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Illusive AM-448 - History

Illusive AM-448 - History

Illusive I

(AM 448: dp. 630, 1. 172', b. 36' ; dr. 10'; s. 16 k., cpl. 72; a. 1 40mm.; cl. Agile)

Illusive (AM 448) was launched hy Martinolich Shipbuilding Co., San Diego, Calif., 12 July 1952 sponsored by Mrs. Vito Marino; and commissioned in November 1953. Lt. Comdr. J. E. Ruzic in command.

After shakedown and individua1 ship training out of Long Beach during 1954, the ship entered Long Beach shipyard for extensive modiSications October 1954 to February 1955.She was reclassiBed M`SO - 48 7 February 1955.She continued to operate out oi Long Beach, taking part in a major Pacific Fleet training exercise in November 1955. Eor the next year she trained in California waters.

Illusive again entered the yard in November 1956, this time to replace her engines with experimental Packard models, and until May 1957 was engaged in engineering evaluation trials. She.then sailed for her Sirst deployment to the Far East 1 August 1g57. Through December she took part in the vital operations of the 7th Fleet for the maintenance of peace and security in East Asia. She took part in Joint exercises with Japanese naval units 6-9 October and with the Chinese Nationalist Navy 15 to 17 December 1957. Illusive returned to Long Beach 15 February 1958.

The remainder of 1958 was spent in training operations out of Long Beach. In 1959 she remained in California waters, and took part in a large amphibious exercise off Camp Pendleton. Illusive then made ready for her second deployment to the western Pacific, sailing 8 January i960 for Japan. During this critical period, in which American Navy ships were increasingly active in helping to prevent Communist takeover of the countries of ~Southeast Asia, the minesweeper carried out maneuvers off Japan, the Philippines, and Okinawa. Illusive returned to Long Beach 19 July 1960.

The year 1961 saw the ship return to the Far East. She sailed 24 August, and operated in the Philippines as well as out of Guam and Formosa. ~She moved to Sattahib, Thailand, 25 November, as American ships demonstrated support for that nation, and in December visited Bangkok. Thailand, and Saigon, capital of the struggling Republic of ~South Vietnam. During this period Illusive conducted training exercises with several Southeast Asian navies. She was particularly active in training South Vietnamese offlcers and men until sailing for Long Beach 3 March 1962.

The veteran ship returned to the far Pacific in August 1963 and after ~topping at islund bases along the way arrived Sasebo 23 September. In the months that followed IllusSve took part in 7th Fleet training with Korean, Nationalist Ohinese and Japanese minesweepers. She returned to Long Beach 7 March 1964 for yard overhaul followed by refresher training off the coast of southern California.

On 13 August 1965 Illusive departed Long Beach for training in the Pacific that took her to Hawaii, the Marshalls, the Marianas, and the Philippines. She stood out of ~Subic Bay 2 October 1965 to join the "Market Time Patrol" vigilantly trying to stop the coastal flow of contraband by junks and boats to Vietcong the full length of Vietnam's 1,000-mile coastline. Her patrol service may include acting as a mother ~ship for replenishing the needs of"'Swift" boats, providing gunflre support to U.S. Forces ashore or conducting a hydrographic survey on shoreline depths in addition to patrolling thousands of miles within the inspection zone to intercept Vietcong men and supplies. Illusive continued this vital duty until she turned homeward in February 1966. The minesweeper reached Long Beach 28 April. She operated along the West Coast for the remainder of 1966 and into 1967.


Illusive Man

The Illusive Man is the elusive, secretive, and well informed leader of Cerberus. He has close-cropped silver-grey hair with "steely blue" eyes which appear to be prosthetic. The Illusive Man's real name and his life before Cerberus are both long forgotten by most. For years, the Illusive Man has been using Cerberus and his immense network of contacts to achieve his goal - that of making humanity ascendant above all other races. He is described as having the best and worst traits of humanity rolled into one man.


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The Johari Window: How Known Unknowns Led to the Largest Cybersecurity Breach of National Security in U.S. History

This article presents a different perspective on the recent SolarWinds breach in the growing number of articles on the recent attacks. It also proposes a different approach to adversary detection by detecting the constants in a breach using the concept of active defense as described by the new MITRE Shield framework. The idea is that blue teams should detect lateral movement and living off the land after the adversary has established a beachhead instead of relying solely on detecting the attack using known knowns.

Introduction

Einstein, a $5 Billion government program meant to operate as the cyber forward operating base (FOB) to our nation’s government networks, failed against the recent supply chain compromise of Solarwinds. The breach resulted in backdoors being pushed out to 18,000 Solarwinds customers in an update designed to provide a hostile nation state access to any network it was installed on.

These backdoors (collectively referred to now as SUNBURST) were subsequently installed on numerous government and commercial networks, including the U.S. Treasury, National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), universities, and commercial companies, including Microsoft and FireEye.

But the failure of Einstein to detect the command-and-control (c2) traffic from the backdoors phoning home on the government networks it was designed to protect is not due to any inordinate amount of sophistication. The tactics and techniques used by the adversaries are known and have been documented in the MITRE ATT&CK framework for years. What went wrong?

Einstein, a unified threat management (UTM) solution built by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and subsequently handed over to the Cybersecurity Infrastructure Security Administration (CISA), was designed to fail. It used signatures of known malicious IP addresses and malware for its detection engine, was never connected to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) where it was designed to retrieve the latest threat updates and signatures and was only deployed to 5 of the 23 government agencies mandated to deploy it. It is possible that this was a result of the GAO report, which after testing Einstein found it to only be 6% effective at detecting 489 different attacks. [1]

The first approach to intrusion detection systems (IDSs) based on signatures dates back twenty years, and includes the free, open source project Snort, Snort-Inline, and its predecessor, Shadow, the first pattern-based detection system built on tcpdump by the U.S. Navy in 2003.

Signature-based detection systems, both their open source and commercial options, have now largely become antiquated and are being replaced by technologies now built on supervised and unsupervised machine learning models that moved us away from trying to detect so-called known knowns — known exploits, known shellcode, known payloads, known IP addresses.

Unless we stop trying to detect known knowns, meaning, known exploit patterns such as known payloads and C2 IP addresses, and move to a different methodology of active defense where we detect lateral movement after the beachhead, we will continue to repeat a flawed history. The fact of the matter is, trying to detect cybersecurity breaches based on known tools and IP addresses is like the military trying to detect enemies based on the bullets they use.

“Let’s move away from this archaic mindset of attempting to detect when the enemy has fired the first shot and instead move towards detecting what they do afterwards within a synthetic environment using active defense.” – Alissa Knight

The fact is, today there are two types of organizations: ones that have been breached and ones that will. It is no longer a question of if, but when, and when that does happen, organizations who are attempting to detect known knowns will suffer the same fate as the victims in the SolarWinds compromise. Organizations must move to a posture of active defense to perform detection of lateral movement and other techniques used in living off the land through deception technology.

Johari’s Window

Intelligence analysts in the U.S. intelligence community (IC) have long used analytical techniques described by two American psychologists, Joseph Luft and Harrington Ingham in a concept named Johari’s Window created in 1955. [2] Johari’s Window popularized the concept of known knowns, known unknowns, and unknown unknowns and was adopted by the U.S. IC in order to identify blindspots in what we know and don’t know when analyzing data it referred to as informational blind spots.

As its name describes, the Johari window is represented as a four-paned window, with each of the two panes in the quadrant representing one’s self and the other two panes representing the part unknown to ourselves but known to others.

For the purposes of this article it is not necessary to fully delve into the conceptual framework underpinning Johari’s Window. However, the idea of known knowns and known unknowns comes from this concept, so the it is worth taking some time to demystify these two ideas that are derived from the model at a superficial level.

Figure 1 shows the original Johari Window while Figure 2 shows a modified Johari Window applied to cybersecurity created by Amazon in its AWS Incident Response white paper. [3]

Figure 1: The Original Johari Window

Source: communicationtheory.org

Figure 2: The Johari Window modified for application to cybersecurity

Source: Amazon

In the modified Johari Window applied to cybersecurity, the window looks the same except for the names of the quadrants and how they are defined. While Amazon modified Johari’s Window for application in an AWS sense and applied it to APN partners, it is modified here to apply to a more general cybersecurity sense.

Johari Window quadrants in incident response:

  1. Obvious: Known knowns: Vulnerabilities your organization and others are aware of.
  2. Internally Known: These are known unknowns, meaning vulnerabilities known to you but not other organizations. For example, a zero-day exploit that you are aware of because you discovered it and has not been published or discussed in any other forums or exploited in the wild.
  3. Blind Spot: This is unknown knowns. Vulnerabilities that others are aware of, including adversaries, but your organization is not. For example, a new vulnerability discovered and is being exploited in the wild. The vulnerability is patched by the vendor, but your organization is unaware of the vulnerability and has not downloaded and applied the patch. A recent example of this is the Citrix vulnerability that was actively being exploited in the wild because organizations had not downloaded and applied the patch.
  4. Unknown: And here we have unknown unknowns. These are vulnerabilities that your organization and others are not aware of, including adversaries. They are vulnerabilities that potentially will be discovered and actively exploited, and no detections are available for them because of a lack of patterns or signatures.

Network Threat Detection

Detection of the tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTPs) used by adversaries can be performed using three separate types of detection mechanisms: (1) Detecting known patterns/signatures (legacy intrusion detection systems and antivirus), (2) deviation from expected behaviors (machine learning) and (3) interaction with synthetic assets (deception technology) (FIGURE 3).

Figure 3: Three network threat detection techniques

Source: Knight Ink

The traditional approach to network threat detection was with the introduction of intrusion detection systems (IDSs), which used a database of patterns/signatures for already known exploits, malware, or known bad IP addresses. Signature detection systems were made popular in the open-source community with projects such as Shadow IDS and Snort IDS, created by Martin Roesche, who later went on to found Sourcefire (later sold to Cisco). Commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) solutions such as ISS RealSecure, Top Layer, Intruvert, and other commercial IDS/IPS solutions incorporated the same approach to threat detection using signatures.

However, pattern-based detection systems have historically been criticized for their high false positive rate. Packets that the IDS thought were related to an attack because they matched a particular signature in the packet headers or payload but often turned out to be innocuous. Pattern-based systems also choked under high load, and were unable to keep up with wire speed demands as internal networks began moving to 10 Gbps with no packet loss.

Active Defense

MITRE Shield is a matrix designed to help defenders instrument their network using a new concept of defending a contested network through active defense. Shield is the brainchild of MITRE following 10 years of analysis that MITRE performed of adversarial lateral movement used on their own networks. The idea behind active defense is that the defender uses deception technologies to create a synthetic world, which the adversary then interacts with. This permits the detection of the adversary’s beachhead on the network as an alternative to using traditional network threat detection solutions that can produce false positives. The idea is that if a user is attempting to authenticate with decoy credentials or interacting with a decoy server, the activity simply cannot be legitimate.

Had the U.S. government employed active defense on their networks, a concept they have employed in their own weapons systems over the last century, instead of trying to detect known knowns, the adversaries would have been detected sooner from the techniques they used as they moved laterally around the network.

Recently, MITRE has begun to merge the ATT&CK model with Shield to illustrate a more complete picture between tactics and techniques used by adversaries and those adopted by defenders to detect them.

Shield’s tactics cover seven containers:

  • Channel, which contains techniques used to usher adversaries down a predefined path in the network away from production systems using decoys
  • Collect, which include techniques used to collect information about the TTPs used by adversaries to achieve their ultimate goal
  • Contain, which includes techniques to relegate an adversary to a specific area of the network (secure enclave) that’s within control of the defender to limit their potential to move laterally
  • Detect, which leverages network and endpoint detection and response — NDR and EDR — in order lower the mean-time-to-detection (MTTD) and mean-time-to-response (MTTR) of an adversary
  • Disruption, which includes techniques that prevents the adversary from doing what they came onto a network to do using tools to make the synthetic environment look indistinguishable from the production
  • Facilitate, which covers techniques that presents vulnerable systems to the adversary to focus on instead of production servers
  • Legitimize, the techniques used to add authenticity to the synthetic environments created by the deception technology being used, such as synthetic credentials, systems, and other “breadcrumbs” planted by the deception technology.

Understanding Deception Technology

Deception technology is a relatively new and growing product space designed to assist in the automated creation and management of decoy credentials, systems, processes, and other synthetic “breadcrumbs” in the network and systems to distract adversaries away from production systems who have established a beachhead on a network.

Deception technology is increasingly being used in the arsenal of network security controls that CISOs are using to perform early detection of an adversary in a breach as an alternative to legacy intrusion detection systems. The idea is akin to identifying the enemy once they are already there, instead of trying to detect them before they get there.

Conclusion

It is clear that, at least for the U.S. government in the SolarWinds backdoor compromises, they should have not been relying on the pattern-detection capabilities that Einstein was built upon.

Instead of attempting to detect known knowns, organizations should stop trying to detect the attacks themselves as they will continue to come, evolve, and become harder to detect over time. Instead, organizations should already assume the adversary is on the network and create a synthetic environment for the adversary to interact with using deception technology that would detect the adversary’s presence.

Until we get away from this old way of thinking that we can detect and deter an attack from happening at the first initial point of entry and understand that the threat is already inside the network or will be, we will continue to see headlines like SUNBURST.

Detection needs to happen with the adversary interacting with the environment once they are already there. through detection of the techniques used to live off the land and move laterally, so we can finally detect and respond quicker instead of not at all.

Organizations need a well-formed defensive strategy that includes good cybersecurity hygiene, such as a documented and regularly updated patch and vulnerability management program, routine annual risk assessments, regular penetration tests, and a regularly updated and maintained asset management system.

Indispensable to any cybersecurity program is a solution that is capable of leveraging deception to detect lateral movement early and capable of deploying decoy accounts, content, credentials, networks, personas, processes, and systems.

In addition to being able to detect lateral movement effectively and quickly, the ability to manage your attack surface should also be inherent to your layered defense model, so that the attack surface is reduced to a manageable level.

The attack surface management capability should be able to automatically discover and map the environment and its “crown jewel” assets and the attack path to get there, identification of conditions exploited for lateral movement, and the ability to find shadow admin accounts, local admins, domain user credentials, and saved connections to the crown jewel assets discovered.

Deception technology should be used with caution. Many of the deception solutions on the market are agent-based and can be easy to identify, making it clear to the adversary that they are in a synthetic environment created by decoys.

Finally, the deception technology used should ideally be agentless and able to self- destruct, in order to eliminate any traces of itself to limit the evidence of any synthetic environment being created.


Walkthrough [ edit | edit source ]

Shuttle Bay [ edit | edit source ]

You'll land in a hangar bay for one of the hardest fights of the mission: standard Assault Troopers, Centurions and an Atlas Mech will flood in from in front and the right, while a Nemesis sniper camps out above on the left of the upper balconies encircling the hangar, which also happens to be where you eventually need to go to prevent Cerberus from depressurizing the hangar and blowing your entire squad out into space. First thing's first though: order your squad into cover ASAP and clear the immediate area of hostiles. A good place to hide is to the left behind the shuttle.

Tip: If you are fast enough, it is possible to snipe the pilot before he finishes climbing into the Atlas this tactic is easier with an Infiltrator who can cloak and run forward heedless of enemy fire to set up the shot and also benefit from the cloak's damage bonus. An easier option is to use biotics—Pull or Singularity will stop the pilot. As for Vanguards, a biotic Charge towards the pilot saves the most time and puts you well within Atlas-hijacking distance. The fight is much easier when you have the Atlas at full health.

Warning: During this fight, Cerberus fighters continue to be launched at regular intervals from a catapult device in front of you. If you're too close to the path of the fighter as it blasts out of the hangar bay, it will heavily damage you. The sounds of the imminent launch can clue you in to when to expect this even if your sight is blocked.

Even if you can't jack the Atlas or prevent it from being manned, if you have Sabotage available just turn it to your side otherwise take it out. A Javelin or other sniper or assault rifle equipped with the right scope mod can be useful here to see through the numerous smoke screens laid down by Centurions, but otherwise just wait them out. Your squad isn't affected by smoke so they should be able to fire without interruption. Use EDI's Decoy to draw fire if you need pressure taken off your team. Once the enemies have been thinned out, EDI will warn you of Cerberus' plan to vent the hangar and tells you to find a control that she can access to override this. Climb up the long ladder on the left to find it.

Warning: There is a time period of about 85 seconds from completing the initial battle to the activation of the hangar venting sequence. A Critical Mission Failure will occur if you fail to disable the venting sequence from the upper level terminal in time, even if you happen to be in the middle of the disabling cutscene at that moment.

Up on the balcony, there's nothing in the little chamber to the left but thermal clips, so turn right and head through the door. After the cutscene, be ready for Cerberus to storm into the room at fairly close range with several Guardians. You'll then have to fight your way around to the balcony on the other side of the room to use the "Rotation Controls". Look for a medical station in a dark room opposite to the "Rotation Controls" console for XP. Go through the next sets of doors, then, before heading down the ladder, go through another door to activate a PDA for 5,000 credits.

Take the ladder down and operate the console to your right, the one with the ostentatious red bars like a jukebox. Admire the boom, and then get ready to fight the Atlas you saw in the cinematic. In addition to that one, there are two more (empty) Atlases in side alcoves on the left and right sides of the room. The one on the right is easily hijacked once there, kill any infantry attempting to grab the left-side one. If you're lucky, a Centurion will pop a smoke-screen and shield you from the only manned Atlas, allowing you to mop up the foot soldiers first.

Through the Smoking Hole [ edit | edit source ]

Hop the wall in front of the gaping hole left by the fighter and then before taking the door on the left, snag the M-37 Falcon you can also use this as an opportunity to change your squad's equipped weapons (though not mods) if you wish. EDI must hack the door for you to enter and a short conversation ensues that confirms the value of having her along as well as previews the upcoming obstacles.

Through the door, there will be a ladder that will take you straight into another fight, so be ready. Once down, immediately sprint for cover, as Cerberus troops are waiting for you. You can flank by going forward from the ladder and taking the loop around and back, but if so you may run smack-dab into the Nemesis covering the area. Once you've cleared the hostiles, find a medi-gel dispenser and salvage a terminal for 5,000 credits on the far side near the ammo box to the left of the ladder you need to climb. While shopping, listen to EDI and your other companion discuss Cerberus tactics.

In the next room, you will find the first of four video terminals viewable during this mission. The first two consoles give you insight into two of Cerberus's biggest programs: the Lazarus Project, and EDI herself. While not required objectives, the information on them reveals much about both the Lazarus Project and events immediately following Mass Effect 2. If you have a love interest and they are in your party, they will have some personal things to share with you at the Lazarus Project console. Don't miss the Serrice Council Greaves in that room as well.

Penetrate Combat Engineer Defenses [ edit | edit source ]

Once you're done with this first terminal, head out and into the burning section. There'll be a drop, after which you should turn right it's another spot where the way forward isn't visible until you're already taking it. You'll immediately be flung into a fairly challenging fight with a bunch of Combat Engineers, turrets and Shield Pylons all supporting each other in deadly combination. Take this battle slowly and carefully.

Tech abilities and Power Combos definitely come in quite handy here, as can grenades and weapons that deal explosive area damage such as the Venom Shotgun as they can easily destroy Shield Pylons with collateral damage. Overload (and its cousin Energy Drain) will destroy a Shield Pylon in one hit, and Sabotage used against the pylons or their generators can turn them against Cerberus, draining all shields in range instead of recharging them. Sabotage can also hack Turrets as well, making your life much easier. As you near the end, be prepared to deal with more smoke from several Centurions that drop in from the ladder that is also your exit out of here.

The top of the ladder yields another lore console, this time revealing that EDI started out as the foe in UNC: Rogue VI. Go through the door, find a medical station and salvage 5,000 credits from a PDA while talking to Hackett as EDI opens the next door. Once through the two doors, go across the hall, ignoring for a moment the glowing blue hole in the wall, to find a Medkit, a Delumcore Overlay and the third lore console, this one about Kai Leng. At this point the base will begin to tremble under the assault from the Alliance Fifth Fleet, which elicits a comment from your squad. Once done, backtrack to the blue-lit hole and jump down.

The Human-Reaper Remains [ edit | edit source ]

On the other side of the drop, you will find the remains of the Human-Reaper Larva that served as the final boss of Mass Effect 2. If you destroyed the Collector Base, only its heart will be present if you spared it, much more of it will be there.

You must now fight your way up the catwalk surrounding the larva's corpse. There are Nemeses, Phantoms and really inconveniently-placed Shield Pylons. Take it slow, keep your shields up and don't be afraid to backtrack: things you can't hit from your current position may be open to other angles of attack.

There is the possibility of confronting two named enemies. If Shepard chose to turn Legion over to Cerberus after its acquisition during the Reaper IFF mission in Mass Effect 2, it will appear here as a unique enemy. Furthermore, if Shepard did not complete Grissom Academy: Emergency Evacuation, Jack will appear here as an indoctrinated foe - more or less like a Phantom. Both characters must be fought and killed if met under these circumstances.

The Illusive Man's Inner Sanctum [ edit | edit source ]

After going up a final ladder after all enemies have been defeated you will be facing an open doorway. Before going through, you can find a medkit and 5,000 credit PDA behind you at the end of the catwalk. Through the door, you'll find yourself in a hallway with multiple computer terminals on either side. To the left you will find an ammo box, another medkit and a final PDA worth 5,000 credits surrounded by scattered cigarette butts. Nearby is another video log where you can learn some chilling details about Cerberus Reaper implants. The door at the end of the hall leads to a dark, cavernous room, empty save for a ramp leading up to a final door. Before entering you may wish to save, as beyond it lies the Illusive Man's inner sanctum, a location the player will undoubtedly recognize.

Entering this room initiates a third meeting between Shepard and the Illusive Man, who, as usual, appears via hologram. As before the Illusive Man speaks of controlling the Reapers. The player is presented with a series of dialogue choices and can either attempt to convince the Illusive Man that his plan won't work, or threaten and berate him for his actions. In any case, the Illusive Man cuts off communication just as your team finds the Prothean VI with a final threat to not "overstay your welcome."

Vendetta finally reveals the nature of the Catalyst: it is the Citadel! Unfortunately, as the Illusive Man successfully overrode Vendetta's security protocols, he also knows what the Catalyst is. Worse still, he has fled to the Citadel and alerted the Reapers, which have taken control of the Citadel and moved it to the heart of their occupied territory: Earth.

Defeat Kai Leng [ edit | edit source ]

Before any action can be taken, however, Kai Leng shows up, bent on settling his score with you. You are undoubtedly just as eager to deliver some payback. Get ready: only one of you is going to be walking away from this alive. As soon as the cut scene ends you may need to use your melee attack immediately because Kai Leng will be on top of you and you'll have to fend him off. You can also do a quick combat roll to the side or behind to avoid close quarters grappling, though you or your squad has to do some damage to Leng to force him to stop chasing after you. After the opening moments of the fight, take cover with your squad in the pit Leng opened in the floor near where you entered from, facing the Illusive Man's chair. Stay on the right with your squad to your left.

Leng's health can't be damaged early on in the fight, and he's immune to most crowd control abilities though he can be slowed by Cryo powers. He also uses occasional heavy-melee attacks if you allow him to get close. These attacks can kill you instantly unless you block them by tapping melee. Unless you're a close-range specialist, it's better to keep Kai Leng at a safe distance by distracting him, running away, or dealing severe damage to his shields which makes him retreat.

When Kai Leng takes heavy damage to his shields he will stop, yell, and punch new holes in the floor, creating more places to take cover. During these pauses his shields recharge, he becomes temporarily immune to damage, and a wave of Cerberus minions drops in. The first wave consists of several Assault Troopers directly ahead, then a few Nemesis snipers plus more Troopers enter from the right, and finally a pair of Phantoms drops from the left. The Phantoms signal the final stage of the fight—once they appear Leng himself can finally be killed. Phantoms and Nemeses in that order are usually the the greatest threats when they're on the field though, so generally take them out first. Apart from that, you can either focus on Leng to drive him off if he approaches, or pick off all the Troopers to minimize incoming grenades. EDI's Decoy can be quite useful here as it draws attention from every enemy including Leng himself. Once Leng and all his minions are down, the fight ends. Note: see bugs below if you find yourself stuck.

After he's defeated, there will be a Renegade interrupt opportunity as Leng sneaks up on you and attempts to stab you. If you don't use the interrupt, Shepard will dodge if you do, Shepard will block the blade and shatter it. Immediately after, Shepard will follow it up with an omni-blade attack, putting an end to Kai Leng once and for all.

You will then have a last conversation with the Prothean VI with an option for a Renegade interrupt, or if you wait, a Paragon one. Finally, you will return to the Normandy for a debrief with Anderson.


File:USS Illusive (MSO-448) and USS Conquest (MSO-488) off Sitra, Bahrain, on 26 December 1987 (6429495).jpg

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A BIT O'MUSLIN


Now I'm picturing scholars sitting in a study with top hats and glasses sipping tea and having a heated discussion about the merkin. xD.

Love the way your mind thinks and connects, seemingly unrelated, things!

Great sleuthing! I think you're on to something. And what a fun post. Never heard of a merkin, but now that I have, it'll be one of those random facts I remember forever.

Ha very interesting. Atleast these girls put the pubic hair wig where it was supposed to go.. unlike the men in Begger's Benison wearing it on their head!! LOL. Eww it must have been so uncomfortable!

I just discovered what a merkin was a couple of months ago when I heard Lucy Lawless talk about them in an interview about her Spartacus show.

I totally agree with your hypothesis Delilah!

and I'm curious: How DID the merkin fall into your lap?

I'm so glad I remembered the month had turned. Yet, another interesting tidbit in our world. Yes, I must agree I think you have hit the nail on the head. Now remember your history the name Cornwall leaps out at me. I must go read about mythical Arthur Mythical Merlin disguised his father so he might bed the Lady Cornwall. thus Arthur .. So it does conceal a "mystery" involving "mischief". Yep you are on to something.

Less than two months and counting the days to the release of Prelude to Scandal. thanks for timing Once Upon a Scandal and The Perfect Scandal coming in January, February and March to brighten my life during the dregs of the ice, snow and shoveling of winter!

So bizarre and interesting! (And really kinda nasty, if you think about it. LOL)

Have to wonder tho - if the phrase "grimalkin" had anything to do with some of our more recent terminology for female parts. (Since a grimalkin is slang for "an old or evil-looking female cat," according to Wikipedia, anyway. Malkin ==> P*ssy?

Maybe I'm reaching a little to far tho.

As always Delilah--a fascinating post! I think you're on to something there. it seems they always talked in riddles back in the day when discussing sex etc. so it is a fair assumption to imagine the port as a woman's hoohah, and the storms being diseases, and perhaps Cornwall was rife with sluts :)

My dearest Sandy,
Seriously, they need to sit around, sip tea and talk about these things. Otherwise, who will? LOL

My dearest Yvonne,
Yes, I have to say I connect unrelated things ALLLL the time, lol. I see the dirty side of everything. Which can be rather annoying to many but fortunately not you :p

My dearest Carolynn,
I'm glad I was able to introduce you and the Merkin, lol. Yet one of many more fabulously icky things in history.

My dearest Linda,
Snort. Omgosh, that was CLASSIC. Yes, these girls certainly were smarter than our Benison boys.

My dearest Jane,
How very awesome you were lucky enough to stumble upon the merkin earlier. Yay for Lucy Lawless!

My dearest Amalia,
Haha. *HOW* did the merkin fall into my lap? I was reading about Renaissance prostitutes and it flippantly mentioned the merkin but gave me no detail as to what it was. Naturally, my curiosity got the best of me, I started digging into history and the rest is well. history!

My dearest Nancy,
Fascinating. I think you're on to something yourself. Between the two of us. I think we shall be known as historical sex scholars, lol.

My dearest Jeanne,
Thank you so much for posting! And for being so enthusiastic about my upcoming Scandal series. Holy cow, you're making me freak out just thinking about it, lol.

My dearest Allison,
Heh. It's *really* nasty. And that's part of the fun of uncovering this stuff that has been buried because it's nasty. And I have to say. I think you're really onto something with grimalkin. I find that a lot of slang and history having to do with sex has been more or less "erased" or "cleaned." Which is annoying. Because you can't really get a true sense of what people were really like. Although I guess that's where our own imaginations come in.

My dearest Eliza,
Hahaha, I looooove that. Cornwall was riddled with sluts and there you have it. No offence to all the women living in Cornwall right now, of course. Thanks for posting. Muah!

Pamela,
Yes, you basically summed up this entire post, lol. HEEELARIOUS, lol.

Actually, I tend to think the Malkin phrasing makes a ton of sense. It relates to both low class women and mops.

One of the uses that I have read repeatedly of the merkin has been to act as a mop after each 'client' is through. Since we are talking prostitutes, they may not have always have the ability to be using an actual bed for business with access to a toilet or wash stand.

Just throwing in another two cents.

My dearest Miss Spinster,
Another fabulous angle to throw at it, yes! I love it and you're right. That is what I find so fascinating about historical observations and piecing it together, every angle brings a different take and a great way of looking at it. Thank you so much for throwing your two cents my way and posting. Personally, I think it was worth a good hundred cents, lol.


Meet the History Interpreter – a series of online talks

Welcome to the online world of the History Interpreter. I am presenting a programme of online talks that are open to all. The topics include British family history, social history and local history. Each session is delivered via the Zoom platform and will last approximately one hour. Most sessions will be accompanied by a comprehensive handout and there will be occasional offers and prizes for attendees. There is a nominal charge of £3.00 per session. Alternative a season ticket for all 2021 sessions is £27. The days and times vary to accommodate a worldwide audience. These are live sessions and can only be watched at the time stated. Please contact me for details of how to attend. Bookings need to be made at least 24 hours before the talk starts. For details of more presentations, arranged by other organisations, please see here.

7.00pm GMT Friday 20 November 2020 Found under a Gooseberry Bush: finding missing births or baptisms

A range of sources and techniques for locating that illusive ancestor. This is an ideal talk for beginners, slow starters or the generally stuck family historian.

2.00pm GMT Tuesday 8 December 2020 From Victorians to Elizabethans: tracing our English Ancestors from 1901-1952

We often neglect the twentieth century as being ‘not really history’ but there is plenty to be discovered about individuals and the communities in which they lived between 1901 and 1952. Twentieth century research brings with it the difficulties of larger and more mobile populations as well as records that are closed to view, so here are some sources that can help you to bring those more recent ancestors to life.

7.30pm GMT Monday 18 January 2021 Remember Then: memories of 1946-1969 and how to record your own

This talk describes the results of a project during which eighty women recorded their memories of life in Britain during the pivotal period 1946-1969 – a time when we moved from liberty bodices to mini skirts and from ration books to ready meals. We saw the emergence of youth culture, the comprehensive education system, conspicuous consumerism and feminism. Either come and reminisce or discover what life was like at the time. This talk is much more than just a collection of memories. The techniques described will help both men and women, of all ages, to start writing reminiscences of their own.

7.30pm GMT Friday 5 February 2021 From Darlington to Wellington: the sad tale of Isabella Fry

The story of Isabella Fry, a distant relation of the chocolate making, prison reforming, Quaker Frys of Bristol and Wiltshire, who emigrated to New Zealand to marry her cousin, only to commit suicide a month later. The sources and techniques used for uncovering her story and that of her ancestors, will be explained. This ‘how to’ talk covers a wide range of (predominantly English) sources, the well known and the less well known.

2.30pm GMT Saturday 6 March 2121 The Ones That Got Away: tracing migrant ancestors

Sooner or later, all genealogists encounter elusive family members: those who appear as if from nowhere those who disappear without trace and those who vanish for a long period, only to re-emerge later. Ancestors who lurk, parentless, in the top branches of your family tree, or who are apparently still alive at the age of 160, are likely to be migrants. This talk describes many research paths to follow and sources to consult, in your quest for that migrant ancestor. These suggestions may help to break down the brick walls that mobile ancestors often leave in their wake.

7.30pm BST Tuesday 6 April 2021 Milkmaids, Munitions Workers, Milliners and Match Girls: women at work

A look at women’s occupations of the past and how to find out more about them.

7.30pm BST Tuesday 4 May 2021 Get ’em Young: ideas for involving young people in history and heritage

This presentation is a thought-provoking look at how we can encourage the next generation of family historians and historians and why we might want to do so. Suggestions cover activities, outings, toys, games, books and ways of exploiting technology in order to motivate and enthuse young people, even toddlers, so that they engage with their history and heritage.

7.30pm BST Monday 21 June 2021 A Plague upon all your Houses: epidemic disease and our ancestors

In the light of the COVID-19 pandemic, we are acutely aware of our own responses to a virulent epidemic disease for which we have no effective method of prevention or cure. What epidemics impacted on the lives of our ancestors? How did they attempt to prevent or cure these diseases and how effective were these measures? How did governments and local authorities respond to these threats? This presentation examines the symptoms, prognoses and treatments for a number of well-known and less well-known epidemic diseases from the Black Death to the influenza of 1918. It mentions some of the relevant records and considers how our ancestors might have reacted.

2.30pm BST Saturday 24 July 2021 Sons of the Soil: researching our agricultural labouring ancestors

Every family has them, ancestors who worked on the land. How can we find out more about them, the farms where they worked and the lives that they led? This session covers a range of sources, many of them under-used, which will help to shed light on the working lives of our rural British ancestors.

7.30pm BST Wednesday 11 August 2021 Putting Your Ancestors in their Place: ten steps to a one place study

Family historians normally focus on their own direct ancestors but these ancestors did not live in isolation. They had neighbours and workplaces, they lived in villages with churches, schools, shops and institutions. In order to understand families of the past, they need to be ‘put in their place’ by investigating the localities of which they were a part. One-Place Studies differ from traditional local histories in that they focus on people, their relationship to their communities and to each other bringing family and local history together, to the benefit of both fields. A One-Place Study involves dissecting a small, definable, geographical area, to examine the individuals, buildings and processes of the past in as much detail as possible. These studies are undertaken by individuals, or groups, who have an interest in the history of a particular community, be it a parish, town, hamlet, or a single street. This talk describes ten steps that you might take in pursuit of this exciting branch of historical research.

7.30pm BST Thursday 30 September 2021 Family Photos and a Sense of Belonging – a workshop

This session focuses on our emotional attachment to our family photographs. Are we more attached to relatives whose images we possess? Does it make a difference if we met them in real life? Do we feel differently about candid shot, as opposed to studio photograph? Is a strong family resemblance important? This workshop considers these and other reactions to images of our ancestors. This session is designed as a workshop for a class-sized group, allowing for plenty of discussion.

7.30pm BST Wednesday 13 October 2021 The Burning Time: witchcraft in the seventeenth century

In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, a wave of witchcraft accusations swept Europe and North America, creating an era that became known as ‘The Burning Time’. Few of our ancestors were directly involved in witchcraft trials, either as the accused or the accuser, but all of our sixteenth and seventeenth century forbears lived in a world where there was an underlying belief in and fear of, witchcraft. In order to understand those ancestors, we need to be aware that ‘villagers were constantly engaged in contending with, or discussing, witches.’ (MacFarlane, Alan Witchcraft in Tudor and Stuart England: a regional and comparative study 1970 Routledge p.113). This was a climate in which mass hysteria could easily tip the balance and create an atmosphere where our ancestors and their neighbours would become caught up in witchcraft fever. Learn about this era and the sources that we can use to find more.

2.30pm GMT Saturday 27 November 2021 Our Embarrassing Ancestors

Not all our ancestors were paragons of virtue. Some behaved in a manner that we now find unacceptable or abhorrent. Are we embarrassed by those family members? What aspects of the lives of our ancestors might make us feel uncomfortable? Does it matter when the ancestor lived is there a point at which some actions become exciting or interesting, rather than alarming? Have genealogists’ reactions to certain conditions and behaviours changed over time? Are we tempted, like genealogists of the past, to remove them, or their mis-demeanours, from the record?

This presentation is a thought-provoking and hard-hitting look at our reactions to ancestors who might have been a source for embarrassment. Some sources for discovering those ancestors will also be mentioned.

7.30pm GMT Monday 6 December 2021 A to Z of Family History: an alphabetical journey through some less well-known sources

When tracing a family tree, the temptation is to use the more well-known sources those which are available on-line via the major data providers. In this presentation, the author of the classic handbook Family Historian’s Enquire Within introduces a variety of less well-known sources, that can be used to enhance and extend a pedigree or provide valuable context for the lives the family. The original records, databases and online records discussed will range from Absent Voters’ Lists and Asylum Records, through Farm Surveys and Hearth Tax Records, to Valuation Office Records and ideas for inspiring young people to take an interest in genealogy. The aim is to make the audience aware of sources covering the seventeenth to twentieth centuries and point to ways to find out more. There should be something new for everyone.


A Family Health Center in Port Gibson, MS

Make an appointment at Claiborne County Family Health Center in Port Gibson, MS. We are a nonprofit organization that provides a variety of medical, dental, and public health services. The Center's trained staff is committed to fulfilling its mission: "To provide quality, accessible, available, and affordable primary and preventive health care services to residents of Claiborne County and surrounding areas."

We are committed to taking care of you, our patients. We hope to provide you with the best possible care in a warm and friendly environment. Our goal is to help you feel better and get back to your regular activities as quickly as possible.

Contact us to book an appointment

About Claiborne County Family Health Center

Established in 1981, Claiborne County Family Health Center strives to continue the tradition of providing positive health care outcomes. The Center receives HHS funding and has Federal Public Health Services deemed status with respect to certain health-related claims, including medical malpractice claims, for itself and its covered individuals.

Governing Board Members:

  • Ms. Cinder Bailey
  • Ms. Delores Barnes
  • Rev. Rosevelt Harried
  • Ms. Patrica Harris
  • Mrs. Fern Martin
  • Mrs. Marie Clark
  • Mr. Kenneth Davis
  • Mr. Elonzo McClorine
  • Mrs. Wanda Cruel
  • Rev. Freddie Harris

Contact

Thank you for your interest. We look forward to hearing from you soon.

Hours of Operation
Monday, Tuesday, Thursday: 8:00 AM - 6:00 PM
Wednesday, Friday: 8:00 AM - 5:00 PM
Saturday, Sunday: Closed
After-Hours Service Available | Call (601) 437-3050

Address
2045 Highway 61 North, Port Gibson, MS 39150

Service Area
Claiborne County and Surrounding Areas, including Warren, Jefferson, Hinds, and Copiah Counties


Watch the video: The History Of The Illusive Man (January 2022).