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Cicely Corbett Fisher

Cicely Corbett Fisher

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Cicely Corbett, the daughter of Charles Corbett and Marie Corbett, was born at Danehill, Sussex in 1885. Cicely and her older sister, Margery Corbett, were educated at home. Charles taught the girls classics, history and mathematics and Marie taught them scripture and the piano. A local woman gave them lessons in French and German.

For many years Charles Corbett and Marie Corbett made public speeches on the subject of women's rights in East Grinstead High Street. East Grinstead was a safe Conservative seat and the crowds were usually very hostile. A survey carried out in 1911 suggested that less than 20% of the women in East Grinstead supported women having the vote in parliamentary elections. In her autobiography, Margery Corbett described how the people of East Grinstead reacted to her parents support of women's rights: "My parents were Liberals… at that period as much hated and distrusted by the gentry as Communists are today, and regarded as traitors to their class. In consequence they boycotted them… I suspect this boycott threw my energetic mother even more fervently into good works amongst the villagers, where, in the days before the welfare state, poverty was widespread."

A friend, Mary Hamilton, later commented: "Marie Corbett, was an ardent Feminist, one small external sign being the fact that she regularly wore the breeches she had taken to when bicycling came in, at least a decade before war-time made them permissible. She was a woman of great drive, active in local affairs and local government and all good causes."

Louisa Martindale was another family friend: "My mother became friends with Marie Corbett of Danehill, a remarkable woman who not only threw herself heart and soul into the cause, but also educated her daughters (now Mrs Margery Corbett Ashby and Mrs Cicely Corbett Fisher) to take the leading place they have in public life."

At the age of fifteen, Cicely, Margery and a group of friends formed a society called the Younger Suffragists. In 1904 Cicely went to Somerville College, Oxford to study Modern History. While at Oxford she was an active member of the local branch of the National Union of Women's Suffrage Societies. Disappointed with the poor record of the Liberal Party with respect to women's suffrage, Cicely and her sister Margery broke away from the Women's Liberal Federation and formed the Liberal Women's Suffrage Group.

After completing her university studies, Cicely went to work with Clementina Black at the Women's Industrial Council, an organisation that campaigned against low pay and bad working conditions. By 1910 women made up almost one third of the working population. The vast majority worked in jobs with low pay and poor conditions. Cicely was also an active member of the Anti-Sweating League and in the years preceding the start of the First World War, she organised several conferences on the subject. At the time sweated labour was defined as "(1) working long hours, (2) for low wages, (3) under insanitary conditions". Most sweated labour took place in the homes of workers. Children employed after school hours in the home were also victims of sweated labour. Cicely Corbett's conferences often included speeches and demonstrations of sweated labour by women from industrial towns and cities.

At a meeting in East Grinstead in May, 1912, Cicely stated: "Chief among these evils of sweated labour is the exploitation of child labour. Children of six years and upwards were employed after school hours, in helping to add to the family output and even infants of 3, 4 and 5 years of age work anything from 3 to 6 hours a day in such labour as carding hooks and eyes to add a few pence per week to the wages of the household."

In 1913 Cicely married the radical journalist, Chalmers Fisher. Both Cicely and Chalmers adopted the surname, Corbett Fisher. After the First World War, Cicely was active in the Labour Party and the Women's International League.

Cicely Corbett Fisher died at Danehill in 1959.

No one can have had a happier childhood than myself, brought up, with a younger brother and sister, in a large, old-fashioned, country house. In my youth I shared every advantage with my brother equally - from love and affection to the best possible education and opportunities, and the critical but unstinted encouragement which to the young is like sunshine to a plant.

My mother became an energetic cyclist, rebuked by her neighbours for showing inches of extremely pretty feet and ankles; regarded as highly indecorous. It was not only to the ankles that the neighbours objected. My parents were Liberals… at that period as much hated and distrusted by the gentry as Communists are today, and regarded as traitors to their class. In consequence they boycotted them… I suspect this boycott threw my energetic mother even more fervently into good works amongst the villagers, where, in the days before the welfare state, poverty was widespread.

We were educated at home. Lessons were divided. Mother took scripture and music… My father taught us history, geography, mathematics and Latin. From the age of four I read everything I could lay my hands on. I remember lying on the floor reading contemporary accounts of the Indian Mutiny and the Crimean War in my grandfather's library, where there was a complete set of Illustrated London News. He had bookshelves to the ceiling… In my father's library the big bookcases also went up to the ceiling.

Margery's mother, Marie Corbett, was an ardent Feminist, one small external sign being the fact that she regularly wore the breeches she had taken to when bicycling came in, at least a decade before war-time made them permissible. She was a woman of great drive, active in local affairs and local government and all good causes. The house was apt to swarm with people. The Corbett's hospitality was in the best English tradition. Friends of Margery, of her younger sister Cicely - extravagantly pretty, and at the time we were at Cambridge, preparing to go Oxford and of her elder brother Adrian, then at Oxford, assembled for dances and week-end parties…. At college Margery was intensely keen on civil liberties, free trade, international good will, democracy… She spends time and energy without stint or personal ambition… She has an immense sense of duty, and must have spent a very large part of her entire life on committees and at meetings. Not to like her is and always has been impossible; she has charm and complete sincerity, and has made a success of life, in its essential relationships. She was a good daughter: she is a good wife and mother. The one boy, born during the 1914 war, when his father was in France with the B.E.F., was, as a baby, so delicate that it did not seem possible he should live; Margery insisted that he should; he has grown up a superb physical specimen.

In the 1860s mother began reading widely, and learnt how Mary Wollstonecraft had vindicated the rights of women in burning words, how Caroline Norton had struggled for her rights over her children, and how Emily Davies and Elizabeth Garrett Anderson showed what determination was needed by young women who wished for academic or professional education. She read Barbara Bodichon's Englishwomen's Journal, which discovered and exposed the obstacles to the employment of educated women, and she learnt about Florence Nightingale and her work on the vast problem of nursing and sanitary administration. In the 1860s women realised that the only way to civil rights, higher education, and equal status lay through the parliamentary franchise… My mother became friends with Marie Corbett of Danehill, a remarkable woman who not only threw herself heart and soul into the cause, but also educated her daughters (now Mrs Margery Corbett Ashby and Mrs Cicely Corbett Fisher) to take the leading place they have in public life.

Sweated labour may be defined as (1) working long hours, (2) for low wages, (3) under insanitary conditions. Although its victims include men as well as women, women form the great majority of sweated workers. The chief difficulty is combating this evil abuse is that nearly all sweated work is done in the homes of the workers. During the recent strike of Jam makers in Bermondsey the wages of the girls only just sufficed to provide them with food, and left no margin whatsoever for the purchase of clothes, for which they were entirely dependent on gifts from friends… Chief among these evils of sweated labour is the exploitation of child labour. Children of six years and upwards were employed after school hours, in helping to add to the family output and even infants of 3, 4 and 5 years of age work anything from 3 to 6 hours a day in such labour as carding hooks and eyes to add a few pence per week to the wages of the household.

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Cicely Corbett was born in 1885 in Danehill, East Sussex, to Charles Corbett, a Liberal Party politician and barrister, and Marie Corbett, a suffragist. Cicely and her older sister Margery Corbett Ashby were taught at home by their parents and another local woman. Both parents were outspoken supporters of womens rights, and at fifteen years old, Cicely formed a society with her sister and their friends called the Younger Suffragists. She began studying modern history at Somerville College, Oxford, in 1904 and there she became involved in the Oxford branch of the National Union of Womens Suffrage Societies. She and Margery left the Womens Liberal Federation due to their disappointment with the Liberal Partys commitment to womens suffrage and, with their mother, they established the Liberal Womens Suffrage Group.

After leaving university, Corbett began working for Clementina Blacks organisation, the Womens Industrial Council, which campaigned for improvements in wages and conditions for working women. She also organised conferences on behalf of the National Anti-Sweating League to demand better working conditions in certain trades. She often organised speeches by exploited women workers and spoke out against child labour.

Corbett married Chalmers Fisher, a liberal journalist, in 1913, and they both adopted the surname Corbett Fisher. They had a daughter, Bridget Gilling, in 1922, and frequently housed students and refugees in their Sussex home. In her later life, Corbett Fisher was an active member of the Labour Party and the Womens International League for Peace and Freedom before her death in 1959.

10 Wild Facts About Northern Exposure

Created by Joshua Brand and John Falsey, Northern Exposure—the Twin Peaks-esque sitcom set in small town Cicely, Alaska (population 215)—premiered on CBS during the summer of 1990. (It was almost called Dr. Snow.) For six seasons and 110 episodes, it followed the adventures of New York City doctor Joel Fleischman (Rob Morrow) and the misfit denizens (and a moose) who lived in town.

Near the end of its run, ratings suffered—and that was before Morrow left the show midway through the final season, in February 1995. As a replacement, the show cast Paul Provenza as yet another doctor who moves to town. Northern Exposure captivated audiences—including viewers in Poland—because though the show dealt with loss, it didn’t get too heavy-handed. Here are 10 wild facts about the show.


European movies like Local Hero, My Life as a Dog, Cinema Paradiso, and Amarcord influenced the show’s creators. “America tends not to make those gentle, warm, offbeat character comedies,” co-creator Joshua Brand told Entertainment Weekly. “We always say that we wanted to create Alaska as a state of mind, a place where people could recreate themselves in a nonjudgmental universe.”



The two auditioned together, and as Morrow told Entertainment Weekly, “When Janine came into the room, it was so clear that she was Maggie.” Morrow said after the audition, they rode in the elevator together. “We’re riding up, and I turn to her and say, ‘It’s just you and me, ya know.’ And she blew me off. Later, she told me she thought I was hitting on her.”


The episode titled “Aurora Borealis: A Fairy Tale for Grown-Ups” aired as the season one finale, in 1990. However, CBS execs thought the episode was “too weird” and so they didn’t want to air it. “Once we knew that people did like this episode, my partner and I turned to each other and we said, ‘We can do anything we want on this show,’ and it was incredibly liberating,” Brand told a crowd at the ATX Television Festival. “We understood that the audience was willing to go on any ride we wanted to take them . It opened up the whole show for us.”



The producers cast Native American actress Elaine Miles as Joel’s receptionist, Marilyn. During the first season, the producers made her talk slowly. “The first scene I did I was supposed to go out and tell Rob that the patients were still talking,” Miles said. “And I said, ‘Can’t I just say, ‘They’re still talking?’ And they said, ‘No, say, ‘They are still talk-ing.’” The producers also made her wear braids, even though she didn’t braid her hair like that in real life.

“The last time I remember wearing braids at home was when I was a little girl, or when I’m in my traditional dress I’ll braid my hair,” she said. “And Mom goes, ‘Well, tell them that.’ So I got up enough nerve to tell them, ‘Well, I don't like what you’re doing with my hair. Can I have it hanging, because Native Americans do let their hair hang down once in a while, and we don’t always wear two braids.’ And then they gradually got into letting me do what I would do with my hair.”


The small town in Washington, located about 80 minutes from Seattle, was the stand-in for Cicely, Alaska. (The Brick bar and other locations were filmed on a soundstage in Redmond, Washington.) When the show was filmed there, it brought jobs and tourism to the economy. Eleven new businesses opened after the show began, and 100 new jobs were created. Coal mining used to be its main economy until that phased out and thousands of people abandoned the town, which currently has a population of 903.

Though tourism dipped when the show went off the air, Roslyn maintains its place in pop culture history. Moosefest takes place every year in the town. Informal Moosefest (hanging out, watching episodes, no scheduled events) took place in July 2017 and formal Moosefest will be held July 27-29, 2018, when actors from the show are expected to attend.



The famous moose that was featured in the opening credits passed away on January 6, 1994 at the age of five. In captivity, moose live to be less than 10 years old whereas moose in the wild can live to be 16. Morty was part of a behavior and nutrition study, which sought to figure out why moose don’t live as long in captivity. To film Morty walking around the town in the credits, the crew lured him with bananas and willow leaves he was paid $5000 for his hard work.


Morrow and Joel departed the show in February 1995. The final shot featured Joel on a boat in New York Harbor, insinuating that the doctor had returned to his pre-Alaska life. Morrow told People he considered a different trajectory for the doctor. “Josh [Brand] always felt that Joel would go back to New York and would step into the life he always wanted [as a big-city physician],” Morrow said. “I didn't care for that ending. He’s on a boat in New York Harbor in the last shot, but I think of it as mythical rather than literal. I’d like to think Joel moved on and didn’t go back to the life you expected.”


John Corbett was cast as radio DJ Chris Stevens, based on a Jack in the Box commercial he starred in. When the show became popular, Corbett hired a publicist and began making appearances on high-profile shows like Entertainment Tonight and The Tonight Show, but things didn’t work out for him, publicity-wise. “I found myself caring more about getting the cover of People Magazine, which I was in the running for at some time, than I cared about the f**king TV show that I was working on that put me in this eye,” Corbett said. “So, the next day I fired my publicist and I never did another press thing ever.” He said he refused to pose for Northern Exposure cast photos, including the reunion ones. “I just went, ‘You know what? I’m just here to act.’”


For 10 episodes, Adam Arkin guest starred as a barefooted recluse chef named Adam, and was nominated for a Guest Actor Emmy for his performance. “The way in which he’s played and the level of hostility is mine,” Arkin told the Orlando Sentinel. Arkin found his wig in the Northern Exposure wardrobe department. “That’s 90 percent of what clued me into playing Adam,” he said. “I love the guy because he essentially knows everything in the world. You never know what he’s going to be an expert in.”

Arkin got his start directing TV when he directed the 1993 Northern Exposure episode “Family Feud.” Since then, he’s directed everything from Chicago Hope to Masters of Sex.


Darren Burrows played Ed Chigliak on the show and published the book Northern Exposed. His production company, Film Farms, is raising money to bring the show back. “Our working title is Northern Exposure: Home Again. We will be authentic. We will remain true to the spirit and values of the show,” Burrows wrote on the show's fundraising page.

At the ATX reunion this summer, the cast—including Morrow—said they'd be open to making another season of Northern Exposure.

The History Of Hospice: A Different Kind Of Health 'Care'

100 years ago today, the movement behind hospice care as born. Or rather, the women who would create a fundamentally different kind of health care was born. Dame Cicely Saunders was a dynamic woman who forever altered the way we think about end of life care. As a nurse, social worker, doctor and writer, she came to work with countless ill individuals. But long before many of her peers, she discovered that those with a terminal diagnosis needed a distinctive approach to care that was unlike anything being done in modern hospitals. Her vision was one of an atmosphere that was truly patient-centered, with specific mental, physical and emotional needs cared for. And to her, this meant removing people with terminal diagnosis from the sterile hospital environments of the 1950’s to their homes with loved ones.

It was Dame Cicely’s belief that every human should live with a, “sense of fulfillment and a readiness to let go.” By today’s standards that may not seem revolutionary, but in the mid-twentieth century she was a pioneer. It was in 1967, in a suburb of London, that she established the first modern hospice: St. Christopher’s. And it was there that her leadership and commitment to holistically meeting patient needs permanently introduced her to the national consciousness – and forced the world to consider psychological and emotional needs as part of the continuum of care.

18th April 1977: Dame Cicely Saunders, Medical Director of St Chrisopher's Hospice in Sydenham, . [+] receives her Doctorate of Medicine from Dr Coggan, Archbishop of Canterbury, at Lambeth Palace in London. (Photo by Frank Barratt/Keystone/Getty Images)

Milestones In The Movement:

  • 1948: Cicely Saunders, a nurse at Archway Hospital in London, falls in love with a man who has only weeks to live. Helping people with life-limiting illnesses get the most out of their final days became her calling.
  • 1967: Cicely Saunders establishes St. Christopher's Hospice in the U.K.
  • 1969: Dr. Elisabeth Kubler-Ross writes a book, On Death and Dying,based on interviews with dying patients. It identifies the five stages through which many terminally ill patients progress. In the best-selling book, Kubler-Ross calls for patient choice and advocates for home care as opposed to treatment in an institution.
  • 1974: Connecticut Hospice in Branford, Connecticut is founded in the U.S.
  • 1978: A U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare task force reports that “the hospice movement as a concept for the care of the terminally ill and their families is a viable concept and one which holds out a means of providing more humane care for Americans dying of terminal illness while possibly reducing costs. As such, it is the proper subject of federal support.”

British Prime Minister, Gordon Brown unveils a new photographic portrait of Dame Cicely Saunders, . [+] founder of the hospice movement, at Kings College Hospital's, Denmark Hill Campus. (Photo by Ian Nicholson - PA Images/PA Images via Getty Images)

Dame Cicely’s work inspired the creation of hundreds of hospices worldwide. Her writing and teaching also cemented a new branch of medicine we call palliative care, or the holistic care of individuals with terminal illness.

Today, the Cicely Sanders Institute at Kings College in London (opened in 2010) houses Cicely Sanders International, which is the global charity Dame Cicely set up herself in 2002 focusing on palliative care practice, research and education. The organization still shares her mission of promoting research to improve care, “for everyone who needs it – in hospice, hospital or at home,” with progressive illness.

During her life she was presented with many awards and titles for her ground-breaking work and personal ethic. This includes the most exclusive club in the world: the Order of Merit, being named a Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire, and being honored with the Conrad N. Hilton Humanitarian Prize. Upon her death, Westminster Abbey held a celebration of her life, and issued a resolution in Dame Cicely Saunders’ honor.

. it is called some principles, not the principles. It was an evolving document to which future generations would have to contribute.

Negative attitudes grew under unified defence towards ideas that had developed previously in an unorganised manner. This led to a Cold War generation claiming the need of another Corbett or Mahan. Cast out was the need to grasp the fundamentals that either had taught to previous generations of thinking-fighting sailors and welcomed in what was the reactionary era that would define future generations. This was entirely misguided. Mahan and Corbett were products of their era and exceptional in their rise to influence by pulling on the necessary and often opportunistic levers available in the time to deliver solutions for contemporary policy debates through the application of scholarly intellectual, original study. Corbett’s texts were to some degree deceptive because the overriding ethos behind many of them was not only to encourage intellectual debate to the benefit of naval policy, but that the development of naval thinking was an on-going process and not, as can often be found in modern scholars’ texts, an attempt to once and for all create a final solution.

A pause or break in the development of naval thinking would be disastrous to both U.S. and British interests. Corbett highlighted this in some subtle key points, such as his admittance that none other than when he had finished Some Principles that it needed to be updated.[3] It is often overlooked by the modern thinker hunting for or writing the complete take on naval thinking that it is called some principles, not the principles. It was an evolving document to which future generations would have to contribute. What has always been necessary are thinkers who could continue Corbett’s work but understand and are able to operate in the unified defence era.

"John Arbuthnot Fisher, 1st Baron Fisher," painted by Sir Hubert von Herkomer (National Portrait Gallery London/Wikimedia)

The Corbettian ethos regarding the on-going development of theory can be demonstrated through its influence on one of Corbett's closest allies, British Admiral Sir John Fisher. The stagnation of a Navy’s strategic thinking, which was a genuine threat in the inter-war years, would likely result in near doom, but more importantly is one of a series of steps towards losing command of the sea. U.S. Naval Historian Arthur Marder’s claims that Fisher “had lost the plot” when Fisher called for the Royal Navy to undergo drastic reform after the First World War were ill founded and poor timed. Marder’s comments was one of the first clear indicators that attitudes toward Corbett’s principles were in the decline, post Second World War. Fisher knew that not only that British strategy would need to be updated but the shape and scope of the fleet had to reflect the experiences of war and include the application of military aircraft as a vital defence asset.[4] Corbett was aware of the strengths and weaknesses of combined operations which was one of the proposed rationales behind defence unification in the U.S. and U.K. He feared that not only the voice of the Royal Navy would get lost in the clamour of Army and Air Force messages but tying one hand behind the Navy's back would stunt the development of service education and dilute broader debate. This clarity of mind was similar to how he had seen the near paralysis of naval policy before the First World War. Fisher’s share of the struggle was to reform a navy that had become far too dependent on the myth rather than the wisdom of Lord Nelson and the original English naval hero Sir Francis Drake. The Second World War would, at least initially, be Corbettian in style. The post-war naval environment was equally challenging. The unification of defence provided the impetus to see Corbett swept aside as nothing more than a ghost of Britain's imperial past while the last of his war course and broader community of students’ influence declined from British and American naval affairs.

Marder and his British contemporary, Stephen Roskill, in the immediate decades after the Second World War were also guilty of failing to continue both Mahan and Corbett’s research and ethos. Rather than finding a balance between original historical study and contributing to policy debate, they became obsessed with not only the engrossing projects before them but also arguing between one another.[5] Marder furthered damaged Corbett’s message in 1961 by underestimating his contribution to British defence.[6] The combination of Marder and the troubles of defence unification would prove lethal to Corbett’s ideas being carried over into unified joint defence education environment. Corbett’s rise was exceptional but the unstructured manner of the development of naval thinking was ill suited for some of the drivers and individuals behind unification. The post-Second World War failure to invest in the on-going development of naval thinking was a distraction that led many to believe that Corbett and Mahan’s concepts were irrelevant. Instead it was an assault on teaching related to maritime strategy. This resulted in an intellectual deficit reflected in the style of defence debate on the Cold War and creating a narrow vision that shaped defence forces in the U.S. and U.K.

During the Falklands War, the destroyer HMS Sheffield was struck by an AM39 Exocet missile fired from an Argentine aircraft six miles away. HMS Sheffield was the first British warship to be lost in action since the Second World War. Twenty members of the crew were killed. (Imperial War Museum)

Marder and Roskill's failure to address Corbett and Mahan set the scene for defence unification where the Royal Navy’s strategic message would be on the back foot until the 1982 Falklands War delivered a bloody nose to defence planners in the U.K. Ministry of Defence. After the Falklands War, senior naval officers such as Admiral Lewin, Chief of the Defence Staff during the crisis, knew that although the Falklands had provided momentum to regenerating British naval thinking, without the institutional culture to do so, the regeneration of British strategic doctrine was still out of reach.[7] The fate of Corbett’s teachings for British defence remained firmly in the hands of civilian historians who were at the time distracted with technological and reactionary advancement while debating the more exceptional points of long past wars which failed to grasp and energise the of the modern decision maker. This played neatly into the hands of those who were promoting other lines of thinking.

As the first Cold War was coming to a close, U.S. Professor John Hattendorf aptly named a conference “Mahan is not enough,” with an aspiration to bring Mahan and Corbett’s works back into the defence intellectual fold. It was a conference on the works of Corbett and one of his students, Admiral Richmond. It was far from a coincidence that after decades of British and American adjustments to the narrow mindset of Cold War reality and global events, but also decades of attempting to make defence unification work, that Corbett’s works could be explored without the hindrance of post Second World War service rivalry and the accusation that they were ignoring the operational challenges of the time. It was partly a turning point where the message that navies do strategy was re-emerging from decades of obscurity. Obscurity that has been partially delivered by both those combative to naval thinking but also some of the very people who were supposed to be positive to sea power.

The question has been asked regarding why the civilian has a role in strategic and theoretical development which relates to military activity. Corbett demonstrated that a close relationship was the only path that worked, where both uniformed and civilian could convert the complex ideas of naval theory into the respective audience’s language. It can also be demonstrated when the military has struggled to reform themselves, particularly in the case of Corbett and the Royal Navy, that it was civilians—particularly historians—who had to ride to the rescue of the military. Trusting completely that the naval officer would be a student of history and maritime strategy during their career was too much of a risk. It was unlikely to take place when other pressures took hold during a career and also institutional mistakes would become indoctrinated deeply skewing their mental processes further into a narrow mindset. Without it, navies were in jeopardy of becoming nothing more than a museum display, where their significant contribution to defence, either in hard or soft power, was downgraded to the detriment of national defence and foreign policy.

The awareness of Corbett’s work not just as a handbook to uniformed personnel but as a contributor to the development of military thought grew into the 21st century. This was demonstrated at the 2017 McMullen Naval History conference held at the U.S. Naval Academy, where it became clear that Corbett, not Mahan, was on many a scholar’s mind. Considering the centenary of the First World War, Corbett would never have written the lessons were learned, but rather what should have happened. This is a complicated premise for thinkers dabbling in discussion on modern defence policy issues to grasp because as much as classic texts may be altered over time, some fundamentals and patterns do not change.

Isolating military history in lessons learned doctrine does little to further national aims. It is a somewhat bitter pill to understand that, at least in naval circles, if you have to relearn something you probably were not listening in the first place or ignored some of the patterns and fundamentals highlighted by both Corbett and Mahan. This is one of the critical challenges of unified defence. Many of Corbett's pupils would go on to shape the maritime strategy and naval tactics of the Second World War and into the immediate post-war period. They were aware they had to redevelop Corbett's ideas and political-service education tactics decades after his death.

This led to a major clash as the move to unified defence progressed. This clash focused on attitudes toward robust debates over strategic thought and theoretical concepts. Many historians and commentators for good or ill have explored the themes that dominated U.K. and U.S. military doctrine and strategic thought after 1945. However, beyond the diplomatic niceties of today’s so-called jointness remains a subtle but consistent thread that unified defence may have confused the advantages of strategic and theoretical debate with the notion that it is inter-service rivalry. This has resulted in debate and in some cases the development of theoretical concepts coming to a halt. Consensus has been placed above conviction, in a sense. Often the pitting of services against each other is confused with the encouragement of previously proven concepts and fresh ideas or with another agenda such as fiscal control. The age of military intellectual enlightenment and quality debate that defined much of 19th and 20th century military thinking has become suppressed today because it is twisted as supposedly encouraging rivalry. This has damaged defence thinking.

The suppression of intellectual debate out of concern for rivalry has resulted in a debate today lacking the intellectual element whose advantages of can be easily seen in the pre-unification era. Many of the past pre-unification debates led to many of the concepts and theories we accept today. Corbett was an example of being in the right place at the right time to inject the much-needed ingredient, intellectual concepts based on the study of history.

Corbett's message remains potent even with the strategic debate deadlock in place. The navy firstly maintains the peace and finishes the fight if necessary, and does so by commanding the seas and influencing other domains. The term warfighting can often become a dangerous path if someone thinks they are going to get into a fight, they will seek one out. In some modern defence establishments, the idea that maintaining the peace is more important than war fighting would be considered heresy. The naval concept that through strategy one maintains the peace is often quickly muted as it diverges from well-trodden paths of the war-like peace of the past few decades and the message the other military services have used to support their own future and concepts.

It is easy to demonstrate the idea that keeping the peace and commanding the seas rather than using force draws hasty and emotional criticism. Consider, for example, Air Marshal Slessor’s calls to essentially scrap the Royal Navy because land-based air power was absolute. The situation in the United States was not entirely dissimilar, and perceptions that the Navy’s roles were niche and overcome by air power strategies and capabilities, were some of the factors that led to the 1948-49 Revolt of the Admirals.

Since the unification deadlock over the benefit of strategic debate and embracing differing concepts and doctrines, more so in the U.K, this has somewhat resulted in maritime strategy being put towards the back of the agenda. The enhancement of capabilities of naval power in the 21st century, such as its reach and influence, have vastly increased from what seemed the post-war era of doom and gloom. Many historians are guilty for casting such gloom into the minds of political leaders as they ignored Corbett and Mahan’s warnings that if navies were put in niche roles it would undermine all the advantages of maritime strategy.

As Lewin expected, the attempt to recover British strategic doctrine was consigned to the responsibility of historians and out of the intellectual grasp of naval personnel. This demonstrated further abandonment of Corbett who could have used operational combat to educate decision makers rather than worry with trying to explain complex strategy that others, such as Mahan, offered. Corbett saw little reason for decision makers to know this level of detail, as the mission of sea and naval power remained the same even if some of the specifics changed. The minds in the highest offices only needed to know the navy formulated the strategy and could get the job done. This is a tactic as relevant then as it is today. As simple as it might sound to use Corbett’s intellectual tactics, the modern British historian, unlike Corbett, does not have the social and political levers that the British Admiralty had built over centuries. Their troubles include the relative loss of the combined intellectual spirit of the minds of the military and civilian personnel working together to combat the overwhelming continental vision such as had gripped British defence since Lord Mountbatten's vanity and disjointed thinking resulted in a hastily created British unified defence. Similar examples might be found in attitudes towards maritime strategy as conflicts that have defined American defence over the past few decades have narrowed the flexibility and vision of American military planners’ minds.

Behind any debate on the contemporary relevance of Corbett is an underlying current for strategically minded thinkers to consider. Firstly, the development of skill is about contributing to the development of ideas, but also being able to locate patterns, ideas, and suggestions rooted in original thought and the study of history. Second is knowing what can be cast aside and what we can ill afford to disregard. The success of Corbett was the close relationship between operationalising history, the team work of historian-military minds and the feedback of experience. Corbett feared that learning, relearning, and repeating was not just far from ideal it was, in fact, far worse than having no pattern at all when it comes to strategic thinking. This warning coupled with the inherent danger of centralising and institutionalising thinking runs the distinct risk of deadlocking the development of strategic and military theory while at the same time ideas becoming stagnant. Avoiding such isolation is a challenge today as it ever has been before if we are to deliver the ongoing development of military thinking. Foremost in our minds should be that we often face the same challenges as Corbett did.

James W.E. Smith is a PhD researcher in the Department of War Studies, Kings College London under the supervision of the Laughton Chair for Naval History, Professor Andrew Lambert. He is also currently a research fellow at the U.S. Naval War College.

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Header Image: HMS Queen Elizabeth sails with the USS George HW Bush and her carrier strike group in 2017. (Reuters)


[1] Lambert, Andrew. "The Naval War Course, Some Principles of Maritime Strategy and the Origins of ‘The British Way in Warfare’." In The British Way in Warfare: Power and the International System, 1856-1956: Essays in Honour of David French, by Keith Neilson and Greg Kennedy, 219. Farnham: Ashgate, 2010.

[2] Armstrong, B. (2018). "Sea Power Matters: A Personal Theory of Power Bringing Balance to the Force." [online] The Strategy Bridge. Available at: https://thestrategybridge.org/the-bridge/2014/5/28/sea-power-matters-a-personal-theory-of-power-bringing-balance-to-the-force [Accessed 11 Jun. 2018].

[3] Lambert, A. (2017). 21st Century Corbett. U.S. Naval Institute Press, Introduction.

[4] Cambridge, Churchill College Archives, FISHR 5/37

[5] See Roskill’s ‘War at Sea’ covering naval operations of the Second World War and Marder’s was writing ‘Dreadnought to Scapa Flow’ cover the First World War and Gough, B. (2010). Historical Dreadnoughts. London: Seaforth.

[6] Marder, A. (1961). From the Dreadnought to Scapa Flow: Volume 1 The Road to War, 1904–1914. Oxford: Seaforth Publishing.

Cicely Corbett Fisher - History

The Corfield family has deep roots in Shropshire. "The Corfield name originated in Shropshire to the east of Church Stretton in the valley of the River Corve in the reign of King Henry II (1154-1189). The name is taken from Corfield village which itself is taken from the river Corve which runs alongside the site. Corfield village does not exist any longer but where it stood, or at least close to its site, is Corfield Farm." (The Corfield Family Tree, corfield.port5.com)

The Corfield Family Tree website cites research by Frederick Channer Corfield (1849-1904), and the book The Corfields - A History of the Corfields from 1180 to the Present Day by Justin J. Corfield, a professor of history in Australia, as the basis for an extensive Corfield pedigree. This pedigree includes the marriage of Joane Corfield to John Meyrick 10 September 1724 in Much Wenlock. Jane or Joane would have only been 15 years old at the time of her marriage. John would be 28 years old. A search of parishes does not provide any other Jane or Joan Corfields within a twenty mile radius. The marriage age was young, but possible. The Corfield family information below is based on the information from these sources, along with parish records and wills when found.

Ralph Corfield was born in about 1680 of Eaton under Heywood, Shropshire, the son of William Corfield and Anne Langford. He married Joyce Frances 9 July 1698 in Easthope, Shropshire. Easthope is a small village and parish about six miles northeast of Eaton. Joyce or Jocosa was christened 19 October 1682 in Much Wenlock, the daughter of Francis Francis and Jocosa Bridgen.

Marriage record for Ralph Corfield and Joyce Frances in Easthope:
"Ralph Corfield of the parish of Eaton and Joyce Frances of the parish of Much Wenlock
were married by license ye 9th day of July"

Ralph was a yeoman farmer in Eaton. Ralph and Joyce had children in the parish of Eaton under Haywood, and Ralph was a churchwarden there: "Ralph Corfield, a yeoman, was churchwarden at Eaton in 1703." (A History of the Corfields)

Ralph Corfield was a churchwarden in Eaton in 1703

Ralph and Joyce had the following children:

1. William, christened 29 August 1701 in Eaton.

2. Ralph, christened 22 April 1703 in Eaton.

3. Anne, christened 17 June 1708 in Eaton.

*4. Joane (Jane), christened 9 November 1709 in Eaton (shown as Joane) married John Meyrick 10 September 1724 in Much Wenlock (shown as Jane) buried 14 December 1741 in Much Wenlock (shown as Jane).

Baptism record for Joane Corfield in Eaton: "Joane daughter of Ralph & Joyce Corfield bapt Nov: 9"

5. John, christened 12 May 1713 in Eaton.

SOURCES: Eaton parish register Easthope parish register, www.findmypast.co.uk The Corfields - A History of the Corfields from 1180 to the Present Day by Justin J. Corfield The Corfield Family Tree, www.corfield.port5.com.

William Corfield was born in about 1635 of Eaton, the son of Ralph Corfield and Joan Dune. He married 1) Elizabeth Cock 3 July 1658 in Rushbury, Shropshire. Elizabeth died and was buried 10 Oct 1662.

William married 2) Anne Langford 5 March 1663 in Stapleton, Shropshire, a parish about eleven miles north of Eaton. Anne came from Sibdon Carwood: "William Corfield, of Uffington and Anne [Langford] of Sipton Carwood were married by licence from the Chancelor". Anne was likely the daughter of Charles and Frances Langford of Sibdon Carwood.

William was a churchwarden at Eaton in 1679.

William and Anne had the following children:

*1. Ralph, born in about 1680 of Eaton married Joyce Frances 9 July 1698 in Easthope.

2. John, born in about 1676 of Eaton died 14 July 1741.

3. Sarah, born in about 1682 of Eaton.

SOURCES: Eaton parish register Easthope parish register, www.findmypast.co.uk The Corfields - A History of the Corfields from 1180 to the Present Day by Justin J. Corfield The Corfield Family Tree, www.corfield.port5.com Stapleton parish register extracted on www.melocki.org..

Ralph Corfield was born in about 1600 of Eaton, the son of Ralph Corbet and Joan Palmer. He married Joan Dune 24 January 1630 in Wroxeter, Shropshire. A note on the Corfield Family Tree stated: "The estate of Ralph Corfield of Ticklerton remained with his descendents until 1812. His estate was valued at £102."

Ralph and Joan had the following children:

1. Sarah, christened 26 January 1634 in Easthope.

*2. William, born in about 1635 of Eaton married Elizabeth Cock 3 July 1658 in Rushbury, Shropshire married Anne Langford 5 March 1663 in Stapleton.

3. George, "George Corfield paid 2 shillings tax for a hearth in 1672." (Corfield Family Tree)

5. Elizabeth, christened 14 August 1653 in Easthope.

SOURCES: Wroxton parish register Eaton parish register Easthope parish register, www.findmypast.co.uk The Corfields - A History of the Corfields from 1180 to the Present Day by Justin J. Corfield The Corfield Family Tree, www.corfield.port5.com.

Baptism record for Ralph Corfield in Rushbury:
"Ralfe the sone of Ralfe Corfield was baptized the same daye"

Ralph and Joan had the following children:

*1. Ralph, born in about 1600 of Eaton married Joan Dune 24 January 1630 in Wroxeter died in 1683.

2. George, buried 30 December 1674 in Hopesay, Shropshire "George Corfield moved to Clunbury." (Corfield Family Tree)

SOURCES: Rushbury parish register Wroxton parish register Eaton parish register Easthope parish register, www.findmypast.co.uk The Corfields - A History of the Corfields from 1180 to the Present Day by Justin J. Corfield The Corfield Family Tree, www.corfield.port5.com British History Online – Eaton under Heywood.

From the introduction to The Registers of Eaton-under-Heywood: "From the Lyteltons Ralph Corfield purchased 600 acres in Longville, and died in 1573 seised of a messuage etc. in Longville held of the Crown in capite, having settled these lands on his son and heir William who was then 8 years old. Proof of age was made in 1586."

Ralph left a will proven 25 August 1573 in the Prerogative Court of Canterbury:

Will of Ralph Corfield of Longfield in the parish of Eaton, 1573, PCC

Will of Ralph Corfield of Eaton, 25 Aug 1573, PCC

Ralph and Alice had the following children:

1. William, born in 1565.

4. Frannces (daughter)

*6. Ralph, christened 3 May 1573 in Rushbury, Shropshire married Joan Palmer.

SOURCES: Rushbury parish register The Corfields - A History of the Corfields from 1180 to the Present Day by Justin J. Corfield The Corfield Family Tree, www.corfield.port5.com The Registers of Eaton-under-Heywood, on www.melocki.org.uk Transactions of the Shropshire Archaeological and Natural History Society.

John Corfield was born in about 1520, the son of Richard Corfield and Ann Acton. He married Johanna Warter, the daughter of John Warter of Cardington.

"John Corfield of Chatwall and Longville - A commission was held at Hughley in 1590 to decide whether Preen belonged to Wenlock Abbey. Both John and Johanna gave evidence. As a result, Sir John Castle, late Prior of Preen, gave them an 80 year lease of the Manor of Preen. Thus John was able to lease his land at Chatwall and Longville to his eldest son Thomas when he died." (Corfield Family Tree)

John died 9 March 1593, and was buried 16 March 1593 in Cardington church: "Buried in the family vault under the chancel of Cardington Church." (Corfield Family Tree)

Johanna was mentioned in subsidy rolls: "Johanna is noted in the 1597 and 1610 subsidy rolls and in a deed of 1st January 1610 relating to the lands in Longville which is witnessed by two of her sons, Richard of Oxenbold, and William." (Corfield Family Tree)

John and Johanna had the following children:

1. Thomas, buried 22 February 1598 in Cardington.

*2. Ralph, born about 1540 married Alice Adddams died 2 July 1573.

SOURCES: The Corfields - A History of the Corfields from 1180 to the Present Day by Justin J. Corfield The Corfield Family Tree, www.corfield.port5.com.

Richard Corfield was born in about 1500, the son of John Corfield and Johanna Langford. He married Ann Acton. Ann was the eldest daughter of Richard Acton and Cicely Mytton.

"Lord of the manor of Longville and also of Chatwall Hall, Cardington, Shropshire (both places are close to Corfield). Richard Corfield is named in a will dated 1572 when he paid a tax on lands in Cardington, and on 7th April 1582 he bought lands from Sir John Smith at Stoke St. Milborough." (Corfield Family Tree)

Richard and Ann had the following children:

1. William, born 1512 left a will dated 23 November 1599.

*2. John, born about 1520 married Johanna Warter died 9 March 1593 buried 16 March 1593 in Cardington, Shropshire.

SOURCES: The Corfields - A History of the Corfields from 1180 to the Present Day by Justin J. Corfield The Corfield Family Tree, www.corfield.port5.com.

John Corfield was born in about 1480, the son of Richard Corfied and Abigail de Lutwyche. He married Johanna Langford, the daughter of James Langford.

"John Corfield of Chatwall Hall sold the village of Corfield in about 1530 after the old timbered house there burnt down. John Corfield also owned lands in Longville and Chatwall. In 1505 he obtained an 81 year lease on lands in Church Preen from the last Prior of Church Preen. He also built the family vault under the chancel in St. James Church, Cardington." (Corfield Family Tree)

John died in 1561, and was buried in Cardington.

John and Johanna had the following children:

*1. Richard, born about 1500 married Ann Acton

2. Ralph, died 2 July 1573.

3. Thomas, buried 3 September 1600.

4. William, buried 31 May 1579.

SOURCES: The Corfields - A History of the Corfields from 1180 to the Present Day by Justin J. Corfield The Corfield Family Tree, www.corfield.port5.com.

Richard Corfield of Corfield, Longville and Chatwall, Shropshire, was born in about 1455, the son of Richard Corfield and Margaret Chirchman. He married Abigail de Lutwyche., the daughter of John de Lutwyche of Lutwyche Hall.

Richard and Abigail had the following children:

*1. John, born about 1480 married Johanna Langford died 1561.

SOURCES: The Corfields - A History of the Corfields from 1180 to the Present Day by Justin J. Corfield The Corfield Family Tree, www.corfield.port5.com.

Richard Corfield was born in about 1430, the son of Richard Corfield and Margaret de Bittersley. He married Margaret Chirchman, the daughter of John Chirchman.

"Richard Corfield of Stanton Long was living in Great Wenlock in 1461." (Corfield Family Tree)

Richard and Margaret had the following children:

*1. Richard, born in about 1455 married Abigail de Lutwyche.

3. John, died in 1482.

SOURCES: The Corfields - A History of the Corfields from 1180 to the Present Day by Justin J. Corfield The Corfield Family Tree, www.corfield.port5.com.

Richard Corfield was born in about 1400, the son of Richard Corfield and Margaret Corbett. He married Margaret de Bittersley, the daughter of Roger de Bittersley of Longville.

Richard and Margaret had the following children.

*1. Richard, born in about 1450 married Abigail Chirchman.

3. John, (John de Corve) died 1437 "John de Corve attended Winchester College in 1398. The school had been founded by William de Wykeham in 1394, and John was one of the first pupils there. In 1399 he attended New College Oxford becoming a fellow there in 1410. He lived at University College Oxford from 1416-1420 and was rector of Saham Toney, Norfolk from 1415 until his death in 1437." (Corfield Family Tree)

4. William (William de Corve), died 1417 "Sir William Corve was a priest in the Hereford Diocese, being first recorded in 1400 when he rented a school from Exeter College, Oxford. By the following year he was a fellow at Oriel College, Oxford. On 12th February 1405 William was admitted as Rector of Stretton-in-the-Dale, Herefordshire and on 28th December 1413 became a portioner of Cold Hall, Pontesbury, Salop. By 1409 William had a Master of Arts and Doctorate in Theology. In March 1415 he was appointed Provost at Oriel and on 6th June 1416 he was presented as Rector of Hanbury Staffordshire. William died in Contance in 1417 and was buried in St Stephen's Church there with a funeral oration given by Bishop Richard Flemyng of Lincoln. He left a will, dated 12 November 1414, which was proven on 13th September 1417 at Canterbury. In it he left 10 pounds and 5 shillings for building the nave of Stretton Church, and mentions 'his books St Gregory & St. Crisostom which his mother Margareta Bittersley had.' Indeed 'Liber omeliarum beati Gegorii et sancti Johannis Cristostomi' is held at Oriel College as is another manuscript book which belonged to William." (Corfield Family Tree)

SOURCES: The Corfields - A History of the Corfields from 1180 to the Present Day by Justin J. Corfield The Corfield Family Tree, www.corfield.port5.com.

Richard Corfield was born in about 1375, the son of Richard de Corve and Cicely Strelley. He married Margaret Corbett, the daughter of Roger Corbett of Moreton Corbett.

Richard and Margaret had the following children:

*1. Richard, born in about 1400 married Margaret de Bittersley.

2. John, died about 1414 "The petty sessions mentions John Corhull of Bradley who had a cow stolen in 1414 and his brother William Corhull at Weston near Monkhopton who had 8 cows and 2 bullocks stolen for which he had paid John £4." (Corbett Family Tree)

SOURCES: The Corfields - A History of the Corfields from 1180 to the Present Day by Justin J. Corfield The Corfield Family Tree, www.corfield.port5.com.

Richard de Corve was born in about 1340, the son of Richard de Corhull and Alice. He married Cicely Strelley, the daughter of Sir Nicholas Strelley.

Richard died 11 September 1364 and was buried in Cardington, Shropshire. Cicely died 18 June 1390 and is buried in Cardington.

"Richard de Corve was murdered by Robert Fitz-Robert of Kilmasock. An inscription on a grave in Cardington which was recorded in 1765, which has not survived.

Here lyeth ye bodyes of
Rych Corfelde, Arm and Dame Cicely, his wiffe,
daughter to Syr Nicholas Strelley, Kynight.
Richard dyethe
11 daye of September, in ye yere of our Lorde God
She dyed 18 daye of Iune MCCCLXXXX
On whose soules God have mercie

Richard and Cicely were the first Corfields to be associated with the parish of Cardington." (Corfield Family Tree)

Richard and Cicely had the following children:

*1. Richard, born in about 1360 married Margaret Corbett.

SOURCES: The Corfields - A History of the Corfields from 1180 to the Present Day by Justin J. Corfield The Corfield Family Tree, www.corfield.port5.com.

Richard de Corhull was born in the early 1300s, the son of Roger de Corfhull. He married Alice.

"The 1327 Lay Subsidy Roll records Ric'o de Corfhull paying 18d in taxes. Lord of Corfhull 1328-1338. Juror at Brockton in January 1320." (Corfield Family Tree)

Richard and Alice are mentioned in a Feet of Fines document 13 October 1328:

Feet of Fines for Richard and Alice de Corve, 1328

Richard and Alice had the following children:

*1. Richard, born about 1340 married Cicely Strelley died 11 September 1354.

2. John, "John de Corve is noted in a 'letter of Attorney' dated November 1367 when he took possession of Engelardesland at Muckley, Acton Round." (Corbett Family Tree)

3. Roger, "Roger de Corfhull was a priest at Easthope where he was presented by Richard, Earl of Arundel on 10th September 1349." (Corbett Family Tree)

Roger de Corfhull was born in the late 1200s, the son of Roger de Corfhull. "Roger de Corfhull witnessed two deeds. One between Roger de Seleyer and Sir Robert de Larendone on 14th October 1345 and the other about Thongelonde. He was a juror at Brockton in January 1320". (Corfield Family Tree)

Roger and his wife had the following children:

*1. Richard, married Alice.

2. William, "The 1327 Lay Subsidy Roll records Will'o de Corfhull paying 12d in taxes." (Corfield Family Tree)

SOURCES: The Corfields - A History of the Corfields from 1180 to the Present Day by Justin J. Corfield The Corfield Family Tree, www.corfield.port5.com.

Roger de Corfhull was born in the mid-1200s, the son of Roger Fitzwilliam de Corvehill. "Roger de Corfhull witnessed a deed of Sir Walter de Beysine in 1274 and in May 1295 was a juror at a Holdgate inquest." (Corfield Family Tree)

Roger and his wife had the following children:

SOURCES: The Corfields - A History of the Corfields from 1180 to the Present Day by Justin J. Corfield The Corfield Family Tree, www.corfield.port5.com.

Roger Fitzwilliam de Corvehill was born in the early 1200s, the son of William de Corfhull. "Between 1251 and 1262 Roger Fitzwilliam de Corvehill sold lands in Old Corfhull to his brother Richard. Also Roger grants a parcel of his land in Corfhull, half acre between the River Corve and the Old Park, formerly Robert de Girros, and surrenders all rights within the enclosure of the said Park. The Prior [of Wenlock] grants to Roger free pasture, except for swine and goats, in such fallow-land in Oxenbold as lay outside his Parks, Woods and meadows, so that no right of common-pasture could be demanded within the fences of the Prior's New Park in Oxenbold." (Corfield Family Tree)

Roger and his wife had the following children:

SOURCES: The Corfields - A History of the Corfields from 1180 to the Present Day by Justin J. Corfield The Corfield Family Tree, www.corfield.port5.com.

William de Corfhull was born in the early 1200s, the son of Philip de Corve and Julianna de Stanton. "William de Corfhull was Lord of Stanton and Corfhull. He appears in the records of the circuit court in 1256, along with the village. "William of Corvedale, a clerk, killed William of Ireland in Westbury and promptly fled and is of ill repute. So let him be exacted and outlawed. The first finder comes and is not of ill repute. Marche and Wigmore did not make pursuit and are in mercy." (Corfield Family History)

William and his wife had the following children:

2. Richard, "In 1250 there is a mention of a grant of two acres of fields in Corfhull butting onto the lands called Medowcross, Capegreve, Old Corfhull and Luttlemorl, which were bought freehold by Richard for 11 shillings. There is also a mention of Richard in a charter dated 1260." (Corfield Family Tree)

SOURCES: The Corfields - A History of the Corfields from 1180 to the Present Day by Justin J. Corfield The Corfield Family Tree, www.corfield.port5.com.

Philip de Corve was born in the late 1100s, the son of Thomas de Corve. He married Julianna de Stanton, the daughter and co-heir of the Lord of Stanton Long.

"Philip de Corve or Corfe attested a land deed in 1230 in which he gained an acre of woodland in Calverly from Stephen, Lord of Patinton the deed being witnessed by John de Corve, Warin de Bradeley. Godwin de Esthop, and Reg'o de Wostun." (Corfield Family Tree)

Philip and Julianna had the following children:

SOURCES: The Corfields - A History of the Corfields from 1180 to the Present Day by Justin J. Corfield The Corfield Family Tree, www.corfield.port5.com.

Thomas de Corve was born in the mid-1100s. "A dispute between Thomas and Walter de Corve and William of Brockton over the ownership of Corfield village went to the 1203 Shropshire assizes. Thomas and Walter located one of the witnesses to their father's purchase of Corfield, a Warin de Burwaridesleia, and won their case. "Hugh de Wodenorton, Mankolun de Arlega, Philip de Stapleton, Hamon Morescot, 4 knights summoned to choose 12 to make an acknowledgement between William, son of Robert, and Walter de Corve and Thomas de Corve touching 2 carucates of land, with the appurtances in Corve, whereof the same Walter and Thomas, who are tenants, put themselves on the grand assize of the Lord the King and asked that an acknowledgement be made whether they have greater right in the land aforesaid, or the aforesaid William, came and chose these: William de Middlehope, Hugh de Lega, Roger de Begesoure, Hugh de Sudbury, William Boterel, Warner de Wililega, William de Hopton, William de Suresis, Martin de Castello, Hugh de Upton, Henry Christian, Warin de Burwaridesleia, William Burnel, Elias de Say, William son of Walter, Robert de Gatacre. Who having been sworn, say that Walter and Thomas have greater right in that land than the aforesaid William. And therefore let the aforesaid Walter and Thomas have and hold their land in peace for ever quit from the said William and from his heirs. And William is in mercy. And be it known that Ralph de Wellesford and the other knights sent to the aforesaid Thomas, who is sick, that they might hear who he wished to attorn therein, say that he put in his place Walte de Corve to gain." (Corfield Family Tree)

Thomas and his wife had the following children:

*1. Philip, married Julianna de Stanton.

SOURCES: The Corfields - A History of the Corfields from 1180 to the Present Day by Justin J. Corfield The Corfield Family Tree, www.corfield.port5.com.

Ralph de Corve was born in the early 1100s, the son of Edward de Corve. "Ralph de Corve took possession of Corfield village from Robert son of Nicholas Brockton in 1180. The land deed is the first mention of Corfield by name, which Ralph's descendants assumed as their surname. "Let it be known, both now and in the future, that I, Robert son of Nicholas, yield Corve, the woods, the fields, the meadows and the water, as well as anything else, which had belonged to me, to Ralph, son of Edward, and his heirs, in [feudal] inheritance for ever, on behalf of me and my heirs, free and exempt from all service as required for the sum of 15 shillings and in exchange for homage which he must give me, and two silver pieces which he gave, and to which my wife affirms." (Corfield Family Tree)

Ralph and his wife had the following children:

SOURCES: The Corfields - A History of the Corfields from 1180 to the Present Day by Justin J. Corfield The Corfield Family Tree, www.corfield.port5.com.

Edward de Corve was born in the early 1100s. "Edward is the earliest known Corfield who lived in Corve from about 1150 and died in the 1170s. The reference to Edward is in the Land Deed where his son Ralph purchases Corfield village from Robert Brockton." (Corfield Family Tree)

30 years on, the magical realism of "Northern Exposure" is a gentle balm for our cabin fever

By Ashlie D. Stevens
Published September 10, 2020 5:00PM (EDT)

Rob Morrow played Dr. Joel Fleischman on "Northern Exposure" (CBS)


"Hey, let's check our social calendar. Nothing, total blank." This line reads like a moody tweet that any of us could have sent last night. Or the night before — or, frankly, anytime since a global pandemic was declared in early March. But it's actually the first line of a 1994 episode of the CBS comedy-drama "Northern Exposure," delivered by disc jockey Chris Stevens (John Corbett) to the residents of the fictional town of Cicely, Alaska.

The town isn't in the midst of a viral outbreak, but they are experiencing their annual "solar drought," the two months of the year when there is only an average of an hour and a half of sunlight a day. The freezing temperatures are brutal, and the darkness is isolating.

"It's cabin fever season people, that time of year when four walls feel like they're going to come in here and choke the spirit right out of you," Chris says. "Time to lock away those firearms and hang tough. No way through it except to do it."

The first time I watched the series a couple years back, those lines didn't leave much of an imprint. My boyfriend had methodically bought up seasons of the show as the DVDs came available on eBay and Amazon (the series, unfortunately, isn't currently streaming anywhere), and we leisurely watched them, several episodes at a time, over the Christmas holiday but that bit of dialogue definitely hits differently after months of quarantine.

So, too, does the entire show. Thirty years after its premiere, it's a balm for social isolation, with its gentle interrogation of the ways in which myth, folklore and fantasy inform our internal lives — and what happens when we eventually take those parts of ourselves out into public again.

The series opens as a typical "fish out of water" story. Dr. Joel Fleischman (Rob Morrow) is a neurotic New York City physician who applied for a state-run scholarship program that would pay his tuition expenses if he agreed to be stationed in Alaska post-graduation. Initially, he's supposed to take a residency in Anchorage, but he ends up in Cicely, a very remote fishing village just at the edge of the wilderness.

The culture shock narrative helps drive the show's first season — the man just wants to know where to get a good bagel! — and guides Joel's interactions with the town members, all of whom vary in their eccentricities. In the daily rotation, there's ex-astronaut and millionaire Maurice J. Minnifield (Barry Corbin) bush pilot Maggie O'Connell (Janine Turner) who has a string of former boyfriends who have died in freak accidents beauty pageant winner Shelly Tambo (Cynthia Geary) and her much-older — by 44 years — boyfriend Holling Vincoeur (John Cullum), a hunter and bar owner who was born in the Yukon Ed Chigliak (Darren E. Burrows), a young Native American man who is sweet, but a little hapless, and dreams of becoming a documentary filmmaker and Chris Stevens, the local DJ, conceptual sculptor and de facto town philosopher.

As in a lot of shows about remote small towns — from "Green Acres" to "Schitt's Creek" — Cicely seems to exist in a universe all its own, built on unique traditions and around its inhabitants' idiosyncratic personalities. This sense of singularity served as an ideal foundation for some of the show's more surrealistic turns.

Joshua Brand, co-creator of "Northern Exposure" was once quoted as saying, "We used Alaska more for what it represents than what it is. It is disconnected both physically and mentally from the lower 48, and it has an attractive mystery." As such, fact and fiction blend in "Northern Exposure," and Joel's initial culture shock, which propelled the show, soon morphs into a kind of dreamy discourse on the topics of personal and communal discovery.

It's not a shock that David Chase, who served as a showrunner on the series' final two seasons, eventually wrote and produced "The Sopranos," which used similar dips into surrealism and dreams to show-stopping effect in episodes like "Join the Club" or "The Test Dream." There are also obvious parallels to the magical realism in "Twin Peaks," which debuted the same year as "Northern Exposure," though is decidedly darker in tone. (Fun fact: The fifth episode of "Northern Exposure" pays tribute to "Twin Peaks" in a dream sequence.)

On "Northern Exposure," there are entire episodes in which the action that takes place is contained wholly within Joel's mind, like when he ingests a Native American herbal remedy and is mentally transported to an alternate New York, filled with wildly different versions of the town members. There are also episodes where the distinction between fantasy and reality is blurred, like when Joel bumps his head in an early episode and has fantasies about "Jules," his good-for-nothing twin who shows up suddenly in Cicely. Is Jules real? Probably not literally, but he's definitely a part of Joel (something that I think Freud, who shows up in a jail cell in this episode, would have thoughts on).

There are characters who are on decidedly more intentional spiritual journeys. Ed, who was abandoned by his mother when he was a newborn and raised by the Tlingit tribe, knows that there is a world outside of Cicely — it's revealed that he's apparently pen pals with Woody Allen, Steven Spielberg, and Martin Scorsese — but doesn't quite know how to reach it. He seeks help from his spirit guide, from One Who Waits (played by Floyd Red Crow Westerman, and who is invisible to almost everyone but Ed) and eventually begins to train to become a shaman.

Meanwhile Chris, who spends mornings on-air waxing poetic about topics ranging from Carl Jung to motorcycle repair, is constantly evaluating his own metaphysical connections. One of my favorite examples of this from the series is found late in the fourth season, simply titled "Revelations."

"Hey folks, I've just come back from a short cruise on the river of spiritual renewal," he says on the radio. "You might be wondering, were my goals met? Did I have that transcendent moment, the epiphany? You bet I did."

Over the course of the episode, we watch as Chris attempts to find his "innermost secret center" while spending time at a monastery. While there, he thoroughly enjoys his sparse surroundings — until he finds himself overcome by lust for one of the resident monks. Meanwhile, Joel becomes restless after being without a patient for two weeks he doesn't know how to sit still, and the residents attempt to teach him. The contrast between the two men is striking, and endlessly relatable, both then and now.

That's what makes "Northern Exposure" so enduringly poignant.

In the town of Cicely, there are very few people that are portrayed as just straight-out bad. Egotistical or exasperating? Sure, but at this show's center is an understanding that we are all just human and, as such, are just trying to get by. We do that in different ways — reminiscing about our days in space, delving into the works of the literary greats, dreaming about the days that we can have something again that we once thought was a give, like a good bagel.

"The 'nonjudgmental universe' [of 'Northern Exposure' ]isn't just about acceptance," wrote critic Brian Doan in his remembrance of the show on its 25th anniversary. "But an openness that allows people the space to be screw-ups, to be selfish, and annoying, and paradoxical at every turn."

And when we are isolated from one another, either through solar drought or global pandemic, it's easy to grow restless, much like Joel did again and again while transitioning from the big city to Cicely. But, of course, Chris had something to say about that. In the first season's third episode, he tells Joel that it's okay to ground himself in the present, without thinking about what used to be or what's on the horizon.

"The way I see it, if you're here for four more years or four more weeks – you're here right now," he said. "You know, and I think when you're somewhere you ought to be there, and because it's not about how long you stay in a place. It's about what you do while you're there. And when you go, is that place any better for you having been there?"

May 9: The first results of the trial appear

In Atlanta, another snag cropped up. A courier service was trying to deliver vaccines for the Emory leg of the trial from a repository at Fisher BioServices in Germantown, Maryland. However, flights from the nation&rsquos capital kept getting canceled as the country was finally shutting down. That was a problem, because the vaccine solution would degrade if it was not kept frigidly cold.

After two days of delays at Reagan National Airport near Washington, D.C., a courier service that specializes in shipping medical products gave up on flights and used its own delivery vehicles to drive down to Atlanta instead. It packed the vaccine containers in dry ice, dropping them off late the evening of March 26.

The first shot was given there the next morning &ndash nearly two weeks after Haller had kicked off the Phase 1 trial.

Anderson worked from early morning to late at night managing the trial. A key part of the analysis, being done largely at Vanderbilt University, was to test the subjects&rsquo blood samples for antibodies that would block the virus. That data was discussed in regular conference calls with Graham and the team at NIH, along with others involved in analyzing the data.

Accounts vary on exactly when the researchers knew the trial was a success. Anderson remembers seeing the data on his computer Jackson remembers hearing about it in a conference call.

Graham pegs it to an email from researchers at Vanderbilt on May 9. They had the results of antibodies examined from the first eight volunteers, including Haller. The tall S curves on the chart told the story &ndash the higher the top of the S, the better. When Vanderbilt researchers took antibodies from the volunteers&rsquo blood and tested them on infected cells in the laboratory, the virus stopped replicating.

Graham was expecting the vaccine to produce neutralizing antibodies, but not this strong. The highest dose tested was dropped because it produced the most side effects, including fever, but otherwise there were no major safety concerns.

In a conference call with all the key players, the team gave each other verbal high fives &ndash &ldquoWow!&rdquo and &ldquoThank you!&rdquo &ndash for a job well done.

On May 18, Moderna made the unusual decision to release those early findings in a press release. The company&rsquos stock soared that day, up 250% since December. Haller figured out she probably was one of the eight volunteers studied &ndash and was pleased that the vaccine seemed to work.

Within days, Moderna announced plans for a 600-volunteer Phase 2 trial to establish a dose. That trial was barely underway when the company started crafting the Phase 3 study, which would balloon to 30,000 participants, using the most promising dose from Phase 1 instead. Time was of the essence.

They believed the vaccine was safe now they had to see whether it worked.


In the 1970s, a Cheyenne Indian named Richard Tall Bull started to push for a place where Denver’s Native American community could come together for ceremonies and celebrations. He picked a seventy-acre site at the northern edge of Daniels Park, and in 1977 Denver agreed to grant exclusive use of the land—called the Tall Bull Memorial Grounds—to a consortium of local Indian groups later known as the Tall Bull Memorial Council. In 1997 Mayor Wellington Webb extended the agreement for another twenty-five years. For most of the year the Tall Bull Memorial Grounds is open only to Native Americans, but on Labor Day Weekend the Tall Bull Memorial Council hosts a powwow that is open to the public.

Daniels Park was once in the middle of open plains, buttes, and ravines, but since the 1980s it has been abutted to the east by development in nearby Castle Pines. The park’s views west to the mountains, however, remain unimpeded. In 1995 the park was listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Today it forms part of a 12,000-acre open space that is bounded by Castle Pines on the east, Highlands Ranch on the north, and US 85 on the west and south. In addition to Daniels Park, the open space includes Highlands Ranch Backcountry Wilderness and Cherokee Ranch.

By the late 1990s, as nearby development resulted in more traffic in and around Daniels Park, Denver (which owns the park) and Douglas County (which maintains Daniels Park Road) started working together to implement a variety of park and road improvements. In 2006 Daniels Park received a State Historical Fund grant of more than $80,000 to restore the exterior of the historic Martin Ranch barn. In 2007 a master plan for the park was completed, and in 2008–9 Douglas County performed the first phase of improvements to Daniels Park Road. A new trail and trailhead opened in 2014, and construction of more trails, parking lots, and buffalo-viewing areas continued in 2015. The final round of improvements in the more than $3.5 million project—including paving and rerouting Daniels Park Road and building a trail parallel to the road—is slated for completion in 2017–18.

Watch the video: Woman Becomes Internet HERO for Beat Down on Racist Lady (May 2022).


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