see anyone ever rebuilding a large warship as a private project, so whatever is lost there is truly lost.


Contents

Goeben was 186.6 meters (612 ft 2 in) long, 29.4 m (96 ft) wide, and had a draft of 9.19 m (30 ft 2 in) fully loaded. The ship displaced 22,979 t (22,616 long tons) normally, and 25,400 t (25,000 long tons) fully loaded. Goeben was powered by four-shaft Parsons steam turbines in two sets and 24 coal-fired Schulz-Thornycroft water-tube boilers, which provided a rated 51,289 shp (38,246 kW) and a top speed of 25.5 knots (47.2 km/h 29.3 mph). At 14 knots (26 km/h 16 mph), the ship had a range of 4,120 nautical miles (7,630 km 4,740 mi). [1]

The ship was armed with a main battery of ten 28 cm SK L/50 guns in five twin gun turrets. Her secondary armament consisted of twelve 15 cm SK L/45 guns in casemates in the central portion of the ship and twelve 8.8 cm SK L/45 guns in the bow, in the stern, and around the forward conning tower. She was also equipped with four 50 cm (20 in) submerged torpedo tubes. [1]


In November of 1914, the once-mighty “sick man of Europe,” the Ottoman Empire, entered the war to end all wars as a Central Power. Having concluded a secret alliance with Germany against her long-time rival Russia, the conditions for war were met, and on November11 Sultan Mehmed V declared jihad.

As with so many other empires, the jump into war would prove to be the downfall of Turkey as a Mediterranean power, and in fact as an empire at all. The terms of their alliance with Germany pulled the Ottomans into the war, but the real question remains: what led them to sign it? The answers can be found in two places: the Berlin-Baghdad Railway, and the arrival of the SMS Goeben.

The terms of the Ottoman-German Alliance were simple the treaty’s impetus came mainly from German investment and the technical advice of Generalleutenant Otto Liman von Sanders (as well as German Weltpolitik). It was signed during a secret ceremony on August 2, 1914. In the event of Germany coming to the aid of the Hapsburg Empire against Russia, Turkey would also join against Russia (this was of course already the situation when the treaty was signed).[1]

From the outset, the treaty’s legitimacy was in question: preferring to keep the empire neutral during the Great War, the Sultan refused to sign. As Mehmed was Commander-in-Chief of the Turkish forces, it was believed to be a potential crisis until he devolved his war powers upon the cabinet It was they who would actually conduct the war.

The Black Sea was for all intents and purposes devoid of a Russian fleet, and Britain began to lose interest in the Near East. This region held the crucial Dardanelles, the narrow strait linking the Black Sea to the greater Mediterranean. The void would be filled by Germany, which had new designs on Turkey.[2]

The proposed Berlin-Baghdad Railway.

In 1889, German financier Georg von Siemens of the Deutsche Bank came up with a proposal for an ‘Imperial Ottoman Baghdad Railway.’ The railroad, traversing a Berlin-Byzantium-Baghdad route, would extend the existing Haidar Pasha – Ismid Railway to Ankara to start. [3] Following a favorable meeting between the Kaiser and the Sultan, the latter approved the venture.

Over the first ten years of the project, a line was built across Anatolia, and in 1899 the Sultan consented to the next phase of the project. At this point the Germans needed more investment capital, and French and English financiers were approached for it. They declined to participate. The French bankers were in favor, but Paris was opposed. In Britain, the situation was reversed, with Parliament supporting the project but the Square Mile in opposition. The City and Versailles carried the day.[4] The Entente powers also put pressure on the Russians to remain uninvolved in the railway project. In 1903, a line to Basra was on the table for the British, whose considerable oil interests would have benefited from such an extension. The British, though, would have had only a 25% interest in the venture versus a 35% German one. The right-wing National Review and The Spectator quickly registered their opposition, and the British pulled out.[5]

By 1910, the situation had changed. Russia was now amenable towards the project and had plans to extend it to Tehran and much of Southern Persia.[6] The Baghdad Railway, in addition to providing a simple transportation route (with the Orient Express as a baseline), would also provide a direct pipeline from Germany to its Middle Eastern interests. Were the railway to be completed, British control of the Mediterranean would be irrelevant, and Berlin would enjoy an uninterrupted direct flow of oil. London was beginning to understand the importance of the oil in the region. Already 25,000 tons a month were being imported from Persia. While not possessing the fantastic strategic importance it would hold in only three or four years, the British were growing wise to the its potential. They managed to negotiate German shares in the oil companies near Basra down to 25% at the most, securing – if not favorable rates – then access to the oil itself.

With the newly upgraded railway, the Ottomans would have excellent mobilization capabilities on the Balkan front – something that Moscow was not particularly thrilled about. Complementing the existing Franco-Russo alliance signed in 1893, and the Entente Cordiale between Britain and France, an Anglo-Russo understanding was reached in 1908. The pact would come to be known as the Triple Entente – a three-way alliance between Britain, France, and Russia.[7]

Sultan Osman I, renamed HMS Agincourt.

In the late summer of 1914, the Turks were still waiting to receive two dreadnoughts previously ordered from Britain. With the advent of the war, the Admiralty requisitioned them and paid the Turks for their trouble. The two ships were among the best in any navy, and the Sultan Osman was the single most heavily armed battleship in the world the Ottomans were rightfully perturbed at their loss. Constantinople’s indignation at such a British insult was not confined to the light-skinned world of diplomatic relations. Before long it would be obvious just what the two warships had cost London.[8]

With a framework for entry into the war, the SMS Goeben’s arrival off of Istanbul was the final catalyst of Turkish belligerence in World War I. As the war began to unfold, Germany’s Mediterranean Squadron, consisting of the powerful battlecruiser Goeben and light cruiser SMS Breslau, were visiting Haifa in the Eastern Mediterranean. Upon receiving news of the archduke’s assassination in Sarajevo, German Rear Admiral William Souchon made for the Austrian base of Pola, and from there, considered whether or not to force his way out through Gibraltar and into the North Sea, where he could join with the High Seas Fleet. Based on the deteriorating condition of Goeben’s boilers, Souchon opted for the Dardanelles.[9]

SMS Breslau, later Midilli.

Following a brief, mismanaged, and ultimately “cowardly” pursuit and withdrawal by the Royal Navy, Souchon received a communique from the German embassy in Constantinople. The Turks were reluctant to actually enter the war, and the ambassador wanted pressure applied. The sight of Goeben anchored off the Golden Horn was thought to be an excellent form of persuasion.[10] On August 13, Souchon’s Mediterranean Squadron reached the gates of Constantinople. A grand ceremony followed three days later, in which Goeben was rechristened Jawus Sultan Selim and Breslau became Midilli. The German crews were issued fezzes and Admiral Souchon elevated to “Commander-in-Chief of the Ottoman Navy.” When the British protested such a blatant flaunting of neutrality, the Turks responded by claiming that the sailors of Midilli and Selim were Turkish crews – they wore fezzes, worshiped on Friday, and in any event, the best Turkish sailors were still in Britain, waiting for their new dreadnoughts that would never come.[11] For the next three months, the ships would remain tacitly at anchor off of Constantinople.

By October, Enver Pasha, the Turkish Minister of War, was under further pressure from General von Sanders to attack into the Ukraine. Declining this route, he opted to push into the more easterly Caucuses. As a nod to the impeding war though, on October 29 he sent Admiral Souchon with the former Mediterranean Fleet and a few ragtag Turkish warships to bombard Odessa and several other Black Sea ports. This was effectively Turkey’s declaration of war on Russia. Russia responded by declaring war on November 1, and France and Britain followed suit over the next four days.[12] The British had made a cost-benefit analysis resulting in a poor decision. As Robert O’Connell summarizes, “Britain gained two dreadnoughts but acquired a nation full of enemies. A poor trade, indeed.”[13]

German postcard of the Ottoman Navy at the Golden Horn, 1914.

The Ottoman Empire was at war with the Allies. Her navy possessed one of the most innovative and creative tacticians at sea, a man known for his “self-control, cheerfulness, versatility and capacity for hard work.”[14] Russia had been cut off from the Allies. With the Black Sea and the Baltic cut off from Allied shipping, she was dependant on the ice-bound port of Archangelsk for her supplies (contributing heavily to her later collapse in 1917).[15] The Allies (particularly Britain) would have to divert significant manpower and other resources better deployed on the Western Front.

The Baghdad Railway created the Ottoman-German Alliance, while Goeben forced them to honor the agreement. After the war, Winston Churchill provided a summary of Goeben’s role throughout history, “for the peoples of the East and the Middle East,” he said, Goeben carried with her “more slaughter, more misery, and more ruin than has ever before been borne within the compass of a ship.”[16] It would not be mere hyperbole to postulate that ship and train alike bear at least some reponsibility for the Russian Revolution, World War II, the Armenian Genocide, and all the other horrors of the twentieth century. The Ottoman Empire may have ceased to exist by 1918, but the repercussions of her entry into the First World War are still felt today.

[1] John Keegan, The First World War (New York: Random House, 1998), 217.
[2] Niall Ferguson, The Pity of War: Explaining World War I (New York: Basic, 1999), 143.
[3] Ferguson, The Pity of War, 51.
[4] James Joll, The Origins of the First World War (Essex, UK: Pearson, 1992), 186.
[5] Ferguson, The Pity of War, 51.
[6] Joll, The Origins of the First World War, 187.
[7] Norman Stone, Europe Transformed: 1878-1919 (Oxford: Blackwell, 1999), 112.
[8] Keegan, The First World War, 216.
[9] Robert K. Massie, Castles of Steel: Britain, Germany, and the Winning of the Great War at Sea (New York: Ballantine, 2003), 28-29.
[10] Massie, Castles of Steel, 34.
[11] Massie, Castles of Steel, 48.
[12] Keegan, The First World War, 217.
[13] Robert O’Connell, Of Arms and Men: A History of Weapons, War, and Aggression (New York: Oxford University Press, 1989), 246.
[14] Dan Van der Vat, The Ship That Changed the World: The Escape of the Goeben to the Dardanelles in 1914 (Bethesda, Md.: Adler & Adler, 1986), 35.
[15] Massie, Castles of Steel, 50.
[16] Massie, Castles of Steel, 50.


Imbros [ redigera | redigera wikitext ]

Efter Dardanellerna hade briterna kvarhållit en flotta i det Egeiska havet, eftersom man väntade att Goeben och Breslau skulle göra utflykter därifrån. Den 10 januari 1918 kom de två fartygen ut från Dardanellerna och mötte de brittiska fartygen nära ön Imbros. Olyckligtvis för britterna var de två fartyg som hade möjlighet att slåss med Goeben, pre-Dreadnoughtslagskeppen HMS Agamemnon och HMS Lord Nelson, borta och återstoden av flottan, som bestod av jagare och monitorer var utklassade. I det påföljande slaget sänktes monitorerna HMS M28 (2) och HMS Raglan. De turkiska fartygen körde dock in i ett minfält Breslau sjönk omedelbart men Goeben, som gick på tre minor och som sprang allvarligt läck lyckades ta sig tillbaka till Dardanellerna där hon sattes på grund vid the Narrows. Britterna gjorde flera försök att bombardera henne men Goeben överlevde och efter att hon åter gjorts sjöduglig den 26 januari återvände hon till Konstantinopel.


Is SMS Goeben the largest German flagged warships to sail the Mediterranean?

9:26 PM - May 06 #1 2021-05-06T21:26

9:50 PM - May 06 #2 2021-05-06T21:50

The only two ships that were larger than the Goeben that were completed before the war were the Kaiser class BBs. Of them, the Kaiser, and the SMS Konig Albert took a cruise to West Africa and South America just before the war, but don't seem to have entered the Mediterranean.

The Scharnhorst class ships were completed in 1939, and promptly thrown into the war with the invasion of Norway.

7:32 AM - May 07 #3 2021-05-07T07:32

If you consider the Black Sea to be part of the Mediterranean, then Volya may have been a bit bigger - but they were relatively close, and it can be problematic comparing displacements between ships from different countries. (plus most people probably consider the Black Sea as not being part of the Mediterranean).

The Germans also briefly operated Ocean (ex-Jean Bart) as a target ship in the Mediterranean in WW2, which was also a similar size (although it is debatable whether she could be called a warship at that time).

The modern replenishment tanker Berlin has also operated in the Mediterranean - her normally quoted displacement is less than Goeben, but displacement measures for auxiliaries are not that easily compared with regular warships.

12:09 PM - May 07 #4 2021-05-07T12:09

The only two ships that were larger than the Goeben that were completed before the war were the Kaiser class BBs. Of them, the Kaiser, and the SMS Konig Albert took a cruise to West Africa and South America just before the war, but don't seem to have entered the Mediterranean.

The Scharnhorst class ships were completed in 1939, and promptly thrown into the war with the invasion of Norway.

I wonder what the British (and French and Italians) would have made of a permanent or long-term deployment of several German battleships or battlecruisers to the Mediterranean, presumably a deployment to the KuK. Of course one would argue that breaking up the concentrated HSF only benefits the British since they have the larger number of ships, but the Germans never had a sufficient concentration of ships to meet the GF, so instead they can be used for diplomatic purposes before the war.

What were the rules for Suez before the war? If Germany wanted to send a squadron of dreadnoughts to German New Guinea or Tsingtao could they transit from the Mediterranean via Suez?

1:39 PM - May 07 #5 2021-05-07T13:39

The only two ships that were larger than the Goeben that were completed before the war were the Kaiser class BBs. Of them, the Kaiser, and the SMS Konig Albert took a cruise to West Africa and South America just before the war, but don't seem to have entered the Mediterranean.

The Scharnhorst class ships were completed in 1939, and promptly thrown into the war with the invasion of Norway.

I wonder what the British (and French and Italians) would have made of a permanent or long-term deployment of several German battleships or battlecruisers to the Mediterranean, presumably a deployment to the KuK. Of course one would argue that breaking up the concentrated HSF only benefits the British since they have the larger number of ships, but the Germans never had a sufficient concentration of ships to meet the GF, so instead they can be used for diplomatic purposes before the war.

What were the rules for Suez before the war? If Germany wanted to send a squadron of dreadnoughts to German New Guinea or Tsingtao could they transit from the Mediterranean via Suez?

I think the RN would be delighted. It reduces the immediate threat to Britain, which was at least a perceived one. Also if war comes between Britain and Germany then such a force would be rather isolated. Unless it could break out and for a force including slow BBs that would be difficult it could only really head for the Adriatic, or just possibly as with Goben Constantinople. Of course since Britain controls the intervening sea areas it can switch forces between the Med and the N Sea as required.

In terms of the Suez canal I don't know the formal legal situation but after the attack on the British trawlers in the N Sea Britain was able to ban the Russian Baltic fleet from any of its ports and harbours, and that definitely included blocking them moving through Suez. Of course with bases around Africa the Germans can move around the continent, in peacetime anyway but it will take longer and more fuel as well as needing to get coal and other supplies to those intervening ports for such an operation.

A German deployment of capital ships to New Guinea would cause tension with Britain, Australia and France and possibly also the Netherlands and US. One to Tsingtao would have the Japanese and possibly also the Russians deeply unhappy and I suspect that the Chinese, British and French would again be concerned. However either one is far beyond any lasting support facility so its almost certainly a wasting resource in the event of war.

1:49 PM - May 07 #6 2021-05-07T13:49

"Be harmonious, enrich the soldiers, scorn other men"

"Who fights evil beware becoming evil."

“successful, as things go on the winning side, killed more enemy by good, dull tactics than his own by bad, exciting ones.”

2:45 PM - May 07 #7 2021-05-07T14:45

3:22 PM - May 07 #8 2021-05-07T15:22

"Be harmonious, enrich the soldiers, scorn other men"

"Who fights evil beware becoming evil."

“successful, as things go on the winning side, killed more enemy by good, dull tactics than his own by bad, exciting ones.”

6:52 PM - May 07 #9 2021-05-07T18:52

The only two ships that were larger than the Goeben that were completed before the war were the Kaiser class BBs. Of them, the Kaiser, and the SMS Konig Albert took a cruise to West Africa and South America just before the war, but don't seem to have entered the Mediterranean.

The Scharnhorst class ships were completed in 1939, and promptly thrown into the war with the invasion of Norway.

I wonder what the British (and French and Italians) would have made of a permanent or long-term deployment of several German battleships or battlecruisers to the Mediterranean, presumably a deployment to the KuK. Of course one would argue that breaking up the concentrated HSF only benefits the British since they have the larger number of ships, but the Germans never had a sufficient concentration of ships to meet the GF, so instead they can be used for diplomatic purposes before the war.

What were the rules for Suez before the war? If Germany wanted to send a squadron of dreadnoughts to German New Guinea or Tsingtao could they transit from the Mediterranean via Suez?

I think the RN would be delighted. It reduces the immediate threat to Britain, which was at least a perceived one. Also if war comes between Britain and Germany then such a force would be rather isolated. Unless it could break out and for a force including slow BBs that would be difficult it could only really head for the Adriatic, or just possibly as with Goben Constantinople. Of course since Britain controls the intervening sea areas it can switch forces between the Med and the N Sea as required.

In terms of the Suez canal I don't know the formal legal situation but after the attack on the British trawlers in the N Sea Britain was able to ban the Russian Baltic fleet from any of its ports and harbours, and that definitely included blocking them moving through Suez. Of course with bases around Africa the Germans can move around the continent, in peacetime anyway but it will take longer and more fuel as well as needing to get coal and other supplies to those intervening ports for such an operation.

A German deployment of capital ships to New Guinea would cause tension with Britain, Australia and France and possibly also the Netherlands and US. One to Tsingtao would have the Japanese and possibly also the Russians deeply unhappy and I suspect that the Chinese, British and French would again be concerned. However either one is far beyond any lasting support facility so its almost certainly a wasting resource in the event of war.


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Imperial Germany
Imperial Germany - SMS Goeben war flag - 236x138

Description

The flag was used onboard the battlecruiser "SMS Goeben". Launched in 1911. Transferred to the Ottoman Empire on 16. August 1914 as well as renamed "Yavuz Sultan Selim". The handover of the ship to the Ottoman Navy was one of the decisive factors for Turkey's entry into the war. During the First World War, the ship was commanded by Kapitän zur See Richard Ackermann and Kapitän zur See Albert Stoelzel. Scrapped from 1973 to 1976.

A so-called "Reichskriegsflagge". Made from linen. Printed to both sides. "SMS Goeben Reserveflagge VI" stamped. Original cord in place. Some holes and signs of use.


The Fate of the Goeben ↑

After the war, the damaged Goeben remained anchored in Constantinople for many years. Following extensive repair and modernization in the newly founded Gölcük Naval Shipyard, the ship was recommissioned as the Yavuz in 1930. As the flagship of the Turkish Navy, it served on several diplomatic missions and ceremonial occasions during the 1930s and 1940s. In 1950 the ship was decommissioned and entered the reserve fleet. In 1954, the Yavuz was finally dropped from the navy register and turned into a museum ship. In 1965, the Turkish government put the ship on auction to be sold for scrap, but no bidders came forth. In the early 1970s, private initiatives were launched in Germany to acquire the ship for use as a museum, but these failed due to a lack of funds. Being the last remaining capital ship of the Imperial German High Seas Fleet, the Goeben/Yavuz was finally scrapped in Turkey between 1973 and 1976.


Benjamin Miertzschke, Universität Potsdam


Watch the video: SMS Goeben - Guide 042 - Special Human Voice (May 2022).