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Taylor, John W - History

Taylor, John W - History


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Public Official

(1784-1854)

John Taylor was born in Charlton New York on March 26th 1784. He studied at Union College were he was valetetorium. He studied law in Albany where he was admitted to the bar in 1807. He practiced in Ballston New York becoming a justice of the peace in 1807. He then became the state commissioner of loans and then a member of the New York Assembly. In 1812 he was elected as a democrat to the US Hose of Representatives. He was reelected nine times. In 1820 with Henry Clay absent he became the Speaker of the House for one session Taylor delivered the first speech in Congress opposing the extension of slavery. In 1850 he once again was elected to be the Speaker of the House. He became one the prime organizers of the Whig Party. After retiring from the House he was briefly a member of the New York State Senate. He resigned after suffering a stroke. From 1843 until his death in 1854 he lived with his daughter in Cleveland.


The Coming Of The Saints: Imaginations And Studies In Early Church History And Tradition

CONTENTS INTRODUCTION ix REFERENCES xiii THE CALLING OF THE SAINTS 1 CAPERNAUM THE MAKING OF THE SAINTS 25 JERUSALEM THE FIRST MISSIONARY JOURNEYS 46 ANTIOCH, ROME, SICILY, SPAIN, GAUL, AFRICA, AND THE MEDITERRANEAN ISLANDS ST PAUL AND OBSAREA 73 THE STORY OF RABANUS 92 THE TRADITIONS OF THE THREE MARIES AND THEIR COMPANIONS 122 ST TROPHIMUS AND ARLES 150 ST JOSEPH AND GLASTONBURY 173 THE CONNECTED STORY OF THE LEGENDS 2IJ ON PILGRIMAGE 233 APPENDIX A 272 A.D 84 SPEECH OF GALGACUS, THE NORTH-BRITISH OR CALEDONIAN LEADER, BEFORE THE BATTLE WITH AGRICOLA, AS REPORTED BY TACITUS IN HIS "LIFE OF AGRICOLA" APPENDIX B 275 ST CLEMENT, (i) A.D 97 PROM THE FIRST EPISTLE OF ST CLEMENT TO THE CORINTHIANS (CHAP V.) (2) A.D 90 FROM THE "RECOGNITIONS OF CLEMENT " APPENDIX C 279 EXTRACTS FROM LETTER WRITTEN A.D 177 PRESERVED BY EUSEBIUS ("ECCLES HISTORY, ,, BOOK V CHAPS I., II., III., AND IV.) APPENDIX D 295 A.D 177-197 THE EARLY GALLICAN COUNCILS AND CHURCH HISTORY APPENDIX E 298 TERTULLIAN, A.D., 199 ON THE SPREAD AND INCREASE OF EARLY CHRISTIANITY APPENDIX F 301 A.D 250-254 EXTRACT OF LETTER FROM ST CYPRIAN TO HIS "BROTHER STEPHEN." (POPE STEPHEN.) APPENDIX G 302 SIGNATORIES OF THE COUNCIL OF ARLES IN 314 APPENDIX H 304 A.D 400 ST PATRICK ON BRITISH CHRISTIANITY APPENDIX I 305 A.D 417 LETTER OF POPE ZOSIMUS REGARDING ST.TROPHIMUS APPENDIX J 306 A.D 450 FROM THE LETTER OF THE NINETEEN BISHOPS TO POPE LEO APPENDIX K 308 A.D 177 LETTER OF POPE ELEUTHERIUS TO KING LUCIUS APPENDIX L 311 A.D 1100-1639, REGARDING A.D 179 APPENDIX M 314 FROM THE HIGH HISTORY OF THE HOLY GRAIL, PROBABLY COMPILED ABOUT 1220, PROFESSEDLY FROM AN OLDER MS OF THE "CLERK JOSEPHUS " LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS THE FIRST PAGE OF THE MANUSCRIPT OF " RABANUS." (THE PAGE IS HEADED "RABANUS DE VITA MARIE MAG") Frontispiece RUINS OF CAPERNAUM To face p 16 From a photograph by the Photocrome Co JERUSALEM FROM THE MOUNT OF OLIVES, SHOWING THE TEMPLE PRECINCTS, THE GOLDEN GATE, AND THE ROAD OF THE "HOSANNAH" PROCESSION 34 From a photograph by the Photocrome Co BETHANY, NEAR JERUSALEM 36 From a photograph by the Photocrome Co INTERIOR OF CATHEDRAL, SANTIAGO 62 By kind permission of the Royal Mail Steam Packet Company WALLS OF JERUSALEM AND JAFFA GATE (REBUILT IN 1542) 86 From a photograph by the Photocrome Co INTERIOR OF THE CHURCH OF ST PAUL SERGE ("SERGIUS PAULUS") AT NARBONNE THE RELICS OF ST PAUL ARE PRESERVED IN A CHAPEL TO THE RIGHT OF THE HIGH ALTAR 152 MARSEILLES THE CATHEDRAL, NEAR THE SITE OF THE "EPHESIUM," A TEMPLE OF DIANA 160 From a photograph by the Photocrome Co THE OLD ROMAN "ARENA" AT ARLES PROBABLY DATING FROM THE FIRST CENTURY A.D 163 From a photograph by Messrs Neurdein Frerks, Paris THE OLD "PAGAN AND CHRISTIAN" CEMETERY OF LES ALISCAMPS AT ARLES 164 ABBEY OF MONTMAJEUR, NEAR ARLES 166 From a photograph by the Photocrome Co ST MICHAEL'S MOUNT, CORNWALL PROBABLY THE "ICTIS" OF DIODORUS SICULUS To face p 181 From a photograph by J Valentine ft Sows, Ltd PLAN OF GLASTONBURY ABBEY 192 By B C Boulter THE RUINS OF THE ABBEY CHURCH, GLASTONBURY, WITH THE CHAPEL OF ST JOSEPH IN THE DISTANCE 196 From a photograph by F Frith ft Co., Ltd SKETCH MAP OF ST JOSEPH'S JOURNEY 224 By E R Ingram THE CHURCH OF ST VICTOR, MARSEILLES, BUILT OVER THE SUPPOSED CAVE OF ST LAZARUS 238 From a photograph by the Photocrom Co THE PLATFORM OR TERRACE OF THE GROTTO BEFORE THE ENTRANCE TO THE CAVE OF ST MARY MAGDALENE (1901) 245 THE INTERIOR OF THE GROTTO AND CAVE OF ST MARY MAGDALENE (1901) 246 THE CHURCH OF LES SAINTES MARIES, WHERE THE RELICS OF ST MARY CLEOPAS AND ST MARY SALOME ARE SAID TO HAVE BEEN PRESERVED 248 From a photograph by Messrs Nburdbin Frkrzs, Paris THE CRYPT AND SHRINE OF ST MARTHA AT TARASCON 250 THE ENTRANCE TO THE CHURCH OF RESTITUTUS (ST RESTITUT) 254 LYONS THE HILL OF FOURVIERES WITH THE CHURCH OF NOTRE DAME DE FOURVIERES ON THE SUMMIT 257 From a photograph by the Photocromb Co THE VILLAGE AND SANCTUARIES OF ROCAMADOUR 262 From a photograph by A Trantoul, Toulouse THE SITE OF THE SUPPOSED GRAVE OF ZACCHEUS 263 THE MARKET-PLACE OF TREVES WITH CHURCH OF ST GANGOLF 267 From a photograph by Messrs Schaar and Dathe, Treves THE OLD ROMAN GATE OF TREVES ("PORTA NIGRA") 268 From a photograph by Messrs Schaar and Dathe, Treves Digitized by Google.

Description based on print version record

Master and use copy. Digital master created according to Benchmark for Faithful Digital Reproductions of Monographs and Serials, Version 1. Digital Library Federation, December 2002


John W. TAYLOR, Congress, NY (1784-1854)

TAYLOR John W. , a Representative from New York born in Charlton, N.Y., March 26, 1784 received his early education at home was graduated from Union College, Schenectady, N.Y., in 1803 studied law was admitted to the bar in 1807 and commenced practice in Ballston Spa, N.Y. organized the Ballston Center Academy justice of the peace in 1808 member of the state assembly in 1812 and 1813 elected as a Republican to the Thirteenth Congress and reelected to the four succeeding Congresses, elected as an Adams-Clay Republican to the Eighteenth Congress, reelected as an Adams candidate to the Nineteenth and Twentieth Congresses, and elected as an Anti-Jacksonian to the Twenty-first and Twenty-second Congresses (March 4, 1813-March 3, 1833) chairman, Committee on Elections (Fourteenth and Fifteenth Congresses), Committee on Revisal and Unfinished Business (Fifteenth Congress), Committee on Elections (Sixteenth Congress) Speaker of the House of Representatives (Sixteenth and Nineteenth Congresses) unsuccessful candidate for reelection in 1832 to the Twenty-third Congress resumed the practice of law in Ballston Spa, N.Y. member of the state senate in 1840 and 1841, but resigned in consequence of a paralytic stroke moved to Cleveland, Ohio, in 1843, and died there September 18, 1854 interment in the Ballston Spa Village Cemetery, Ballston Spa, Saratoga County, N.Y.


Pictorial History of the R.A.F. Volume Three 1945 - 1969

Taylor, John W.R. and Moyes, Philip J.R.

Published by Arco Publishing Company Inc., New York, NY, USA (1970)

From: Olmstead Books (Port Dover, ON, Canada)

About this Item: Hardcover. Condition: Very Good in Very Good DJ. 1st Edition. Blue boards with silver letters along the spine. Numerous photographs. DJ shows light wear but has no tears. 208 pages. Seller Inventory # 5931


History of Aviaiton

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Historical Note Return to Top

John Taylor, third president of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, was born in Milnthorpe, Westmoreland county, England, on 1 November 1808. The son of James and Agnes Taylor, he was raised according to the principles of the Church of England until he reached the age of fifteen, at which time Taylor joined the Methodist church. He was appointed as a preacher in the church and remained as such until 1829 when he left England to join his family in Toronto, Canada. In 1833 he married Leonora Cannon. While in Toronto, Taylor joined a Methodist society consisting of men interested in the research of the scriptures. During this time Taylor was visited by Parley P. Pratt and was introduced to the teachings of the Mormon church. In 1836, along with several friends, he was baptized into the Mormon faith.

Taylor served as presiding elder in upper Canada until 1838, when he moved to Far West, Missouri, at the request of Joseph Smith. In 1838 Taylor, along with John E. Page, Wilford Woodruff and Willard Richards, was called to the a postleship "to fill the places of those who had fallen." While in Missouri, Taylor shared in the persecutions that were beginning to be directed against the Mormons. It was during this time that Taylor earned the title of "the Champion of Right," a name that remained with him throughout his life.

In 1839 Taylor and Wilford Woodruff left for a mission to Great Britain where they preached not only in England, but in Ireland, Scotland, and on the Isle of Man. While in England, Taylor published several pamphlets and tracts in which he proclaimed the doctrines of the Mormon faith and attempted to refute the challenges of other religious leaders. Taylor returned to Nauvoo, Illinois, in 1841, where he became active in church duties, publishing the Nauvoo Neighbor and serving as a city councilman and judge advocate of the Nauvoo Legion. It was also during the early 1840s that Taylor entered into the practice of polygamy.

In 1844 Taylor was present in the Carthage jail with Joseph and Hyrum Smith and Willard Richards, when the jail was entered by an armed mob. Both Joseph and Hyrum were killed in the shooting, and Taylor was severely wounded. Following the death of Joseph Smith, Taylor remained active in church affairs, helping in the completion of the Nauvoo Temple and assisting in the move from Nauvoo to Winter Quarters in 1846. From there he left on a second mission to England where he remained until the following spring. He arrived in the Salt Lake Valley in 1847 with a company of British converts and remained for two years, helping in the building of Salt Lake City. In 1849 he left for a mission to France, where, in addition to preaching Mormon doctrine he also published pamphlets and magazines, supervised the translation of the Book of Mormon into French and German, and helped to organize several branches of the church in France.

While in France, Taylor made the acquaintance of Philip DeLa Mare, a French convert. Together they attempted to bring to Utah the knowledge and machinery of the sugar beet industry of France and establish such an industry in the Salt Lake Valley. The sugar-making processes in Utah, however, proved to be a failure.

In 1854 Taylor presided over the church in the eastern United States, where he published The Mormon, a newspaper designed to answer the attacks of an anti-Mormon press. In 1857 the Utah War and the threat of invasion by Johnston's Army necessitated the return of Taylor to the Salt Lake Valley where he was active in both church and civil government. He helped to organize and regulate church affairs and served in such capacities as a member of the Utah legislature, speaker of the House, and as a probate judge in Utah county.

At the time of Brigham Young's death in 1877, Taylor was president of the Twelve Apostles and in October 1880, was sustained as president of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. As church president, Taylor is most remembered for his stand in defense of polygamy and against federal laws designed to outlaw and eliminate the practice of plural marriage in Utah. With the passage of the Edmunds Act of 1882 and the Edmunds-Tucker Act in 1887, Taylor, to avoid persecution, lived alone at his home, the Gardo House, while his wives kept separate residences, and finally was forced to go into hiding. His last public appearance was in 1884 and all church business from then on was conducted through correspondence and private meetings with trusted church officials. John Taylor died in exile on 25 July 1887.

John W. Taylor, a member of the Council of the Twelve Apostles, was the son of church President John Taylor and Sophia Whittaker Taylor. He was born 13 May 1858 in Provo, Utah, his parents having fled from Salt Lake City in anticipation of an invasion from Johnston's Army. The family returned to Salt Lake City, where John W. was raised until he reached the age of twenty-five, when he married and moved with his wife to Idaho. While in Utah, he worked at farming and at his father's saw mill and at the same time was highly active in church affairs. While still in his teens, he had completed a mission to the Southern States, been ordained a deacon, then an elder, and subsequently was chosen counselor to Edward W. Davis, of the Elders Quorum. He also taught Sunday School and had an unusually good rapport with the children whom he instructed.

In his early twenties John W. was employed as a penman for the Deseret News and was considered to be among the best in the country. In 1880 in the company of his boyhood companion, Matthias F. Cowley, he served a mission to the Southern States. After returning to Utah John W. was chosen to fill a vacancy in the quorum of the Twelve Apostles. In the ensuing years he served his church in a number of capacities, traveling to Mexico, Canada, and Colorado to establish missions and branch churches.

One of the overriding principles in John W. Taylor's life was his belief in the practice of plural marriage. Having been raised in a polygamous household and under the strong influence of his father, who was adamant in his belief in plural marriage, John W. took a total of six wives during his lifetime, his third wife, Nettie, being the mother of Samuel and Raymond Taylor. These wives were married following the 1890 Manifesto and consequently were in violation of not only civil but church law. For his wives, life was made difficult not only by the strain of a plural marriage, but by having to live underground, as their marriages, by necessity, had to be kept secret from both the government and church authorities. In addition, John W., while possessing both charm and enthusiasm, lacked sound business sense and his wives generally had to support themselves and their children.

In 1911 John W. Taylor and Matthias F. Cowley were tried before a meeting of the Council of the Twelve, Taylor being excommunicated and Cowley being deprive of his priesthood. John W. Taylor died in 1916, but in the mid-1960s his two sons, Samuel and Raymond Taylor, with the support of other family members, succeeded in having their father posthumously reinstated in the church.

Raymond Woolley Taylor, developer, author, and entrepreneur, was born in Salt Lake City, Utah, on 18 April 1904. The son of John W. and Janet Woolley Taylor, and the grandson of John Taylor, Raymond grew up in a polygamist home during a time when plural marriages were considered to be outlawed by both church and civil authorities. Though his father was a somewhat remote personage during his childhood and died while Raymond was still young, the influence of his father and his unique home situation colored his interests and many of his ambitions later in his life.

Raymond Taylor was married to Annie Randall from 192 3 until her death in 1969. In 1970 he married Ruth Fors, with whom he had worked while researching the John Taylor biography.

During his lifetime Taylor worked in a number of jobs and occupations, but always was a promoter. Even while engaged in his own business matters, he was also active in helping his brother, Samuel, to promote his writings. During the 1930s and 1940s Raymond was a clothing merchant in Spanish Fork, Utah. In the 1950s he entered the real estate business in Provo and became involved in uranium prospecting in southern Utah. During the same time he established the Consumer's Water Agency, organized to promote the sale of land in southern Utah. Taylor was also involved in local politics during the 1950s, serving at one time as the county chairman of the Republican Party. He was a county jailer during the 1960s, ran for county sheriff and lost, and at the time of his death was a Utah County peace officer.

Raymond Taylor had always had an interest in history, and particularly the history of Utah and the Mormons. Though he was a writer and wrote many articles and speeches, his primary talent lay in research. Ray did the major portion of the research and wrote rough drafts for the two books on which he and Samuel worked together. Raymond not only did most of the research for Uranium Fever and The Kingdom or Nothing, but also made a substantial contribution in researching material for the biography of their parents, Family Kingdom. In addition Raymond arranged the promotion and publicity not only for these books, but for many of Sam's other works as well.

Raymond had an almost insatiable desire for writing and research and spent the latter years of his life gathering material not only for the John Taylor biography, but on all aspects of Mormon history. This research produced such articles as "The Lesser Known Wives of John Taylor," and "The Legend of the Friends to the Martyr," the story of the secret "Black Sticks" organization, and others. Taylor belonged to such historical and literary associations as the Utah State Historical Society, the Utah Westerners, and the Utah League of Writers. Raymond died on 10 December 1972 of cancer.

Samuel Woolley Taylor was born on 9 February 1907 in Provo, Utah. The author of numerous books, articles, and screenplays, he began writing while attending Brigham Young University in Provo and has continued to write ever since. In 1934 he married Elizabeth Gay Dimick of Redwood City, California.

During World War II Taylor served in the United States Air Force (1942-1945) where he was able to continue his writing career. As a member of the Public Relations Office in Europe, he served as chief of the magazine section and wrote periodical material for both American and European publications. In addition he did the writing for General Arnold's annual Air Force Reports to the Secretary of War from the European Theater of Operations.

As a professional writer Taylor authored many magazine articles in addition to published books and screenplays. His stories range from westerns and mysteries to biographical and historical writings. Many of his articles have appeared in nationally known magazines, such as Colliers, Saturday Evening Post, Esquire, Argosv, and Holiday. Many of his stories have been selected for anthologies or adapted to radio, television, or motion picture use. Among these are "The Man with My Face," and "The Absent Minded Professor" produced by Walt Disney.

Several of Taylor's stories were subsequently published as books. Perhaps foremost of these is "I Have Six Wives," which later became the basis for Family Kingdom, the story of the polygamous marriage of his parents, and his father's five other wives. Another such story was a serial, "The Mysterious Way," which later became Heaven Knows Why.

Sam Taylor's collaborative efforts with his brother, Raymond, began with the research and writing for Uranium Fever, which grew in part from the screenplay called "Uranium Story," by Sam Taylor. During the 1970s they began work on another book, a biography of John Taylor, The Kingdom or Nothing. Raymond died before the book was completed. Though the writing was based on Raymond's research, the biography was subsequently published under Sam's name.

Content Description Return to Top

The John Taylor family papers (1844-1994) are a collection of material reflecting the life and work of John Taylor, third president of the LDS Church, and his descendants, John W. Taylor, Raymond Woolley Taylor, and Samuel Taylor. Included are letters, biographies, research materials, genealogies, articles written by other authors, diaries, journals, and books. Correspondence comprises a major portion of the collection and has been organized within the papers of each individual. Consequently, correspondence will be found throughout the collection. Exceptions to this are letters pertaining to specific subjects, such as Ray's correspondence with publishers and promoters for Uranium Fever and correspondence relating to the posthumous reinstatement of John W. Taylor. All correspondence between Samuel and Raymond Taylor has been consolidated into section six, regardless of subject matter and has been arranged chronologically.

Section one contains the material on John Taylor and The Kingdom or Nothing. The majority of this section includes correspondence during the period of Taylor's presidency in the 1880s, copied by Raymond Taylor from now-restricted files at the Historical Department of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. The letters, in some cases only extracts from the originals, deal with a variety of subjects including official church business, financial matters, divorce among church members, polygamy, letters from individuals outside of Utah requesting information on Mormonism, and personal letters from church members requesting favors, special consideration, and financial aid. There are also letters from John Taylor to his wives and church leaders. Most of the correspondence has been bound into nine letterbooks. The letters have not been arranged chronologically and so the letterbooks lack any concrete organization. Interspersed with the correspondence are articles, speeches, revelations, and other research materials as well as correspondence between Samuel and Raymond Taylor. This latter correspondence has been ignored in Sam's and Ray's consolidated correspondence, Boxes 57-62. Other materials contained in section one include biographical information on Taylor, copies of his revelations, research pertaining to several of his wives, and collected notes dealing with various aspects of the Mormon church during the 1880s, including information on Winter Quarters and the sugar beet industry. The John Taylor materials end with several manuscript versions of The Kingdom or Nothing. Included are numerous revisions and rewrites as well as the final copy-edited manuscript presented to the publishers.

The second section contains the materials collected by Jane Woolley Taylor, wife of John W. Taylor, and includes material on John W. Taylor as well as personal materials of her own. Material pertaining to John W. include correspondence to church and business associates and family members biographical materials, information on business ventures, speeches, and a copy of the minutes of the meeting of the Council of Twelve Apostles in 1911 at which John W. Taylor and Matthias Cowley were disfellowshipped for practicing polygamy. Also included are materials pertaining to the efforts of Sam and Ray Taylor to have their father reinstated into the church. Janet Woolley Taylor's materials are of a more personal nature and include correspondence with family and friends, journals of her various trips and of the underground, childhood papers and momentos, writings, invitations and announcements, and financial papers. Of special interest is a bound volume of a series of interviews between Janet Woolley Taylor and Samuel Taylor. Also included are genealogies, biographies and family histories of the extended family including material on the Carruth, Cahoon, and Woolley family members.

Section three contains Samuel Taylor's papers. These include correspondence and interviews with family members and acquaintances of John W. Taylor, which provide additional biographical data on his life. Also included in Sam Taylor's papers in addition to the John W. Taylor material is personal correspondence, several of his writings and magazine articles, and other miscellaneous--research items, including a thesis on Mormonism entitled "Development of Attitudes in Sectarian Conflict: A Study of Mormonism in Illinois in Contemporary Newspaper Sources," by Cecil A. Snider. Two of Samuel's major works are contained in this section of the collection: Family Kingdom and Nightfall at Nauvoo. The former book was researched and written from the 1930s to 1950, and is the story of Jane Woolley Taylor and her polygamous marriage to John W. Taylor. Sam did not intend for the book to be a history of Mormonism and polygamy, but the story of one particular family group. Nightfall at Nauvoo was written many years later during the 1960s and provides a history of the Mormons in Nauvoo, Illinois, prior to beginning their migration to the Salt Lake Valley. This section contains correspondence, notes, rewrites, and final versions of each of the books.

Section four contains the research and writing done by Raymond and Samuel on Uranium Fever. This book represents the first collaborative effort of Sam and Ray Taylor in the writing of a major work. The story of Ray's involvement in mining follows the story of the uranium boom in the four corners area of Utah during the 1950s and 1960s. This portion of the collection contains research information pertaining to uranium mining in general, and more specifically to such people as Stella Dysart, Vernon Pick, Charles Steen, and other individuals involved in the uranium mining business. This section contains research materials, manuscripts, revisions, and some correspondence.

Section five contains Raymond W. Taylor's papers, including a wide variety of materials ranging from personal and business matters to his collection of research materials, histories, and journals pertaining to Mormonism and the Mormon church. His personal letters include correspondence with Utah politicians and statesmen during the 1950s, and general correspondence in conjunction with his search for information and materials pertaining to the history of Mormonism. The research materials collected by Ray Taylor comprise the bulk of this portion of the collection. Miscellaneous research materials pertaining to Mormon individuals and topics include information on Ezra Taft Benson, J. Reuben Clark, fundamentalism within the Mormon Church, the Mormon doctrine forbidding blacks from holding the priesthood, the excommunication of LaMar Peterson, Brigham Young's will and estate, Joseph Smith, William Smith, and the sugar beet industry, among others. Raymond had also acquired a collection of diaries, journals, and histories of individuals connected in some respect with the Mormon church. Included is information on such persons as Abraham H. Cannon, Matthias Cowley, Philip DeLaMare, Levi W. Hancock, Mosiah Lyman Hancock, Joseph Lee Robinson, Eliza R. Snow, Preston Thomas, John Woodhouse, and others. Also included are the L. John Nuttal diaries from 1876 to 1889 and some Nuttal correspondence as well as a volume of the Genealogy of the Dilworth Families in America.

Section six contains the consolidated correspondence of Sam and Raymond Taylor, and in several respects is a valuable part of the collection. The correspondence is arranged chronologically and covers the years from 1936 to Ray's death in 1972. Sam and Ray corresponded on a variety of subjects including personal and business matters, the writing and publication of several of Sam's works, and the research being done by Ray. Perhaps the most interesting aspect of their correspondence is their discussions of Mormonism. Both men offer original and thoughtful insight into their religion and their letters reflect opinions and concerns on a wide variety of church-related topics.

Two oversize items were transferred to the Manuscripts Division map case: the "Projected Development Study of the Church Wells School," compiled by Dee R. Taylor, architect and "Chart of the Genealogy of the Dilworth Families of America."

Use of the Collection Return to Top

Restrictions on Use

The library does not claim to control copyright for all materials in the collection. An individual depicted in a reproduction has privacy rights as outlined in Title 45 CFR, part 46 (Protection of Human Subjects). For further information, please review the J. Willard Marriott Library’s Use Agreement and Reproduction Request forms.


TAYLOR, JOHN

In 1832 Taylor followed his family to Toronto, Canada, where he joined the Mormon Church in 1836. Ordained an apostle in 1838, he proselyted in the British Isles, France, and Germany. While in Europe he supervised the translation and publication of the Book of Mormon in a French and a German edition. In Nauvoo, Illinois, Taylor proved to be a capable writer and journalist. He edited the Times and Seasons from 1842 to 1846, and the Nauvoo Neighbor from 1843 to 1846. He founded the L'Etoile du Deseret ("Star of Deseret") in France, and Zion's Panier ("Zion's Banner") in Germany in 1851. In New York City he published a series, The Mormons, from 1854 to 1857. His more than twenty pamphlets and a book in defense of Mormon beliefs and practices earned him the appellation "Champion of Liberty" from his believers.

Taylor, shot five times, was with Joseph and Hyrum Smith when they were assassinated by a mob in Carthage jail. He was thereafter known by some as a "living martyr." In 1847, with Parley P. Pratt, Taylor led 1,500 pioneers from Winter Quarters to Salt Lake Valley, where he helped found Utah's sugar-manufacturing industry in 1852. A naturalized American citizen, he was elected to the territorial legislature from 1854 to 1876 and served as territorial superintendent of schools in 1877. Presiding over the Mormon Church as its third president from 1877 to 1887, he approved the Primary Association for children and founded Zion's Central Board of Trade, an economic cooperative organization (1878). During the church's Jubilee Year celebration in 1880, he reorganized the First Presidency, forgave debts owed to the Perpetual Emigrating Company by the poor, and canonized the Pearl of Great Price as scripture. The Assembly Hall on Temple Square (1882) and the Logan Temple (1884) were completed and dedicated under his direction.

Passage of the Edmunds Law in 1882, severely penalizing polygamists, led President Taylor to establish Mormon colonies of refuge in Mexico and Canada. Taylor refused to abandon the Mormon practice of plural marriage despite the increased pressure from U.S. authorities. He was forced into hiding--"on the underground," as the Mormons called it--to avoid arrest and imprisonment. He married fifteen wives and had thirty-five children. He withdrew from public view in 1885 and died in hiding while in Kaysville, Utah, on 25 July 1887. His motto was "The Kingdom of God or Nothing."

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Dictionary of National Biography, 1885-1900/Taylor, John Edward

TAYLOR, JOHN EDWARD (1791–1844), founder of the ‘Manchester Guardian,’ was born at Ilminster, Somerset, on 11 Sept. 1791. His father, John Taylor, had, after acting as classical tutor in Daventry academy, become a minister of the English presbyterian church, but at Ilminster adopted the tenets of the Society of Friends, in connection with which he afterwards took up schoolwork at Bristol and Manchester. His wife, Mary Scott, was an intimate friend and correspondent of Anna Seward [q. v.] She printed a poetical review of eminent female writers, entitled ‘The Female Advocate’ (1774), and intended to supplement ‘The Feminead’ of John Duncombe [q. v.] She also wrote an epic, ‘The Messiah,’ in two books (1788), and other verse ( Miss Seward , Letters, 1811, i. 133, 185, 294, ii. 88, 118, 228, 344, iii. 93, 310).

Their son, John Edward, was educated at his father's classical school in Manchester. He was apprenticed to a Manchester cotton manufacturer named Shuttleworth, who took him into partnership before the expiration of the term of his indentures. He had in the meantime carried on his private studies, inter alia acquiring a familiarity with German. His connection through his father with the Society of Friends accounts for the keen interest taken by him in the early educational movement, in which Joseph Lancaster [q. v.] was the most prominent figure and in 1810 he accepted the secretaryship of the Lancasterian school in Manchester. He was also one of the founders of the Junior Literary and Philosophical Society, in rivalry with the senior Manchester society of that name. Soon afterwards he began to take some part in politics, which from 1812, when the Luddite disturbances spread to Lancashire, had assumed a most acutely controversial character in Manchester and its neighbourhood. Besides writing in the London papers, he was a frequent contributor to the ‘Manchester Gazette,’ a liberal paper owned and edited by William Cowdroy till his death in 1815. Taylor's articles are said to have nearly quadrupled its circulation.

In 1818–19 party feeling rose to its height in Manchester. At a meeting of the commissioners of police for Salford held in July 1818 for the purpose of appointing assessors, John Greenwood, a conservative manufacturer, took exception to Taylor's appointment on the ground that he was ‘one of those reformers who go about the country making speeches,’ and added an insinuation that Taylor was ‘the author of a handbill that caused the Manchester Exchange to be set on fire’ in 1812 (the charge was first made in a printed song, entitled ‘The Humours of Manchester Election,’ in regard to an anonymous handbill superscribed ‘Now or Never’). Taylor's name was accordingly passed over, and, Greenwood refusing to explain his words, Taylor addressed him a letter denouncing him as ‘a liar, a slanderer, and a scoundrel’ and, having again received no reply, published the letter in Cowdroy's ‘Gazette.’ In consequence he was indicted for libel, and the trial took place at the Lancashire assizes on 29 March 1819, before Baron Wood. James Scarlett (afterwards first Baron Abinger) [q. v.] led for the prosecution, and Taylor conducted his own defence. He resolved on a line which no counsel could have been induced to take, and called witnesses to prove the truth of the alleged libel. According to the existing view of the courts, the truth of libel could not be pleaded in justification, although it might be urged in mitigation of the offence when the defendant came up for judgment. Scarlett offered no objection, probably because he had ​ detected sympathy with the defendant in the foreman of the jury, John Rylands of Warrington. The result, after a summing-up from the bench wholly unfavourable to the defendant, was that the jury were locked up for eleven hours and five minutes, and that between ten and eleven at night they delivered to the judge, in bed at his lodgings, a verdict of not guilty (see A Full and Accurate Report of the Trial, published at the Manchester Gazette office in 1819, with a preface by Taylor, who describes his trial as in his belief the very first instance of a criminal prosecution for libel ‘in which a defendant has been allowed to call evidence in justification, and to prove the truth of the alleged libellous matter.’ Cf. A. Prentice , Historical Sketches and Personal Recollections of Manchester, chap. ix., ‘Mr. John Edward Taylor's Trial’).

On the occasion of the ‘Peterloo Massacre’ on 16 Aug. 1819 Taylor, who had left the spot shortly before the dispersal of the mob, was one of those who signed the ‘Declaration and Protest’ which asserted the peaceable character of the interrupted meeting, and utterly disapproved of the unnecessary violence used in dispersing it. Before the close of the year he published what may be regarded as the chief monument of his literary powers and political principles, under the title ‘Notes and Explanations, Critical and Explanatory, on the Papers relative to the Internal State of the Country, recently presented to Parliament,’ to which he appended a well-argued ‘Reply to Mr. Francis Philips's’ pamphlet in defence of the Manchester magistrates and yeomanry for their share in the catastrophe of Peterloo. This book, which professed to be ‘by a Member of the Manchester Committee for relieving the Sufferers of the 16th of August 1819,’ is a masterly exposure of a miserable chapter in the history of our national policy, and an unanswerable plea for trust in the people. It concludes with a prescient appeal to the middle classes to profit by their recent discovery ‘that they must interfere with domestic politics, because domestic politics will interfere with them.’

Taylor's successful intervention in political affairs suggested to him the abandonment of commercial pursuits. For a time he thought of the bar. Soon, however, some of his political friends proposed to him that he should undertake the editorship of a weekly journal which they designed to establish in Manchester in support of their opinions. Taylor having accepted their invitation, a sum of 1,000l. was subscribed, chiefly in loans of 100l. and this formed the first capital in the establishment of the ‘Manchester Guardian,’ of which the first number appeared on 5 May 1821. It is a modest four-page sheet, price 7d. containing with other matter an elaborate table of statistics as to the condition of charitable education in Manchester and the immediate neighbourhood.

The ‘Manchester Guardian,’ of which Taylor remained editor for the rest of his life, and of the copyright of which he speedily became the sole proprietor, at once asserted itself as the leading Manchester paper, and gradually rose into the front rank of the national press. Taylor was ably assisted in his labours by Jeremiah Garnett [q. v.], who was associated with him from the first days of the paper, and who succeeded him as editor after his death. In 1836 it became a bi-weekly paper, sold at the price of 4d. The political support of the ‘Guardian’ was consistently given to the views of the whig party, though in later years its sympathies with advanced liberalism were perhaps less evident. On labour questions, as they then presented themselves, the ‘Guardian’ seems certainly to have come to be more or less identified with the interests of the employers. In the fearless sincerity, however, of comments on matters of public concern, no change was perceptible nor was he afraid of coming into occasional collision with old political friends where the rights of the community seemed to him to be at issue (cf. Prentice , pp. 358 sqq.).

Taylor's energies were far from absorbed by his newspaper work. He took a prominent part in the local business of Manchester, where the established importance of his journal had gradually made his position one of widespread influence and he actively promoted parliamentary legislation in the interests of the town, repeatedly attending deputations to London. For several years he was deputy chairman of the improvement committee of the commissioners of police, and in this capacity did much to improve the condition of the Manchester streets. He died at his residence, Beech Hill, Cheetham, on 6 Jan. 1844. He was twice married: in 1824 to his first cousin, Sophia Russell Scott in 1836 to Harriet Acland, youngest daughter of Edward Boyce of Tiverton. His second son, John Edward Taylor, is the present proprietor of the ‘Manchester Guardian.’

[A Brief Memoir of Mr. John Edward Taylor, 1844, reprinted from the Christian Reformer biographical notice, by Jeremiah Garnett, in the Manchester Guardian, 10 Jan. 1844 Prentice's Historical Sketches and Personal Recollectionsof Manchester, 2nd edit. 1851 Axon's Annals of Manchester, 1886 cf. Holyoake's Sixty Years of an Agitator's Life, 1892, i. 129–31.]


Dictionary of National Biography, 1885-1900/Taylor, John (1750-1826)

TAYLOR, JOHN (1750–1826), hymn-writer, and founder of the literary family of the Taylors of Norwich, born at Norwich on 30 July 1750, was second son of Richard Taylor, a manufacturer of Colegate, Norwich, and was grandson of John Taylor (1694–1761) [q. v.] His mother was Margaret (d. 1823), daughter of Philip Meadows, mayor of Norwich in 1734, and granddaughter of John Meadows [q. v.], the ejected divine. Her only sister, Sarah, was grandmother of Harriet Martineau [q. v.]

Taylor was educated under Mr. Akers at Hindolveston, Norfolk, but, on the death of his father, when twelve years old assisted his mother in business. Three years later he was apprenticed to a firm of manufacturers in Norwich, after which he passed two years as a clerk in London. He there began to contribute verses to the ‘Morning Chronicle.’ In 1773 he returned to Norwich, and started a yarn factory in partnership with his younger brother Richard.

Taylor was active in municipal and social affairs at Norwich, and was a prominent member of the Octagon presbyterian unitarian chapel, of which he acted as deacon. He devoted his leisure to literary pursuits, and his verse and hymns were held in wide repute. He was a member of the Norwich Anacreontic Society, and sang in more than one of the festivals. His stirring song ‘The Trumpet of Liberty,’ with the refrain ‘Fall, tyrants, fall,’ was first published in the ‘Norfolk Chronicle’ of 16 July 1791 it has been ascribed in error to William Taylor (1765–1836) [q. v.]

Taylor was author of several hymn-tunes, but his musical composition was inferior to that of his elder brother, Philip Taylor of Eustace Street presbyterian chapel, Dublin, grandfather of Colonel Meadows Taylor [q. v.] On the other hand, his hymns and verses were everywhere used in unitarian services. He edited ‘Hymns intended to be used at the Commencement of Social Worship’ (London, 1802, 8vo), in which ten by himself are included, and published a collection of forty-three of his own (London, 1818). These, with additions, were reprinted in ‘Hymns and Miscellaneous Poems,’ edited, with a memoir reprinted from the ‘Monthly Repository,’ September 1826, by his son Edward Taylor (London, 1863, 8vo). Many of these hymns are to be found in Robert Aspland's ‘Psalms and Hymns for Unitarian Worship’ (Hackney, 1810 2nd edit. London, 1825, 12mo), the ‘Norwich Collection’ (1814 2nd edit. 1826), Dr. Martineau's ‘Hymns of Praise and Prayer,’ ‘Hymns for the Christian Church and Home,’ and W. Garrett Horder's various collections. Perhaps the best known are those beginning ‘Like shadows gliding o'er the plain,’ ‘At the portals of Thy house,’ and ‘Supreme o'er all Jehovah reigns.’

Taylor contributed anonymously to the ‘Cabinet’ (3 vols. Norwich, 1795, 8vo) verses in the style and orthography of the seventeenth century, of which those on Richard Corbet [q. v.] were included in Gilchrist's edition of the bishop's poems, and others on ‘Martinmasse Day’ were cited in ‘Time's Telescope’ (1814, 8vo) as an ancient authority for the way in which that day is kept. Taylor's ‘History of the Octagon Chapel, Norwich,’ was completed by his son Edward (London, 1848, 8vo). He died at his son Philip's house at Halesowen in Shropshire on 23 July 1826, and was buried at Birmingham.

His wife Susannah (1755–1823), born on 29 March 1755, was the daughter of John Cook of Norwich. She married Taylor in April 1777. She was a lady of much force of character, and shared the liberal opinions of her husband, and is said to have danced ‘round the tree of liberty at Norwich on the receipt of news of the taking of the Bastille.’ Sir James Mackintosh corresponded with her on ‘subjects which interest us in common—friends, children, literature, life’ Mrs. Anna Letitia Barbauld [q. v.] was her devoted friend, while Sir James Edward Smith [q. v.], the botanist, Henry Crabb Robinson [q. v.], Dr. John Alderson [q. v.] and Mrs. Amelia Opie [q. v.], William Enfield [q. v.], Dr. Frank Sayers [q. v.], William Taylor (1765–1836) [q. v.] (who was no relation), Basil Montagu [q. v.], the Gurneys of Earlham, the Sewards, and many others constantly visited her and ​ enjoyed her brilliant conversation. A political element was supplied by Sir Thomas Beevor, Lord Albemarle, and Thomas William Coke (afterwards Earl of Leicester) [q. v.], member for Norfolk (1790–1818). Her intimate friends called her ‘Madame Roland,’ from the resemblance she bore to the French champion of liberty. Mrs. Taylor herself instructed her two daughters in philosophy, Latin, and political economy. She also contributed essays and verse to the budget read at periodic meetings of the Taylor and Martineau families, for which many of her husband's verses were composed. She died in June 1823. A monument to her and her husband was erected by their children in the Octagon Chapel, Norwich. A portrait of Mrs. John Taylor by H. Meyer is in Mrs. Ross's ‘Three Generations.’

Their seven children were: (1) John (1779–1863) [see under Taylor, Philip ] (2) Richard (1781–1858) [q. v.] (3) Edward (1784–1863) [q. v.] (4) Philip (1786–1870) [q. v.] (5) Susan (b. 1788), married Dr. Henry Reeve [q. v.] (6) Arthur (b. 1790), a printer and F.S.A., author of ‘The Glory of Regality’ (London, 1820, 8vo), and ‘Papers in relation to the Antient Topography of the Eastern Counties’ (London, 1869, 4to) and (7) Mrs. Sarah Austin [q. v.], wife of John Austin [q. v.], the jurist.

[Memoir by his son, above mentioned Janet Ross's Three Generations of Englishwomen, i. 1–43 Turner's Lives of Eminent Unitarians, i. 341, 342 Julian's Dict. of Hymnology, p. 1119 Memoir and Correspondence of Sir J. E. Smith, i. 170, ii. 99, 315 Aikin's Mem. of Mrs. Barbauld, vol. i. p. lv Le Breton's Memoirs of Lucy Aikin, pp. 124–49 Hare's Gurneys of Earlham, i. 79 Robberds's Mem. of William Taylor, i. 46 Life of Sir J. Mackintosh, i. 147, 215, 439 Crabb Robinson's Diary, i. 14, 254, 256, ii. 376 The Suffolk Bartolomeans, by Edgar Taylor Principles and Pursuits of an English Presb. Minister, by P. Meadows Taylor The Story of my Life, by Colonel Meadows Taylor Egerton MS. 2220 is a book of letters from Arthur Taylor to Charles Yarnold, others are in Addit. MS. 22308, ff. 60, 61, 80.]


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