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Coin Depicting Roman Emperor Tetricus

Coin Depicting Roman Emperor Tetricus


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One Time Gallic Emperor Defeated by Aurelian depicted on coins in British Hoard

News of the discovery of over 52,000 Roman coins in southwest England near the town of Frome, many depicting Tetricus, really excited me. There were even a few depicting Marcus Aurelius Carausius a military commander who seized power in the late third century and proclaimed himself emperor of Britain and northern Gaul. I had to do a little research since most of my study has focused on the Roman Republic and the early Empire so I was unfamiliar with Tetricus although Carausius appeared in "The Silver Branch" one of my favorite novels by Rosemary Sutcliff .

Caius Pius Esuvius Tetricus is one of the so-called thirty tyrants listed in the Historia Augusta of the secessionist Gallic Empire, a breakaway realm founded by Postumus, a one-time governor of Germania, in 260 CE after repeated barbarian invasions brought instability to the Roman Empire. At its height the Gallic Empire encompassed the territories of Germania, Gaul, Britannia, and Hispania.

[Coin depicting Tetricus I. Image from Rasiel's Roman Imperial Type Set courtesy of Wikimedia Commons.]

Although Postumus was assassinated in 268 CE and the empire lost much of its territory, it continued under a succession of emperors including the last, Tetricus, until he was defeated by the Roman Emperor Aurelian at the Battle of Châlons in 274 CE.

A slab dedicated to Sol Invictus and to the
Genius of the Emperors Chosen Horse Guards
- Equites Singulares. Photographed at the
National Museum of Rome galleries in the remains
of the Baths of Diocletian, Rome, Italy by
Mary Harrsch.
Aurelian's act of clemency not only served the Empire but perhaps was an expression of his deeper spiritual beliefs He also did not execute Queen Zenobia of Palmyra when he defeated her troops in the east following their rebellion. It's too bad his own troops didn't harbor as much clemency for him as he was murdered by his own staff on his way to Persia. Especially ironic considering that Aurelian laid the foundation for "one god, one empire", proclaiming the god Sol Invictus as the central figure in the Roman Pantheon. Constantine managed to garner all the glory for adopting one god for the Roman Empire but Aurelian was there first. Religious scholars will argue that Constantine adopted Christianity not a pagan god but there were times when Constantine referred to Sol Invictus in his iconography and scholars still argue if Constantine was truly promoting Christianity or unification of the empire through the worship of a single god as Aurelian had tried to do.

Back in October 2009, a couple of researchers argued in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science that large numbers of coin hoards are a good quantitative indicator of population decline. They also pointed out that in periods of social upheaval we are familiar with like the Second Punic War, the Social Wars, and the civil wars, hoarding behavior soared.[See Wired Science]

Although they were studying coin hoards from the second and first century BCE, their theory would indicate that there are a lot more hoards from the third century CE still waiting to be found, as we know from the historical record that the third century was a period of massive social upheaval. Maybe I'd better ship my husband and his metal detector off to England as an investment strategy!


Contents

Macrinus was born in Caesarea Mauretaniae (modern Cherchell, Algeria) in the Roman province of Mauretania to an equestrian family of Berber origins. [2] According to David Potter, his family traced its origins to the Berber tribes of the region and his pierced ear was an indication of his Berber heritage. [3] He received an education which allowed him to ascend to the Roman political class. [4] Over the years, he earned a reputation as a skilled lawyer and, under Emperor Septimius Severus, he became an important bureaucrat. Severus' successor Caracalla later appointed him a prefect of the Praetorian Guard. [4] [5]

While Macrinus probably enjoyed the trust of Emperor Caracalla, this may have changed when, according to tradition, it was prophesied that he would depose and succeed the emperor. [4] Macrinus, fearing for his safety, resolved to have Caracalla murdered before he was condemned. [6]

In the spring of 217, Caracalla was in the eastern provinces preparing a campaign against the Parthian Empire. [7] [8] Macrinus was among his staff, as were other members of the Praetorian Guard. In April, Caracalla went to visit a temple of Luna near the site of the battle of Carrhae and was accompanied only by his personal guard, which included Macrinus. [7] On 8 April, while traveling to the temple, Caracalla was stabbed to death by Justin Martialis, a soldier whom Macrinus had recruited to commit the murder. [7] [9] In the aftermath, Martialis was killed by one of Caracalla's men. [7]

For two or three days, Rome remained without an emperor. [6] [9] [10] By 11 April, Macrinus had proclaimed himself emperor and assumed all of the imperial titles and powers, without waiting for the Senate. [6] The army backed his claim as emperor and the Senate, so far away, was powerless to intervene. [11] Macrinus never returned to Rome as emperor and remained based in Antioch for the duration of his reign. [12] Macrinus was the first emperor to hail from the equestrian class, rather than the senatorial and also the first emperor of Mauretanian descent. [13] He adopted the name of Severus, in honor of the Severan dynasty, and conferred the imperial title of Augusta to his wife Nonia Celsa [note 1] and the title of Caesar and name of Antoninus to his son Diadumenianus in honor of the Antonine dynasty, thus making him second in command. [13] [15] [16] [17] [18] At the time of Diadumenian's accession he was eight years old. [19]

Despite his equestrian background, Macrinus was accepted by the Senate for two reasons: for the removal of Caracalla, and for having received the loyalty of the army. [11] [20] The senators were less concerned by Macrinus' Mauretanian ancestry than by his equestrian social background and scrutinized his actions as emperor. [6] Their opinion of him was reduced by his decisions to appoint men to high offices who were of similarly undistinguished background. [6] Only the Senate had the constitutional power to choose the emperor from among the senators and Macrinus, not being a senator and having become emperor through force rather than through traditional means, was looked down upon. [11]

Macrinus had several issues that he needed to deal with at the time of his accession, which had been left behind by his predecessor. As Caracalla had a tendency towards military belligerence, rather than diplomacy, this left several conflicts for Macrinus to resolve. [21] Additionally, Caracalla had been a profligate spender of Rome's income. [22] Most of the money was spent on the army he had greatly increased their pay from 2,000 sesterces to 3,000 sesterces per year. [23] [24] The increased expenditures forced Caracalla to strip bare whatever sources of income he had to supply the difference. [22] This shortfall left Rome in a dire fiscal situation that Macrinus needed to address. [25]

Macrinus was at first occupied by the threat of the Parthians, with whom Rome had been at war since the reign of Caracalla. Macrinus settled a peace deal with the Parthians, after fighting an indecisive battle at Nisibis in 217. [26] In return for peace, Macrinus was forced to pay a large indemnity to the Parthian ruler Artabanus V. [27] [28] Rome was at the time also under threat from Dacia and Armenia, so any deal with Parthia would likely have been beneficial to Rome. [29] Next, Macrinus turned his attention to Armenia. [30] In 216, Caracalla had imprisoned Khosrov I of Armenia and his family after Khosrov had agreed to meet with Caracalla at a conference to discuss some issue between himself and his sons. Caracalla instead installed a new Roman governor to rule over Armenia. These actions angered the Armenian people and they soon rebelled against Rome. [31] [32] Macrinus settled a peace treaty with them by returning the crown and loot to Khosrov's son and successor Tiridates II and releasing his mother from prison, and by restoring Armenia to its status as a client kingdom of Rome. [33] Macrinus made peace with the Dacians by releasing hostages, though this was likely not handled by himself but by Marcius Agrippa. [34] In matters of foreign policy, Macrinus showed a tendency towards settling disputes through diplomacy and a reluctance to engage in military conflict, though this may have been due more to the lack of resources and manpower than to his own personal preference. [21]

Macrinus began to overturn Caracalla's fiscal policies and moved closer towards those that had been set forth by Septimius Severus. [25] One such policy change involved the pay of Roman legionaries. The soldiers that were already enlisted during Caracalla's reign enjoyed exorbitant payments which were impossible for Macrinus to reduce without risking a potential rebellion. Instead, Macrinus allowed the enlisted soldiers to retain their higher payments, but he reduced the pay of new recruits to the level which had been set by Severus. [35] [36] Macrinus revalued the Roman currency, increasing the silver purity and weight of the denarius from 50.78 percent and 1.66 grams at the end of Caracalla's reign to 57.85 percent and 1.82 grams from Fall 217 to the end of his reign, so that it mirrored Severus' fiscal policy for the period 197–209 A.D. [37] [38] Macrinus' goal with these policies might have been to return Rome to the relative economic stability that had been enjoyed under Severus' reign, though it came with a cost. [39] The fiscal changes that Macrinus enacted might have been tenable had it not been for the military. By this time, the strength of the military was too great and by enacting his reforms he angered the veteran soldiers, who viewed his actions in reducing the pay of new recruits as a foreshadowing of eventual reductions in their own privileges and pay. This significantly reduced Macrinus' popularity with the legions that had declared him emperor. [39] [40]

Caracalla's mother Julia Domna was initially left in peace when Macrinus became emperor. This changed when Macrinus discovered that she was conspiring against him and had her placed under house arrest in Antioch. [41] By this time Julia Domna was suffering from an advanced stage of breast cancer and soon died in Antioch, possibly by starving herself. [13] [41] Afterwards, Macrinus sent Domna's sister Julia Maesa and her children back to Emesa in Syria, from where Maesa set in motion her plans to have Macrinus overthrown. [13] [20] Macrinus remained in Antioch instead of going to Rome upon being declared emperor, a step which furthered his unpopularity in Rome and contributed to his eventual downfall. [42]

Julia Maesa had retired to her home town of Emesa with an immense fortune, which she had accrued over the course of twenty years. She took her children, Julia Soaemias and Julia Mamaea, and grandchildren, including Elagabalus, with her to Emesa. [43] Elagabalus, aged 14, was the chief priest of the Phoenician sun-deity Elagabalus (or El-Gabal) in Emesa. [43] [44] Soldiers from Legio III Gallica (Gallic Third Legion), that had been stationed at the nearby camp of Raphanea, often visited Emesa and went to see Elagabalus perform his priestly rituals and duties while there. [43] [45] Julia Maesa took advantage of this, to suggest to the soldiers that Elagabalus was indeed the illegitimate son of Caracalla. [13] [43] On 16 May, Elagabalus was proclaimed emperor by the Legio III Gallica at its camp at Raphanea. [46] Upon Elagabalus' revolt, Macrinus travelled to Apamea and conferred the title of Augustus onto his son, Diadumenianus, and made him co-emperor. [19]

Execution Edit

Macrinus realised that his life was in danger but struggled to decide upon a course of action and remained at Antioch. [47] He sent a force of cavalry commanded by Ulpius Julianus to regain control of the rebels, but they failed and Ulpius died in the attempt. This failure further strengthened Elagabalus' army. [47] [48] Soon after, a force under Elagabalus' tutor Gannys marched on Antioch and engaged Macrinus' army on 8 June 218 near the village of Immae, located approximately 24 miles from Antioch. [42] At some point during the ensuing Battle of Antioch, Macrinus deserted the field and returned to Antioch. [42] Macrinus was then forced to flee from Antioch as fighting erupted in the city as well. [42] Elagabalus himself subsequently entered Antioch as the new ruler of the Roman Empire. [49] Macrinus fled for Rome he traveled as far as Chalcedon before being recognized and captured. [50] His son and co-emperor Diadumenianus, sent to the care of Artabanus V of Parthia, was himself captured in transit at Zeugma and killed in June of 218. [13] [19] [50] Diadumenianus' reign lasted a total of 14 months, and he was about 10 years old when he died. [19] Macrinus, upon learning of his son's death, tried to escape captivity, but he injured himself in the unsuccessful attempt [50] and was afterward executed in Cappadocia his head was sent to Elagabalus. [50] Much like Macrinus, Diadumenianus' head was also cut off and sent to Elagabalus as a trophy. [18]

Damnatio memoriae Edit

Macrinus and his son Diadumenianus were declared hostes, enemies of the state, by the Senate immediately after news had arrived of their deaths and as part of an official declaration of support for the usurper Elagabalus, who was recognized in the Senate as the new Emperor. The declaration of hostes led to two actions being taken against the images of the former Emperors. First, their portraits were destroyed and their names were stricken from inscriptions and papyri. The second action, taken by the Roman soldiers who had rebelled against Macrinus in favour of Elagabalus, was to destroy all of the works and possessions of Macrinus. The damnatio memoriae against Macrinus is among the earliest of such sanctions enacted by the Senate. Many of the marble busts of Macrinus that exist were defaced and mutilated as a response to the damnatio memoriae and many of the coins depicting Macrinus and Diadumenianus were also destroyed. These actions against Macrinus are evidence of his unpopularity in Rome. [17]


Coin Depicting Roman Emperor Tetricus - History

During the late second and early third centuries AD more evidence has been discovered for the production of Roman coins in Britain. Found almost exclusively on archaeological sites, clay moulds for casting copies of Roman silver denarii have been excavated in their thousands across the country. These double sided disc shaped moulds, made by pressing a coin into clay, would have been arranged in rows, with molten metal poured from above. The moulds would then have been broken apart to gain access to the freshly copied coins. Moulds such as these have been discovered in large quantities in Somerset, London and the Midlands, with sporadic discoveries in Scotland. One might assume these moulds were used for making counterfeit coins, that is, coins intended to deceive the user. However, sites from continental Europe indicate these practises might not have been covert (moulds such as those found in Britain have been discovered surprisingly near to places of Roman establishment), suggesting a much more organised and possibly legitimate use of these tools. In contrast, the flat and open landscape of the Somerset Levels would be a seemingly ideal place for forgers to produce fake coins, and hide the evidence quickly should any figures of Roman authority appear. An in depth study into the context of Romano-British coin moulds may reveal the answer to the enigma.

Coin mould (lead) for casting imitation coins of Tetricus (AD 271-274). This mould was discovered in Nottinghamshire. Note the hole at the top of the mould, through which molten metal would have been poured. Image: Portable Antiquities Scheme, Unique ID: LVPL-0A5332.

This month's coin series on Roman Britain is written by Dom Chorney, a young numismatist from Glastonbury, Somerset. He studied for his undergraduate degree at Cardiff (in archaeology), and achieved a 2:1. Dom is currently studying for an MA in Ancient Visual and Material Culture at the University of Warwick, and intends to undertake a doctorate in 2015. His main areas of interest are coin use in later Roman Britain, counterfeiting in antiquity, coins as site-finds, and the coinage of the Gallic Empire.


Authority

Cracking down on fakes

Being very passionate about collecting coins and artifacts and ancient history in general- I get very cheesed off at con artists casting and selling fakes.
On these pages I plan to post all relevant information regarding this matter.

News:
There has been a massive number of fake coins from Serbia circulating since early July 2009.
The coins are very well made, struck (not cast) and have fooled not only the casual buyer on auction websites and coin shop websites, but even experienced dealers.
You will see that the examples of each type are all from identical dies or transfer dies, with a little extra "enhancement" such as nicks, cracks, extra patina etc. added for good measure.
THESE COINS ARE MODERN SERBIAN FAKES DELIBERATELY MADE TO CHEAT COLLECTORS


Thursday, July 22, 2010

Could New MIT program use Pyrgi Tablets to Decipher Etruscan?

The Pyrgi tablets contain a treatise inscribed in both
Etruscan and Phoenician script. Image courtesy of
Wikimedia user Pufacz.

Being a technology professional I couldn't help my excitement when I read that a new computer program developed at MIT had been used to decipher Ugarit, an ancient language used in Syria over three thousand years ago. Even more amazing is that the program was able to do so after only a few hours. Linguists have spent years trying to decipher it!


The program is designed to compare an unknown language with a language known to be related to it. In this case scientists set the known related language to Hebrew.

"The system looks for commonly used symbols in the two languages and gradually refines its mapping of the alphabet until it can go no further. The Ugaritic alphabet has 30 letters, and the system correctly mapped 29 of them to their Hebrew counterparts."

Critics point out that some as-yet undeciphered scripts have no known related languages so the program would not be of much use for them. But leading researcher Regina Barzilay thinks that by scanning multiple languages at once the program could draw logical conclusions from contextual references.

Etruscan Architectural Antefix depicting a
Maenad and a Satyr 500-475 BCE. Photographed
at the Getty Villa by Mary Harrsch.

Perhaps if they used epigraphic examples from similar types of excavation sites that would increase the likelihood that the inscriptions would be discussing similar topics. For example, if they used inscriptions from tablets all found near granaries or inscriptions all found on funerary objects in tombs it may help to increase the contextual similarities. If they further limited inscriptions to those found in similar sites from roughly equivalent time periods that would narrow the comparisons even further. This may also mean that comparisons could be made with languages existing at the same time period but not necessarily from a related language group.

In the Etruscan Museum in Rome housed in the Villa Giulia, there is a treatise inscribed on the Pyrgi tablets in both Etruscan and Phoenician. Although they are not related languages, they are both obviously talking about the same thing. Perhaps their inscriptions could be used as a test with the new software.


Other critics have pointed out that the program really does not have a way to determine the beginning or ending of words either. This can be a serious problem as Etruscan did not use spacing or punctuation until the sixth century BCE and then dots or colons may have also been used to separate syllables as well as words and sentences.

It's too bad all of the emperor Claudius' work on Etruscan have been lost over the centuries.

Only a few educated Romans with antiquarian interests, such as Varro, could read Etruscan. The last person known to have been able to read it was the Roman emperor Claudius (10 BC – AD 54), who — in the context of his work in twenty books about the Etruscans, Tyrrenikà (now lost) — compiled a dictionary (also lost) by interviewing the last few elderly rustics who still spoke the language. Urgulanilla, his first wife, was Etruscan. [ 3 ]

Livy and Cicero were both aware that highly specialized Etruscan religious rites were codified in several sets of books written in Etruscan under the generic Latin title Etrusca Disciplina. The Libri Haruspicini dealt with divination from the entrails of the sacrificed animal, the Libri Fulgurales expounded the art of divination by observing lightning. A third set, the Libri Rituales, would have provided us with the key to Etruscan civilization: its wider scope embraced Etruscan standards of social and political life as well as ritual practices. According to the 4th century Latin writer Servius, a fourth set of Etruscan books existed, dealing with animal gods, but it is probably unlikely that any contemporary scholar could have read Etruscan at such a late date. The single surviving Etruscan book, Liber Linteus, being written on linen, survived only by being used as mummy wrappings. - Wikipedia

Now that we have even better technology to analyze mummy wrappings and scrolls that were reused in the Middle Ages as well maybe some of Claudius' work will be found in the future.


READING ANCIENT ROMAN COINS

In setting out to write this article /reading ancient roman coins /, I have the modest goal of helping new collectors of Roman Imperial coins to interpret the inscriptions on their coins. I must state at the outset that there will be nothing new here, I travel the well marked path of the great numismatists who have gone before me. The two who have had the greatest influence on me have been David R. Sear and Zander H. Klawans. Reading and Dating Roman Imperial Coins by Zander Klawans has been the starting point for more Roman collectors than perhaps any other book of the last half century and the fact that it is still in print is a testament to it’s value.

Many new collectors and even advanced students of Latin shy away from attempting to decipher the seemingly cryptic inscriptions found on most Roman coins. The reason for this initial apprehension is that the ancient Romans were excessive abbreviators and that the legends were run together without stops or breaks. However, by learning less than a dozen abbreviations and developing a familiarity with that names used on Imperial coins the collector can easily attribute most coins that he will encounter (provided the inscriptions are legible). First we will look at the meaning of the more common abbreviations and then examine the names of the emperors as they appear on the coins.

ABBREVIATIONS

The ancient Romans were great lovers of titles. In order to fit the many titles of an emperor on a medium as small as a coin, it proved necessary to abbreviate those titles heavily. Often a title of several words will be trimmed to just a few letters. In the table below I have listed the most commonly encountered titles and briefly explained their meaning. While some of the following titles may sometimes appear on the reverse of coins, generally reverse inscriptions are beyond the scope of this article.

IMP IMPERATOR – Emperor.
AVG AUGUSTUS – The name of the first emperor bestowed upon him by the Senate in 27 BC. It became a title for all successive emperors. During the later empire, senior emperors were called the “Augustus” while junior emperors were the “Caesar.”
CAES CAESAR – The family name of the first imperial dynasty, it became a title used by later emperors. During the later empire, senior emperors were called the “Augustus” while junior emperors were the “Caesar.”
PM PONTIFEX MAXIMUS – Highest priest of the Roman religion. This title once conferred was held for life.
TRP TRIBUNICIA POTESTATE – Tribune of the Roman people, literally the representative of the people in the government. This title was held for one year and is often followed by a numeral which indicates which term as Tribune the emperor was then serving. It is a useful tool in dating coins.
PP PATER PATRIAE – Father of his country.
COS CONSUL – The consuls was the chief magistrates of the Roman government. Two were appointed each year. This title is often followed by a numeral which indicates the number of times the emperor had held this position. It is another useful tool in dating coins.
CENS CENSOR – A title often held for life. The Censor determined the size of the Senate.
GERM, BRIT, et cetera GERMANICUS, BRITANNICUS et cetera – Conqueror of the Germans, Britons et cetera.
DN DOMINUS NOSTER – Our Lord.
NOB NOBILISSIMUS – Noble.
IVN JUNIOR – The younger.
PIVS, PF PIUS FELIX – Dutiful, patriotic.
FIL FILIUS – Son of…
OPT OPTIMO PRINCIPI – The greatest ruler.
VC VIR CLARISSIMUS – The most illustrious ruler.
SC SENATUS CONSULTUS – Usuailly appears on the reverse of bronze coins of the early empire. Bronze coins were issued under the authority of the Senate while gold and silver was issued under imperial authority.

EXAMPLES

The following examples will demonstrate how some of the above titles appear on actual Roman coins.

Vespasian AE As issued AD 74

The inscription IMP CAESAR VESP AVG COS V CENS could be loosely translated “The Emperor Caesar Vespasianus, Augustus, Consul for the fifth time, Censor of the Roman people.”

Trajan Decius AR Antoninianus issued AD 249-251

The inscription IMP CMQ TRAIANVS DECIVS AVG could be translated “The Emperor Caius Messius Quintus Trajanus Decius, Augustus.”

Constantine II AE3 issued AD 320-324

The inscription CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C could be translated “Constantine the Younger, Noble Prince, Caesar.” This coin was issued while Constantine was junior emperor (Caesar) under his father Constantine the Great, who was the senior emperor (Augustus).

NAME TYPES

The Following table presents, in chronological order, the common name of the emperors along with the manner in which they often appear on his coinage.

COMMON NAME:

NAME ON COINS:

UNREADABLE COINS

Many Roman coins will have incomplete or unreadable legends, however it is still possible to identify many of these coins. The Romans of the early imperial period were know for their veristic portraiture and until about AD 250 most coins can be identified by the style of the portrait alone. In fact many first century coins are so realistic that emperors are portrayed with wrinkles, warts and even double chins. By the later empire, artistic sensibilities had evolved to a more philosophical expression. It had become fashionable to depict a representation of the emperor rather than a true portrait and thus we rely more heavily on the inscriptions on the later imperial coinage. As an aid in doing this I recommend Reading and Dating Roman Imperial Coins by Zander H. Klawans.


Coin Depicting Roman Emperor Tetricus - History


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$25 per coin . Mostly 2nd-4th century AD bronzes, with a few earlier (but more worn) types. Average sizes 14-30 mm. Nicer quality, detail on both sides, some larger examples. Occasionally a worn silver coin. Comes with full attribution. #CR2588G2: $25 ea.

Imperial Rome, Julian II "The Apostate", 360 - 363 AD. AE-3. Siscia mint. DN FL CL IVLIANVS PF AVG, his helmeted and cuirassed bust lt., holding a spear and shield. / VOT V MVLT XX, within a laurel wreath, GSIS flanked by palm fronds in ex. 3.17g. ref: RIC 415. #125027: $80 SOLD

Claudius II Gothicus, 268-270 AD. Bronze antoninianus, Rome mint. Radiate, cuirassed bust right, IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG / Jupiter standing left, head left, holding sceptre and thunderbolt, IOVI STATORI. ref: RIC 52, type 2. 22 mm, 3.77 g. Nice portrait. #CR2683: $75

Caracalla & wife Julia Domna, 211-217 AD. Bronze Pentassarion, Marcianopolis mint, Moesia Inferior. Facing busts of Caracalla and Domna / Nemesis standing l, holding cubit-rule & bridle, wheel at feet. Huge 28 mm. #279019: $75

CAPRICORN! Severus Alexander, 222-235 AD. Bronze AE23 coin of Parium, Mysia. His laureate, cuirassed bust right, aegis on chest, IMP CAES L SEP SEO ALEXANDER, (partially retrograde) / C G I H P beneath capricorn swimming right, cornucopiae over shoulder and globe between forelegs. 23 mm, 5.50 g. Obv legend var of SNG Cop 300. Dark olive-green patina. Gorgeous Capricorn! Nicer than photo. Would look great in a bezel! See wildwinds.com, this coin! #CR2788: $175

Ancient Rome. Constantine II, as Caesar, 322-325 AD. Fantastic bronze AE3 coin, Ticinum mint. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C / DOMINOR - NOSTROR - CAESS around laurel wreath containing VOT X (crescent). Mintmark PT. 19 mm, 3.07 g. ref: LRBC 484, RIC VII 172,P. Excellent dark coppery tone. #CR2624: $125 SOLD

Ancient Rome. Gordian III, 238-244 AD. Huge brass sestertius, struck 242-243 AD. His laureate, draped & cuirassed bust right, IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG / The emperor standing right, holding spear & globe, P M TR P V COS II P P S-C. ref: RIC 307a, Cohen 267. Huge 30 mm, 19.22 g. Beautiful! #CR2031x2: $250

Provincial Rome. Claudius, 41-54 AD. Heavy bronze AE24 coin, Antioch, Syria, struck Year 90 = 41/42 AD. His laureate head right, IMP TI CLAVD CAE AV GER / large S C within laurel wreath. ref: RPC 4277, Wruck 24. 24mm, 14.45 grams, and extremely thick! Choice deep brassy cabinet tone. ex-De Pere, WI collection. #CR2931: $150 SOLD

Imperial Rome, Constantine II, as Caesar 326 - 337 AD. Bronze follis, struck 327-329 AD. Heraclea mint, 2nd Officina. CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, his laureate and draped bust rt. / PROVIDENTIAE CAESS, camp gate with two turrets, star above and to left. 19 mm, 2.83g. ref: RIC 96. #125021: $99

To make a purchase, or for more information, CLICK HERE


Mesopotamia! Carrhae. Gordian III, 238-244 AD. Large bronze As. His laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right. / Veiled and turreted bust of Tyche left Marsyas standing right on pedestal before. 28mm, 16.24g. ref: BMC 55-6. #CR2572: $125 SOLD
Commodus, 177-192 AD. Huge bronze sestertius, Rome mint, Struck 181 AD. His laureate head right, draped left shoulder, M COMMODVS ANTONINVS AVG / Liberalitas standing left, holding pileus and scepter, LIBERTAS AVG TR P VI IMP IIII COS III P P, S-C. 31.7 mm, 24.97 g. ref: RIC 311 BMCRE 457. Fine, a decent, budget example. ex-R. Holden collection, Los Angeles, CA. Acquired by father in the 1960's. #CR2143: $99 SOLD
Constantinople Commemorative, struck under Constantine I The Great, 330-337 AD. Bronze coin struck 330-331 AD, Lyons mint. Helmeted bust of Constantinopolis left, CONSTANTINOPOLIS / Victory standing left on foot of prow of ship with scepter and leaning on shield, TRS below. ref: RIC 548v. 19 mm, 3.17 g. Beautiful detail, dark olive-green patina. #CR2618: $99 SOLD
Ancient Rome. Galerius,305-311 AD. Huge bronze follis struck 294 AD, Heraclea mint. His laureate head right, GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES / Genius standing left holding patera from which liquid flows & cornucopiae, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI HTA in ex. 27 mm, 9.73 g. ref: RIC VI 18b,A. Great portrait! #CR2415: $65 SOLD
Ancient Rome. Emperor Licinius I, 308-324 AD. Large silvered-bronze reduced follis struck 311-312 AD. His laureate head right, IMP LIC LICINIVS P F AVG / Jupiter standing left, holding globe & scepter, A to right, eagle with wreath below, IOVI CONSERVATORI SIS in exergue. 19.5 mm, 3.26 g. ref: RIC VI 225-229. EF, perfectly centered & sharply struck. Very nice. ex-Frank S. Robinson, Albany, NY. Fantastic example! #CR2292: $125 SOLD
Commodus, 177-192 AD. Large Bronze As of Pautalia, Thrace. Maternus, magistrate. His laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right, AY K M A AYR KOMMODOC / River-god Strymon reclining left, holding vine branch in right hand, reed in left arm, resting left elbow on overturned urn from which waters flow, HGE KLI MATERNOY, PAUTALIAC / CTRYMWN in two lines below. ref: Moushmov 4142 Ruzicka 198 Imhoof (Flussgoetter) 168 var (obv. legend). 28 mm, 7.2 g. #21424: $50 SOLD
"Urbs Roma", Rome commemorative bronze coin struck under Constantine the Great, 330-337 AD. Helmeted, cuirassed bust of Roma left, VRBS ROMA / She-wolf sucking the twins Romulus & Remus. Two stars above, SMTSG below = Thessalonica mint. Struck c. 330-333 AD. 17 mm, 2.35 g. Black patina. #CR2629: $99 SOLD
Severus Alexander, 222-235 AD. Large bronze As of Akmoneia, Phrygia. Laureate bust of emperor right / Hercules standing with club, AKMONEWN around. 28 mm, 13.06 g. Great green patina. #CR2023: $60 SOLD
Ancient Rome. Commodus, 177-192 AD. Huge bronze sestertius. His laureate head right, M COMMODVS ANTON AVG PIVS BRIT / Salus seated left feeding serpent coiling up in front of column between two vines on column, statue of Bacchus holding thyrsus on seat of Salus, Spes and a sphinx. P M TR P VIIII IMP VII COS IIII P P S-C, SALVS below. 28x30 mm, 18.06 g. ref: RIC 439, Cohen 682. Coppery patina, great portrait. ex-Sandra Wolf collection. #NAV008: $160 SOLD
Maximinus II, 309-313 AD. FANTASTIC bronze follis, London mint! Struck 310-312 AD. His laureate & cuirassed bust right, IMP MAXIMINVS PF AVG / Genius standing left, tower on head, loins draped, holding patera and cornucopiae star in right field, GENIO POP ROM mintmark PLN. 22mm, 4.34 g. ref: RIC 209b. EF! Incredible detail, lustrous black patina. #CR2714: $140 SOLD
Commodus, 180-192 AD. Large bronze coin of Moesia Inferior, Nicopolis ad Istrum. Laureate head of Commodus, facing right, T KAICAP AV PH KOMODOC AV/ River God reclining left, holding a branch and leaning on an amphora that is spilling its contents. 28 mm, 9.5 grams. Light green patina. ref: Moushmov 897. Very pleasing example with great eye appeal. #GV0187: $125 SOLD
Provincial Rome. Thrace, Anchialus. Septimius Severus 193 - 211 AD. AE-20. His laureate head right / Kybele seated left, lions by her side. 4.76g. Great portrait! #125022: $65 SOLD
Julian II "the Apostate" 360-363 AD. LARGE bronze follis. His pearl-diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right, D N FL CL IVLI-ANVS P F AVG / Bull standing right, two stars above, SECVRITAS REIPVB. A classic type by one of the last pagan rulers of Rome! Big 28 mm. 3137: $65 SOLD
Gratian, 367-383 AD. Silver siliqua, Found in England! Struck at Trier. Pearl-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right, D N GRATIANVS P F AVG / Roma seated left on throne, holding Victory on globe & sceptre, VRBS ROMA. 12 mm, 0.79 g. ref: RSC 86b. Chipped edge, clipped in antiquity! ex-Timeline, London. #CR2585: $45 SOLD
Ancient Rome. Diocletian, 284-305 AD. Bronze antoninianus. His radiate and draped bust right, IMP CC VAL DIOCLETIANVS AVG / Emperor standing right, holding parazonium, receiving Victory from Jupiter standing left, holding sceptre, CONCORDIA MILITVM officina letter A below. 22 mm, 4.01 g. ref: Cohen 33 RIC V-2 306 Sear 12635. Choice detail! Lovely dark olive-green patina. Ex New York City private collection. #CR2595: $99 SOLD
Valens, 364-378 AD. Bronze AE3 coin struck 364-367 AD. Diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right, DN VALENS PF AVG / Victory advancing left, holding wreath & palm, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE ASISC in ex. ref: RIC 7b, type ii(a), Cohen 37. 19 mm, 2.51 g. Great detail! #CR2655: $75 SOLD
Constantius II, 337-361 AD. Pearl-diademed and draped bust rt, DN CONSTANTIVS PF AVG / Roman soldier leaping up and spearing fallen Barbarian horseman, FEL TEMP REPARATIO (loosely translates to "Return of the Good Times"). Big 21 mm, 4.88 g. ref: RIC VIII 82v. #CR2611: $65 SOLD
Licinius I, 308 - 324 AD. Bronze Follis, Thessalonika Mint. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Licinius right, IMP LIC LICINIVS P F AVG / Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe and sceptre, eagle with wreath in beak to left, IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG NN TS.D in exergue. 21mm, 3.07 g. ref: RIC60. ex-Kenneth W. Dorney. #CR2861: $75 SOLD
Claudius, 41-54 AD. Gorgeous bronze quadrans. Rome mint, struck 41 AD. Three-legged modius, TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG / PON M TR P IMP COS DES IT, legend around SC. 19mm, 2.77g. ref: RIC 84 BMCRE 179. #CR2699: $125 SOLD
Ancient Rome. Hadrian, 117 - 138 AD. Bronze As, Rome Mint. Laureate and draped bust of Hadrian right, HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS / Indulgentia seated left holding scepter and extending hand, INDVLGENTIA AVG COS III P P S C. 27mm, 9.50 g. ref: RIC725. Dark olive-green patina, light deposits. ex Imperial Coins & Antiquities ex-Kenneth W. Dorney #CR2859: $125 SOLD
Galerius, 305-311 AD. Huge bronze follis. Laureate head right, GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES / Genius standing left, modius on head, holding patera from which liquid flows, and cornucopiae, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI. 26 mm, 12.24 g. and very thick! ref: RIC VI 51b. Great coin. #CR2576: $99 SOLD
Provincial Rome. Claudius, 41-54 AD. Bronze Semis of Philippi, Macedonia. His bare head left, TI CLAV AVG / Two priests ploughing right with two oxen. 16 mm, 4.67 grams and very thick! ref: RPC 1660. Dark olive-green patina. #CR2756: $125 SOLD
Galerius, 305-311 AD. Lovely large bronze follis, Nicomedia mint. Laureate head right, IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG / Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopiae, GENIO AVGVSTI CMH. Mintmark SMND. ref: Cohen 42 RIC VI 54a/66a Sear 14508. Big 27 mm, 6.32 g. Impressive! #CR2575: $99 SOLD
Ancient Rome. Marcus Aurelius, 161-180 AD. Huge bronze Sestertius, Rome mint, struck 172-173 AD. Laureate head of Marcus Aurelius right, M ANTONINVS AVG TR P XXVII / Jupiter seated left, holding Victory and spear, IMP VI COS III, SC. 31mm, 20.02g. ref: RIC III 1064 MIR 18, 246-6/30 cf. Banti 146. Bold portrait. ex-De Pere, WI collection. #CR2992: SOLD
Ancient Rome. Lucius Verus, 161-169 AD. Bronze Dupondius, struck 167 AD. His radiate head right, L VERVS AVG ARM PARTH MAX / Victory advancing left, holding wreath & palm, TR POT VII IMP IIII COS III S-C. 27 mm, 15.55 g. ref: RIC III 1462, BMC-1326, Cohen 210. #CR2520: $225 SOLD
Marcus Aurelius, 161-180 AD. Bronze dupondius struck 170-171 AD. IMP M ANTONINVS AVG TR P XXV, radiate head right / PRIMI DECEN NALES COS III S C in five lines within wreath. 24 mm, 12.00 g. ref: RIC 1008, Cohen 496. ex-Riverside County, CA private collection, purchased from Coin Galleries, NY, Jan 29, 1970. #CR3030: $175 SOLD
Marcus Aurelius, 161-180 AD. Bronze As. M ANTONINVS AVG ARMENIACVS P M, laureate head right / TR P XIX IMP II COS III S-C, Mars walking right carrying spear and trophy. 24 mm, 11.95 g. ref: RIC 897, Sear 5072, Cohen 870. ex-Riverside County, CA private collection, purchased from Coin Galleries, NY, 1970-1971. #CR3031: $99 SOLD
Ancient Rome. Maxentius, 306-312 AD. Bronze follis, struck 307-308 AD. Ticinum mint. His laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, MAXENTIVS PF AVG / Roma seated facing, head left, in hexastyle temple, holding globe and sceptre, shield at side, CONSERV-VRB SVAE. Mintmark PT. 24mm, 6.33 g. ref: RIC VI 95, P. Dark brassy tone. Fought Constantine at the Milvian Bridge! #CR2896: $125 SOLD
Ancient Rome. Hadrian, 117-138 AD. Huge brass sestertius struck 132-134 AD. His laureate head right, HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS / Legionary galley travelling left with oarsmen and steersman, military standard on prow, FELICITATI AVG above, S-C across fields, COS III P P in exergue. 31 mm, 21.87 g. Nice deep brassy tone (terrible photo). ref: Cohen 694, RIC 703. ex-Nick Jamgochian collection, Glendale, CA, formed in the 1920’s-1950’s. #CR3080: $199 SOLD
Ancient Rome. Hadrian, 117-138 AD. Huge brass sestertius struck 103-111 AD. His laureate draped bust left, HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS P P / Fortuna seated left, holding rudder and cornucopiae, COS III S-C FORT RED in ex. Huge 35 mm, 20.87 g. Dark purplish-brown tone. ref: RIC 969h, Cohen 728v. ex-De Père, WI collection. Rare left-facing bust! #CR3083: $125 SOLD
Gallic Empire. Tetricus II, 274 AD. As Caesar. Bronze Antoninianus. His radiate, draped bust right, C PIV ESV TETRICS CAES / Emperor standing left holding branch and vertical sceptre, PRINC IVVENT. ref: Cohen 62 Sear 11289. 18.5 mm, 2.41 g. Nice portrait. #CR2589: $60 SOLD
Gratian, 367-383 AD. Silver siliqua, Found in England! Struck at Trier. Pearl-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right, D N GRATIANVS P F AVG / Roma seated left on throne, holding Victory on globe & sceptre, VRBS ROMA. 12 mm, 0.82 g. ref: RSC 86b. Clipped in antiquity! #CR2583: $50 SOLD
Probus, 276-282 AD. Potin Tetradrachm of Alexandria, Egypt. Struck Year 3 (277/8 AD). Laureate cuirassed bust right, A K M AVP PPOBOC CEB / Tyche standing left holding rudder and cornucopiae, LΓ. 19 mm, 7.48 g. and thick! Dark coppery tone. ref: Milne 4557, Emmett 3994, Curtis 1890. Holed in antiquity! #CR2776: $85 SOLD
Ancient Rome. Antoninus Pius, 138-161 AD. Huge bronze sestertius. His laureate head right, ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III / Moneta standing left, holding scales & cornucopiae, MONETA AVG S-C. ref: RIC 610, Sear 4196. Huge 31 mm, 19.73 g. #CR2398: $75 SOLD


Valens, 364-378 AD. Bronze AE3 coin, Alexandria mint. His pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right, DN VALENS PF AVG / Emperor advancing right, holding labarum and dragging captive behind him, GLORIA ROMANORVM ALEG in ex. ref: RIC 1b. 15 mm, 2.44 g. #CR2613: $35 SOLD


Constantius II, 337-361 AD. Pearl-diademed and draped bust rt, DN CONSTANTIVS PF AVG / Roman soldier leaping up and spearing fallen Barbarian horseman, FEL TEMP REPARATIO (loosely translates to "Return of the Good Times"). Big 24 mm, 4.81 g. Incredible detail! #CR2295: $150 SOLD
Ancient Rome. Divus Constantius I (306-307 AD). Bronze Follis, struck under Constantine I, 307-308 AD. Treveri (Trier) mint. Veiled, laureate, & cuirassed bust of Constantius right, DIVO CONSTANTIO PIO / Lighted & garlanded altar, eagles at sides, MEMORIA FELIX PTR. Big 26 mm, 7.07 g. ref: RIC 789. Nice dark olive-green patina. ex-Wayne Phillips. Very scarce! #CR2598: $175 SOLD
Ancient Rome. Diocletian, 284-305 AD. Large bronze follis, Antioch mint. His laureate head right, IMP C DIOCLETIANVS PF AVG / Genius standing left, naked but for chlamis over left shoulder and modius on head, with patera from which liquor flows, and cornucopiae, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI K to left, S over V to right. Mintmark ANT. Big 27 mm, 9.99 g. ref: RIC VI 54a. Reddish to olive-green patina, earthen deposits. Ex New York City private collection ex-Jonathan Kern. Better than photo. #CR2596: $75 SOLD
Constantius II, 337-361 AD. Bronze AE3 coin, Trier mint. Laureate, cuirassed bust right, FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C / Two soldiers holding spears & shields with two standards between them wreath between the standards, GLORIA EXERCITVS TRS. ref: RIC VII 551. 17 mm, 2.54 g. Excellent soldiers! #CR2619: $65 SOLD
Ancient Rome. Caligula! 37-41 AD. Bronze As, struck 37-38 AD. Holed in antiquity! His bare head left, C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT / Vesta seated left, holding patera and sceptre, VESTA above, S C across field. 27mm, 9.32g. ref: RIC 38, Sear5 #1803, Cohen 27. Pierced by a square nail, likely from being nailed to an altar. Interesting! #CR2636: $150 SOLD
Ancient Rome. Diocletian, 284-305 AD. Huge bronze follis. His laureate head right, IMP DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG / Genius of the Roman People, half naked & in modius standing left before altar, holding cornucopia & pouring from patera, GENIO POPULI ROMANI AQS in ex. 27 mm, 9.45 g. ref: Sear 3536. #CR2416: $75 SOLD
Maximinus II Daia, 309-313 AD. Bronze follis, as Augustus, struck 312-313 AD. His laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, IMP C MAXIMINVS PF AVG / Jupiter standing facing, head left, chlamys hanging from left shoulder, holding Victory on globe, leaning on sceptre, eagle with wreath left, IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG NN ·TS·B· in ex. Big 23 mm, 3.88 g. ref: RIC VI 61a. Sharp hair & beard detail. ex-Frank S. Robinson, NY. #CR2393: $125 SOLD
Septimius Severus, 193-211 AD. Large bronze AE27 of Markianopolis, Moesia. AV K L CEP CEVHP, his laureate draped bust right / Dionysos standing lt., holding a kantharos and thyrsos, panther at feet. Beautiful coin with deep black patina and lustrous sheen. #GV0570: $85 SOLD
Constantinople Commemorative coin, struck under Constantine I The Great, 330-337 AD. Bronze coin struck 330 AD, Constantina mint! Helmeted bust of Constantinopolis left, CONSTANTINOPOLIS / Victory standing left on foot of prow of ship with scepter and leaning on shield, CONST below. 19 mm, 1.63 g. ref: Sear 16451, RIC VII, p. 271,344. Great detail, much better than photo! Scarce! #CR2841: $99 SOLD
Gallienus, 253-268 AD. Bronze antoninianus, Rome mint. His radiate head right, GALLIENVS AVG / Mars standing left, holding olive-branch, spear and shield, MARTI PACIFERO H in left field. ref: Cohen 617 RIC 236, H. 20 mm, 2.83 g. #CR2843: $125 SOLD
Constans, 337-350 AD. Small bronze AE3 coin. Pearl-diademed head right, DN CONSTANS P F AVG / VOT XX MVLT XXX within wreath. 14 mm, 0.95 g. ref: RIC VIII 34v. Gorgeous detail! #CR2578: $60 SOLD
Theodosius, 379-395 AD. Tiny bronze AE4 coin, Thessalonica mint, struck 383-388 AD. Pearl diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right, DN THEODOSIVS P F AVG / Roman castle camp-gate, GLORIA REI-PVBLICE. Mintmark TES. ref: RIC 62b. 13 mm, 0.89 g. #CR2580: $45 SOLD
Gratian, 367-383 AD. Silver siliqua, Found in England! Struck at Trier. Pearl-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right, D N GRATIANVS P F AVG / Roma seated left on throne, holding Victory on globe & sceptre, VRBS ROMA. 12 mm, 0.89 g. ref: RSC 86b. Clipped in antiquity! #CR2584: $45 SOLD
Commodus, 177-192 AD. Huge bronze sestertius, struck Jan-Sept, 187 AD. His, laureate head right, M COMMODVS ANT P FELIX AVG BRIT / Felicitas standing left with patera and sceptre, PVBLICA FEL P M TR P XII IMP VIII COS V P P S-C. ref: RIC 503, Sear 5797, Cohen 645. Big 30 mm, 21.52 grams and thick! Deep reddish-brown patina. #CR2903: $125 SOLD
Commodus, 180-192 AD. Thick bronze sestertius. His laureate bust right / Fortuna standing left, holding robes. 26 mm and thick! Golden patina. A decent, large coin of the notorious Commodus at a very low price! Coin nicer in hand than photo allows. #0480: $55 SOLD
Marcus Aurelius, 161-180 AD. "ARMENIA CAPTA". Huge orichalcum sestertius. M AVREL ANTONINVS AVG ARMENIACVS P M, laureate head right / VICT AVG TR P XVIII IMP II COS III S-C, Victory standing right holding trophy, captive Armenian at her feet. ref: RIC 890, sear5 #5013. 31 mm, 21.1 g. Scarce! #424690: $135 SOLD
Ancient Rome. Diocletian, 284-305 AD. Large silvered-bronze follis, struck 294 AD. His laureate head right, IMP CC VAL DIOCLETIANVS PF AVG / Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopiae, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI mintmark HT-Gamma in exergue. Heraclea mint. 28mm, 10.58 g. ref: RIC VI 12a. Much silvering remains on surface! Ex-Frank S. Robinson, Albany, NY. Gorgeous in-hand! #CR2900: $175 SOLD
Tiberius, 14-37 AD. Nice bronze AE-20 coin of Corinthia, Corinth, struck 32-34 AD. L. Arrius Peregrinus and L. Furius Labeo duoviri. Laureate head of Tiberius left, L ARRIO PEREGRINO II VIR / Hexastyle temple inscribed GENT IVLI L FVRIO LABEONE II VIR around. 20 mm, 6.32 g. ref: RPC I 1152. Olive-green patina with light earthen highlights. ex-Ancient Imports. #CR3002: $125 SOLD
Commodus, 177-192 AD. Large bronze As, struck 176 AD. His draped bust right, COMMODO CAES AVG FIL GERM SARM COS / Hilaritas standing left, holding branch and cornucopiae, HILARITAS S-C. 26mm, 11.44 g. Wonderful detail, coppery tone. ex-De Père, WI collection. #CR3086: $125 SOLD
Roman Egypt. Aurelian, 270-275 AD. Potin Tetradrachm of Alexandria. Year 6 = 275-276 AD. Laureate cuirassed bust right, A K Λ ΔOM AYΡHΛIANOC CEB / Eagle standing left, head right, with wreath in its beak, ETOYC S. 20mm, 7.04 g. ref: Milne 4456. Wonderful, high-relief detail, silvering visible on surfaces. ex-Nick Jamgochian collection, Glendale, CA, formed in the 1920’s-1950’s. #CR3081: $150 SOLD
Constantine II, 337-340 AD. Bronze coin, Antioch mint, struck 335-337 AD. Laureate, cuirassed bust right, CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C / Two soldiers holding spears and shields with one standard between them, GLORIA EXERCITVS SMANS. ref: RIC VII 109. 17 mm, 2.42 g. Beautiful detail, light earthen deposits. #CR2775: $65 SOLD
Ancient Rome. Hadrian, 117-138 AD. Huge bronze sestertius, struck 133 AD. HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P, bare head right / FELICITAS AVG S-C, Felicitas standing left, holding long caduceus and branch. Massive 31 mm, 27.33 g. ref: RIC 750, Sear 3595, Cohen 616. Excellent detail, wonderful deep brassy “river” patina. ex-Riverside County, CA private collection, purchased from Coin Galleries, NY, June 5, 1970. #CR3028: $325 SOLD
Trajan, 98-117 AD. Bronze As. IMP CAES NERVA TRAIAN AVG GERM PM, laureate head right / TR POT COS III PP SC, Victory walking left, carrying shield inscribed SPQR. 28 mm, 11.51 g. ref: RIC 417, Sear3242, Cohen 628. ex-Riverside County, CA private collection, purchased from Coin Galleries, NY, Jan 29, 1970. #CR3027: $275 SOLD
Maximianus, 286-310 AD. Bronze antoninianus with Hercules!
Rome mint, struck 291 AD. His radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, IMP MAXIMIANVS P F AVG / Hercules standing left holding branch and club, lion skin over arm, HERCVLI PACIFERO. Mintmark XXI-epsilon. ref: RIC 502, Cohen 287. 23 mm, 3.65 g. Incredible detail on Hercules! #CR2654: $150 SOLD


Claudius, 41-54 AD. Bronze As. Bare head left, TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR IMP / Minerva standing right, brandishing spear and holding shield on left arm, S-C across field. Chunky Big 28 mm, 11.73 g. ref: RIC 100, Sear 1861, Cohen 84. Dark coppery patina, surface scratches. ex-German collection. #AR2751: $125 SOLD
Diocletian, 284-305 AD. Huge bronze follis. Trier mint, struck 303-305 AD. His laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right, seen from the back, IMP DIOCLETIANVS P AVG / Genius standing left, modius on head, naked except for chlamys over left shoulder, holding patera and cornucopiae, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI. S-F across fields. Mintmark PTR. 28 mm, 9.95 g. ref: RIC VI Trier 578v Fresnoy-Lès-Roye II hoard 228. Nice patina. #CR2700: $125 SOLD
Vespasian, 69-79 AD. Bronze As, Rome mint. His laureate head right, IMP CAESAR VESP AVG COS V CENS / Spes advancing left, holding flower and raising hem of robe, S-C. 27 mm, 9.10 g. ref: RIC 730, sear 2361, Cohen 452. Coppery-brown patina. Vespasian built the famous Coliseum in Rome! #CR2785: $99 SOLD
Ancient Rome. Galerius, 305-311 AD. Huge bronze follis, Carthage mint, struck 299-303 AD. His laureate head right, MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES / Carthage standing left with fruits in both hands, SALVIS AVGG ET CAESS FEL KART. Mintmark (officina) Delta. Huge 29 mm, 11.83 g. and very thick! ref: RIC VI Carthage 32b Cohen 191 Sear 14411. Crisp detail, rich chocolate-brown patina. ex-Frank S. Robinson, Albany, NY. #CR2512: $135 SOLD
Ancient Rome. Galerius, 305-311 AD. Large bronze follis, Alexandria mint, Egypt, struck 308-310 AD. His laureate head right, IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG / Genius of the Emperor standing left with modius on head, chlamys over shoulder, holds cornucopia and patera from which liquid flows, GENIO IMPERATORIS K left, A over P right. Mintmark ALE. 24.5 mm, 4.87 g. ref: RIC 101a of Alexandria, Cohen 48. Crisp detail, rich chocolate-brown patina. ex-Frank S. Robinson, Albany, NY. Excellent! #CR2513: $150 SOLD
"Urbs Roma", Rome commemorative bronze reduced centenionalis struck under Constantine the Great, 330-331 AD, Trier mint. Helmeted, cuirassed bust of Roma left, VRBS ROMA / She-wolf sucking the twins Romulus & Remus. Two stars above, TRP below. 16.5 mm, 2.23 g. ref: Sear 16487, RIC VII, 214-215. Nice dark coppery tone. #CR2622: $145 SOLD
Marcus Aurelius, 161-180 AD. As Caesar. HUGE bronze sestertius, struck 145 AD, Rome mint. His bare head right, AVRELIVS CAES AVG P II F / Virtus standing right, left foot on a helmet, holding a spear and parazonium, VIRTVS COS II SC. Huge 33 mm, 29.13 grams, and extremely thick! ref: RIC Vol. 3, p. 176, no. 1252 for type. Nice dark brassy tone. #CR2758: $150 SOLD
Constantius II. Bronze coin struck 348-350 AD at Antioch. His pearl diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right, D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG / Phoenix nimbate and radiate, standing right on globe, star to right, FEL TEMP REPARATIO, ANA in exergue. Fantastic coin! Great detail, lovely desert-sand patina. AE3 (18 mm). #0279: $75 SOLD - Ask about alternates!
Caligula! Ancient Rome. Gaius Caligula, 37-41 AD. Nice bronze As, struck 37-38 AD. His bare head left, C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT / Vesta seated left, holding patera and sceptre, VESTA above, S C across field. 27 mm, 10.05 g. ref: RIC 38, Sear5 #1803, Cohen 27. Dark olive-green patina. Rome's most infamous Emperor! #CR2695: $250 SOLD
"Urbs Roma", Rome commemorative bronze reduced centenionalis struck under Constantine the Great, 330-333 AD, Heraclea mint. Helmeted, cuirassed bust of Roma left, VRBS ROMA / She-wolf sucking the twins Romulus & Remus. Two stars above, mintmark SMH-E below. 19 mm, 2.97 g. ref: Sear 16517, RIC VII, 557-559. Excellent detail, beautiful dark glossy olive-green patina, traces of silvering visible on surfaces. Near-EF! Much better than photo. #CR2814: $125 SOLD
Constantius II, 337-361 AD. Bronze AE4 coin, Trier mint. Laureate, cuirassed bust right, FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C / Two soldiers holding spears and shields with two standards between them, GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS. Mintmark TR dot S. ref: RIC VII Trier 540. 19 mm, 3.01 g. Dark patina. Killer detail! #CR2616: $65 SOLD
Constantine II, 337-340 AD. Bronze follis, struck 333 AD, Arles mint. Laureate, cuirassed bust right, CONSTANTINVS IVN N C / Two soldiers holding spears and shields, two standards between them, laurel wreath at top center, GLORIA EXERCITVS SCONST. ref: RIC VII 371v. 19 mm, 2.76 g. Choice detail! #CR2617: $75 SOLD
Constantine II, as Caesar 317-337 AD AD. Bronze follis, Antioch mint, struck 325-326 AD. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left, CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C / Castle campgate, star above, PROVIDENTIAE CAESS. Mintmark SMANTΔ. 19 mm, 3.21 g. ref: RIC VII 65. Sharp detail, nice green patina. #CR2601: $65 SOLD
Claudius, 41-54 AD. Bronze As. Bare head left, TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR IMP / Minerva standing right, brandishing spear and holding shield on left arm, S-C across field. Chunky 26.5 mm, 11.58 g. ref: RIC 100, Sear 1861, Cohen 84. Olive-green patina, earthen deposits. Great bust! #CR2641: $175 SOLD
Magnus Maximus, 383-388 AD. Rare ruler! Large bronze AE2 coin, Arles mint. His pearl-diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right, D N MAG MAXIMVS P F AVG / Eemperor standing left, raising kneeling female, REPARATIO REIPVB mintmark SCON. 25 mm, 4.30 g. ref: RIC IX Arles 26a Sear 20650. #CR2627: $75 SOLD

Commodus, 177-192 AD. Nice bronze As of Syria, Cyrrhestica, Cyrrhus. His laureate, draped bust right / Tyche standing with rudder & cornucopiae. 26 mm, 7.56 g. Nice patina. #V0649: $75 SOLD


Alexandria, Egypt. Vabalathus with Aurelian, Potin Tetradrachm struck year 271-272, Year 5 of Vabalathus and Zenobia. Laureate and draped bust of Aurelian rt. / Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Vabalathus rt. Milne 1735. VF+ with lots of eye appeal. 22mm 6.8 g. #GV0189: $75 SOLD
Portrait of Alexander the Great! Koinon, Macedon, under Roman occupation. Large bronze coin struck 209-235 AD. Diademed head of Alexander rt., ALEXANDPOY around edge / Alexander riding his horse Bucephalus, KOINON MAKEDONON B NEO around. ref: SNG Cop. 1351. 25 mm, 7.54 g. Deep green patina. Holed-through to be worn in antiquity! Likely by an ancient admirer of Alexander. #CR2936: $199 SOLD
"Urbs Roma", Rome commemorative bronze coin struck under Constantine the Great, 330-337 AD. Helmeted, cuirassed bust of Roma left, VRBS ROMA / She-wolf sucking the twins Romulus & Remus. Two stars above, SMTSG below = Thessalonica mint. Struck c. 330-333 AD. 18 mm, 2.35 g. Good detail, nice dark black patina. Unfortunately a terrible photo, my apologies. ex-Los Angeles, CA scholastic collection. #CR2410: $99 SOLD
Constantius II, 337-361 AD. Large bronze centenionalis, Antioch mint. Pearl-diademed and draped bust rt, DN CONSTANTIVS PF AVG. / Roman soldier leaping up and spearing fallen Barbarian horseman, FEL TEMP REPARATIO (loosely translates to "Return of the Good Times"). 24x15 mm, 6.29 g. Fabulous green patina with light earthen highlights. Gorgeous! Ex-Frank S. Robinson, Albany, NY, with tag: bought at Rockville Coins, White Plains, 10/23/93. #CR2204: $125 SOLD
Ancient Rome. Diocletian, 284-305 AD. Large bronze follis, London mint! Struck c. 298-300 AD. His laureate, cuirassed bust right, IMP C DIOCLETIANVS PF AVG / Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopiae, GENIO POPV-LI ROMANI. No mintmarks or fieldmarks. 28mm, 10.44 g. ref: RIC VI London 6a. Deep brassy-brown patina. ex-London, UK collection. #CR2989: $150 SOLD

Licinius I, 308-324 AD. Bronze follis, struck c. 313-315, Cyzicus mint. His laureate head right, IMP C VAL LICIN LICINIVS P F AVG / Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe and sceptre eagle at foot left, IOVI CONSERVATORI XIII in right field. Mintmark SMK. Big 23 mm, 3.59 g. ref: Sear 15218-var. Rare, unknown type with “XIII”, and the mintmark is an error "SKM". #CR2659: $85 SOLD


Ancient Rome. Aurelian, 270-275 AD. Bronze antoninianus, struck 274 AD. Set in custom .925 silver bezel. His radiate, cuirassed bust right, IMP C AVRELIANVS AVG / Emperor standing right, clasping hands with Concordia, standing left, CONCORDIA MILITVM. Mintmark V*. Dia: 21 mm. ref: RIC 59 (Rome) MIR 214a5. Coin ex-Los Angeles, CA private collection. #JN2198: $150 SOLD
Ancient Rome. Aurelian, 270-275 AD. Bronze antoninianus, struck 274 AD. Set in custom .925 silver bezel. His radiate, cuirassed bust right, IMP C AVRELIANVS AVG / Emperor standing right, clasping hands with Concordia, standing left, CONCORDIA MILITVM. Mintmark V*. Dia: 21 mm. ref: RIC 59 MIR 214a5. Coin ex-Los Angeles, CA private collection.Great portrait! #JN2199: $150 SOLD


Gratian, 367-383 AD. Bronze AE3 coin. Pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right, DN GRATIA-NVS PF AVG / Gratian advancing right, holding labarum and dragging captive, GLORIA ROMANORVM F in left field. R over hooked R in right field. Mintmark Delta SISCE. 18.5 mm, 2.91 g. ref: RIC IX Sis 14d, type xliii. #CR2677: $75 SOLD


Licinius I, 308-324 AD. Bronze follis struck c. 311-312 AD. His laureate head right, IMP C LIC LICINIVS P F AVG / Hercules standing right, leaning forwards, right hand behind his back, resting on club, lionskin over left arm, HERCVLI VICTORI. I in left field. Mintmark ANT = Antioch mint! Very rare. ref: Not in RIC! 20.3 mm, 4.14 g. #CR2632: $175 SOLD
Ancient Rome. Antoninus Pius, 138-161 AD. Huge bronze sestertius. struck 156-157 AD. His laureate bust rt., ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP IMP / Annona standing rt., holding rudder and modius, her left foot raised and set on prow, TR POT XX COS IIII SC. Massive 31 mm, 20.95 g. ref: RIC 964, BMCRE 2013, Sear 4251. Nice brassy patina, great portrait. ex-R. Valerio collection. #NAV006: $199 SOLD


Coin Depicting Roman Emperor Tetricus - History

Attribution-RIC X Cyzicus 103

OBV-AEL EVDO-XIA AVG, diademed draped bust right

REV-SALVS REI-PVBLICAE, Victory seated right on cuirass, pointing one hand at a shield inscribed with the Chi-Rho as she balances it atop a column with her other hand.

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Aelia Flaccilla Aelia Flaccilla AE2. Struck 383 AD, Constantinople mint.

AEL FLACCILLA AVG, mantled bust right in elaborate headdress & necklace / SALVS REIPVBLICAE, Victory seated right, inscribing a christogram on shield resting on small column. T in right field, mintmark CON Epsilon. RIC 81 var (RIC lists T in left field only).

FLACILLA (Aelia), the first wife of Theodosius the Great born in Spain, daughter of Antonius, prefect of Gaul, she was celebrated for her piety, and for her benevolence to the poor. Arcadius and Honorius were her sons by the above named emperor, who married her before his accession to the imperial throne.

She died in Thrace, A. D. 388. Her brass coins are of the lowest degree of rarity, her gold and silver most rare.

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Agrippina, Drusilla and Julia, Caligula's three sisters Orichalcum sestertius (23.4g, 34mm, 6h). Rome mint. Struck under Gaius ("Caligula") AD 37-38.
Obverse: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT laureate portret of Gaius facing left
Reverse: AGRIPPINA DRVSILLA IVLIA Agrippina (Jr), the eldest sister as Securitas, leaning on column, holding cornucopia, and placing left hand on Drusilla's shoulder Drusilla, the middle sister, as Concordia, holding patera and cornucopia and Julia Livilla, the youngest, as Fortuna, holding rudder and cornucopia.
RIC (Gaius) 33 Cohen 4
Ex Harlan J. Berk, Buy/Bid Sale

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Aquilia Severa (second and fourth wife of Elagabalus), 220–2 CE AR Denarius, Rome, 221 CE 20mm, 3.20g. BMCRE 335, RIC 226, RSC 2. Obv: IVLIA AQVILIA SEVERA AVG draped bust right. Rx: CONCORDIA Concordia standing half-left, sacrificing from patera over lighted altar, holding double cornucopia, star to right.

Notes: Rare Aquilia Severa's "Concordia standing" reverse is more often found with the star in the left field than the right (as on this specimen).

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Aquilia Severa. Wife of Elagabalus. AR denarius. 220-222 AD. 3.15 gr, 11h. Draped bust right. IVLIA AQVILIA SEVERA AVG. / Concordia standing left, sacrificing out of patera over altar and holding double cornucopiae star in left field. CONCORDIA. RIC IV 225 (Elagabalus). RSC 2a.

O - Arsinoë II head right, veiled and wearing stephane lotus-tipped scepter in background, Θ to left
R - APΣINOHΣ ΦIΛAΔEΛΦOY, double cornucopia bound with fillet.

Svoronos 460 Troxell, Arsinoe, Transitional to Group 3, p. 43 and pl. 6, 2-3 (same obv. die) SNG Copenhagen 134.

Arsinoe II married Lysimachus at the age of 15. After Lysimachus' death in battle in 281 BC, she fled to Cassandreia and married her paternal half-brother Ptolemy Keraunos. As he became more powerful, she conspired against him leading to the killing of her sons, Lysimachus and Philip. After their deaths, she fled to Alexandria, Egypt to seek protection from her brother, Ptolemy II Philadelphus whom she later married. As a result, both were given the epithet "Philadelphoi" ("Sibling-loving (plural)") by the presumably scandalized Greeks.

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Cleopatra VII drachm Cleopatra VII drachm

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Domitia Longina AE21 from Domitianopolis Sala

Diademed and draped bust, right, CEBACTH DOMITIA
Cybele seated, ΔΟΜΙΤΙΑΝΟΠΟ CAΛHNΩΝ

Domitia was Domitian's mistress, then wife, then prisoner (banishment), then wife again, then assassin.

Obverse: DIVA FAV-STINA, draped bust facing right.
Reverse: CONSECRA-TIO, a Peacock, standing to the right, upon a Sceptre, its head turned to the left.

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FAUSTINA II, JUNIOR. Commemorative denarius of Rome. Struck A.D.176-180 under Marcus Aurelius. Obverse: DIVA FAVSTINA PIA. Draped bust of Faustina Junior facing right.
Reverse: CONSECRATIO. Peacock standing facing right.
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 3.24gms | Die Axis: 12
RIC III : 744 | RSC : 71a

Mint = MKV = Cyzicus. Turkey.

Mark = triangle
308 -309 AD. (according to Aorta)

Mint: Siscia, ESIS

Date: 326-327 AD

Obverse: FL HELENA AUGUSTA
Helena facing right

Reverse: SECURITAS REIPUBLICE, Helena standing left, holding branch, ESIS in exergue

Size: 18mm x 20.5mm

Weight: 3.2 grams

Obverse: FL HELENA - AVGVSTA, diademed and draped bust, facing right, wearing an ornamental Cloak and a Necklace.
Reverse: SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICE, Securitas, standing, facing left, holding an Olive branch with her right hand and holding the end of her Stola with her left.



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