On November 20th 1975 , Francisco Franco died. King Juan Carlos seceded him.
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Francisco Franco, in full Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco Bahamonde, byname El Caudillo (“The Leader”), (born December 4, 1892, El Ferrol, Spain—died November 20, 1975, Madrid), general and leader of the Nationalist forces that overthrew the Spanish democratic republic in the Spanish Civil War (1936–39) thereafter he was the head of the government of Spain until 1973 and head of state until his death in 1975.
Who was Francisco Franco?
Francisco Franco was a general and the leader of the Nationalist forces that overthrew the Spanish democratic republic in the Spanish Civil War (1936–39) thereafter he was the head of the government of Spain until 1973 and the head of state until his death in 1975.
How did Francisco Franco come to power?
On July 18, 1936, in the Canary Islands, Francisco Franco announced a military rebellion against the Spanish republic. After landing in Spain, Franco and his army marched toward Madrid. He became head of the rebel Nationalist government on October 1 but did not gain complete control of the country for more than three years.
What was Francisco Franco’s family like?
Francisco Franco’s family life was not entirely happy. His father, an officer in the Spanish Naval Administrative Corps, was eccentric and somewhat dissolute. More disciplined and serious than other boys his age, Franco was close to his mother, a pious and conservative upper middle-class Roman Catholic.
How was Francisco Franco educated?
Like four generations and his elder brother before him, Francisco Franco was originally destined for a career as a naval officer, but reduction of admissions to the Naval Academy forced him to choose the army. In 1907, only 14 years old, he entered the Infantry Academy at Toledo, graduating three years later.
Franco was born at the coastal city and naval centre of El Ferrol in Galicia (northwestern Spain). His family life was not entirely happy, for Franco’s father, an officer in the Spanish Naval Administrative Corps, was eccentric, wasteful, and somewhat dissolute. More disciplined and serious than other boys his age, Franco was close to his mother, a pious and conservative upper middle-class Roman Catholic. Like four generations and his elder brother before him, Franco was originally destined for a career as a naval officer, but reduction of admissions to the Naval Academy forced him to choose the army. In 1907, only 14 years old, he entered the Infantry Academy at Toledo, graduating three years later.
Franco volunteered for active duty in the colonial campaigns in Spanish Morocco that had begun in 1909 and was transferred there in 1912 at age 19. The following year he was promoted to first lieutenant in an elite regiment of native Moroccan cavalry. At a time in which many Spanish officers were characterized by sloppiness and lack of professionalism, young Franco quickly showed his ability to command troops effectively and soon won a reputation for complete professional dedication. He devoted great care to the preparation of his unit’s actions and paid more attention than was common to the troops’ well-being. Reputed to be scrupulously honest, introverted, and a man of comparatively few intimate friends, he was known to shun all frivolous amusements. In 1915 he became the youngest captain in the Spanish army. The following year he was seriously wounded by a bullet in the abdomen and returned to Spain to recover. In 1920 he was chosen to be second in command of the newly organized Spanish Foreign Legion, succeeding to full command in 1923. That year he also married Carmen Polo, with whom he had a daughter. During crucial campaigns against the Moroccan rebels, the legion played a decisive role in bringing the revolt to an end. Franco became a national hero, and in 1926, at age 33, he was promoted to brigadier general. At the beginning of 1928, he was named director of the newly organized General Military Academy in Saragossa.
After the fall of the monarchy in 1931, the leaders of the new Spanish Republic undertook a major and much-needed military reform, and Franco’s career was temporarily halted. The General Military Academy was dissolved, and Franco was placed on the inactive list. Though he was an avowed monarchist and held the honour of being a gentleman of the king’s chamber, Franco accepted both the new regime and his temporary demotion with perfect discipline. When conservative forces gained control of the republic in 1933, Franco was restored to active command in 1934 he was promoted to major general. In October 1934, during a bloody uprising of Asturian miners who opposed the admission of three conservative members to the government, Franco was called in to quell the revolt. His success in this operation brought him new prominence. In May 1935 he was appointed chief of the Spanish army’s general staff, and he began tightening discipline and strengthening military institutions, although he left many of the earlier reforms in place.
Following a number of scandals that weakened the Radicals, one of the parties of the governing coalition, parliament was dissolved, and new elections were announced for February 1936. By this time the Spanish political parties had split into two factions: the rightist National Bloc and the leftist Popular Front. The left proved victorious in the elections, but the new government was unable to prevent the accelerating dissolution of Spain’s social and economic structure. Although Franco had never been a member of a political party, the growing anarchy impelled him to appeal to the government to declare a state of emergency. His appeal was refused, and he was removed from the general staff and sent to an obscure command in the Canary Islands. For some time he refused to commit himself to a military conspiracy against the government, but, as the political system disintegrated, he finally decided to join the rebels.
Spain Has Been In The 'Wrong' Time Zone For 7 Decades
German Chancellor Adolf Hitler, talks with Spain's Generalissimo Francisco Franco, in Hendaye, France, October 23, 1940, in Hitler's railway carriage. Later, Franco moved Spain's clocks ahead an hour to be aligned with Nazi Germany. AP hide caption
German Chancellor Adolf Hitler, talks with Spain's Generalissimo Francisco Franco, in Hendaye, France, October 23, 1940, in Hitler's railway carriage. Later, Franco moved Spain's clocks ahead an hour to be aligned with Nazi Germany.
It was 1940 and World War II was raging. Nazi Germany occupied Norway, Holland, Belgium, then France. Fascist Italy had already joined with Adolf Hitler. The Fuhrer wanted Spain's support next.
So on Oct. 23, 1940, Hitler took a train to the Spanish border to woo Spain's Fascist dictator, Francisco Franco.
But Spain was in ruins from its own Civil War in the late 1930s, and Franco didn't have much to offer. He stayed neutral, but switched Spain's clocks ahead one hour, to be in line with Nazi Germany.
Ever since, even though Spain is geographically in line with Britain, Portugal and Morocco — its clocks are on the same time zone as countries as far east as Poland and Hungary.
Now, more than seven decades later, the Spanish government is weighing whether to change them back.
The Telefonica building at sunset on Aug. 26 in Madrid. Spain's clocks have been set to Central European time since World War II, which means the sun rises and sets later compared to countries in its region. Gonzalo Arroyo Moreno/Getty hide caption
The Telefonica building at sunset on Aug. 26 in Madrid. Spain's clocks have been set to Central European time since World War II, which means the sun rises and sets later compared to countries in its region.
Gonzalo Arroyo Moreno/Getty
Spaniards are notoriously late-night creatures. In Spain, the sun rises and sets much later than in the rest of the time zone it's in, called Central European Time, or CET.
Spaniards sleep 53 minutes less, on average, than other Europeans. They also work longer hours — but at lower productivity.
In an office park on the outskirts of Madrid, Emilio Sainz, 30, mills around waiting for his bosses to finish their afternoon siesta.
"Here you work too many hours, but you need to stop at midday for two or three hours, and then finish too late," he says. "It's something cultural."
Sainz is a freelance camera technician who just moved back to his native Spain from Britain, and is having trouble adjusting. He doesn't like working until 8 p.m., even with a big break at midday.
How do people fill that time?
"Go back home, take a big lunch — a typical Spanish meal. The siesta is optional, but if you have time you can do it," Sainz says, shaking his head. "But for me, it's sometimes more useful to keep English time. Like, to come back home earlier in the evening, to have some time on your own."
In many Spanish barrios, you can't get a cup of coffee before 9 a.m. The post office is open until 9 p.m. Of course, you'll have to wait even later than that for restaurants to start serving dinner.
Economists say Spain's time zone feeds that schedule — and costs the country dearly.
Time For A Time Change?
"We have no time for personal life or family life," says economist Nuria Chinchilla, who studies work and family life at Spain's IESE Business School. "Therefore we are committing suicide here in Spain. We have just 1.3 children per woman. And it's because we have no time."
Chinchilla is lobbying for Spain to go back to Greenwich Mean Time, or GMT — the time zone it was on before Franco changed it in the early 1940s.
"Because otherwise, we are not sustainable!" Chinchilla exclaims. "In the crisis, we have seen that the companies that are flexible, that have more rational schedules, then they are more productive too — and they are able to be more flexible in the way they are going out of the crisis."
Spain has already shortened its long holiday weekends to try to align work schedules with the rest of Europe. And this fall, a parliamentary committee approved a proposal by the Association for the Rationalization of Spanish Schedules to change back to GMT. The full legislature is expected to vote soon.
Old Habits Die Hard
But some doubt that Spanish culture — with its late-to-rise, late-to-bed habits — could be transformed by a simple change of the clocks.
"For me, it's difficult to think that it'll be different — really different — from now," says Angels Valls, a human resources expert at Spain's ESADE Business School. "From a practical point of view, there are cultural roots that explain why we have this long day. It's not enough to change the hour."
The siesta was a fixture in Spanish life for centuries. Before air conditioning, it was a way to get through the long, hot Spanish afternoon. Until the end of the 20th century, Spain was relatively poor, and Spaniards had to work two jobs — hence the long hours, Valls says.
"So you used to work in the morning at one job. Then it was necessary to stop to rest. And then there was another job in the late afternoon and evening — in order to earn enough money to survive," she says. "It's said to be the origin of our way of life now."
It's a way of life that could prove stubborn to change — especially in this economy. The 26 percent jobless rate has working Spaniards working more, frantic to hold onto their jobs.
For Emilio Sainz, the Spanish cameraman who's just moved home from Britain, Spain's time zone is the late dictator's final insult. Franco died in 1975.
"Franco changed a lot of things. He made a lot of mistakes," Sainz says with a shrug. "And here we are, carrying on with a lot of these outdated things."
Move to democracy
1975 November - Franco dies, and is succeeded as head of state by King Juan Carlos. Spain makes transition from dictatorship to democracy, and withdraws from the Spanish Sahara, ending its colonial empire.
1977 June - First free elections in four decades. Ex-Francoist Adolfo Suárez's Union of the Democratic Centre manages a relatively smooth transition to stable democracy.
1980 - 118 people are killed in Eta's bloodiest year so far.
1981 February - Coup attempt fails after King Juan Carlos makes a televised address demanding that plotters surrender.
1982 - Socialists under Felipe González win elections and govern until 1996. Free education, an expanded welfare state and liberalisation of abortion laws are key policies. Spain joins Nato.
1986 - Spain joins the European Economic Community, later to become the European Union.
Spain Moves Dictator Francisco Franco's Remains, After Months Of Legal Battles
Francisco Franco, Spain's fascist dictator, who died in 1975, being exhumed from his purpose-built mausoleum, the Valley of the Fallen. His remains are being transferred to the crypt in Mingorrubio state cemetery where his wife is buried. Pool/Getty Images hide caption
Francisco Franco, Spain's fascist dictator, who died in 1975, being exhumed from his purpose-built mausoleum, the Valley of the Fallen. His remains are being transferred to the crypt in Mingorrubio state cemetery where his wife is buried.
The remains of Spanish dictator Gen. Francisco Franco have been exhumed, nearly four and a half decades after he was laid to rest in a colossal mausoleum in the Valley of the Fallen — the Valle de los Caídos — northwest of Madrid.
The removal of Franco, who rose to power in 80 years ago, got underway Thursday morning. After being extracted from the mausoleum, his remains were flown by helicopter to a more humble location — a family cemetery just north of Madrid where he was reburied next to his wife.
This appears to be the final chapter in an ongoing saga over exhuming the dictator's body. After months of appeals and legal proceedings, Spain's Supreme Court ruled unanimously last month that the country's caretaker government could go forward with moving Franco.
The coffin of Spanish dictator Francisco Franco is carried in a Super Puma helicopter as it is transported to the Mingorrubio El Pardo cemetery after the exhumation of the Spanish dictator at the Valley of the Fallen, on Thursday Pool/Getty Images hide caption
The coffin of Spanish dictator Francisco Franco is carried in a Super Puma helicopter as it is transported to the Mingorrubio El Pardo cemetery after the exhumation of the Spanish dictator at the Valley of the Fallen, on Thursday
Getting the dictator's body out of the Valley of the Fallen, where he's been buried for the past 44 years, was central to a campaign promise by Spanish Prime Minister Pedro Sánchez. He was pressing for the process to be completed ahead of Spain's general elections next month.
On Thursday morning, vans began arriving at the tomb around 9:30 a.m. local time, Spanish newspaper El País reports. And just before noon, a 3,000-pound slab was reportedly hoisted off of the leader's coffin.
"At around 11.50 a.m., a slab of stone weighing 1.5 tons that covered the coffin was removed, said government sources, who declined to disclose where the tombstone will be stored from now on.
"At 12.40 p.m., the same sources reported that the coffin had been removed from its resting place. Around 10 minutes later, the coffin – covered by a dark brown shroud, a banner and adorned with a wreath and small Spanish flags – was carried out of the basilica by members of his family, down the stairs outside the place of worship and into a waiting funeral car."
The Valley of the Fallen, outside Madrid, where Gen. Francisco Franco's was buried until Thursday. Philippe Desmazes/AFP/Getty Images hide caption
The Valley of the Fallen, outside Madrid, where Gen. Francisco Franco's was buried until Thursday.
Philippe Desmazes/AFP/Getty Images
In the 1930s, Franco led a military insurrection against the Second Spanish Republic that turned into a three-year civil war.
After the civil war ended in 1939, Franco became Spain's absolute ruler until his death in 1975. His burial in an elaborate tomb in Sierra de Guadarram — a spot that he chose, a little more than an hour northwest of Madrid — has led to decades of divisions and rancor in Spain.
Before it became Franco's semi-final resting place, the Valley of the Fallen was built as a mass grave for tens of thousands of people who died during Spain's civil war. Franco deemed it a healing tribute to the dead. But after he joined those buried there, critics called it an ornate homage to his time in power.
Franco's fascist government was notorious for imprisoning, torturing and killing people who spoke out against his regime. Last year, Spain's new Socialist-led government passed legislation that paved the way for the exhumation, And as NPR reported.
Critics have long argued that keeping Franco' remains at the mausoleum celebrates the leader's fascist regime. Those who wanted Franco to remain in the tomb say the media attention surrounding the exhumation would do nothing but dredge up pain and trauma that never fully healed once the war concluded.
VÍDEO | Concluye la protesta de un grupo de franquistas a las puertas de Mingorrubio https://t.co/82zs7elwLf pic.twitter.com/M4wMWomGjf&mdash elDiario.es (@eldiarioes) October 24, 2019
The Spanish government was also concerned that hundreds of protesters might shout insults at the prime minister as he arrived, according to the AP, which adds:
"Fearing disturbances, the government banned a demonstration against the exhumation by Franco supporters at the Mingorrubio cemetery although some 500 people waving Franco-era flags and symbols and changing 'Viva Franco' gathered near the cemetery as police looked on."
Present at the exhumation were other high-ranking Spanish officials as well as several of Franco's relatives, according to The Guardian:
"Twenty-two members of the Franco family gathered in the basilica, along with Spain's justice minister, Dolores Delgado, in her role as first notary of the kingdom.
"A canopy was erected to cover the grave and guard against any attempts to film the exhumation, and those present were checked for electronic devices to make sure there were no images or sound recordings."
In a video posted to the official twitter account of Prime Minister Sánchez, he heralded Franco's removal from the national park as "a tribute to all victims of hate."
"The Spain of today is a complete opposite of the one the Franco regime represented," Sánchez said. "When the Valley reopens it doors, those who arrive will find a different place, a tribute to all the victims of hate where those painful memories should never be repeated."
1975 Franco Dies - History
His speech hinted at democratic reform and tolerance for other cultures within Spain.
The following day thousands joined the new king for General Franco's funeral. He was buried at the Valley of the Fallen mausoleum that was built on his orders by prisoners of the Spanish Civil War.
King Juan Carlos led Spain to democracy and in 1977 for the first time in four decades free and fair elections were held.
In 1978 a new constitution confirmed Spain as parliamentary monarchy.
The king won further respect from liberals after he helped to crush a military coup in 1981.
Some regions such as the Basque Country, Catalonia, Galicia and Andalusia were given a great deal of autonomy, which was then extended to all Spanish regions.
But Spain was dogged by separatist violence in a long-running campaign by the Basque Fatherland and Liberty (ETA) to promote Basque independence. The group declared a permanent ceasefire in March 2006.
The Franco years left the country alienated internationally but after Franco's death Spain won European support and became a member of the EC, now the EU, in 1986.
Born This Day In History 20th November
Celebrating Birthday's Today
Celebrating Birthday's Today
Born: 20th November 1956 Mary Cathleen Collins, Long Beach, California
Known For : Bo Derek is an American actress who has appeared in a number of movies over a 30 year career including Orca, Tarzan the Ape Man, Fashion House she may be best remembered for playing Jenny Hanley in the movie 10 opposite Dudley Moore where her beauty shot her into instant star status as a sex symbol.
Born: 20th November 1942 Scranton, Pennsylvania
Known For : The next vice president of the United States in the Barack Obama administration. He is currently the Senior Senator for Delaware. I have included a video of speeches during the Presidential Race earlier this year.
St. Josemaría Escrivá de Balaguer
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St. Josemaría Escrivá de Balaguer, in full Saint Josemaría Escrivá de Balaguer y Albás, (born January 9, 1902, Barbastro, Spain—died June 26, 1975, Rome, Italy canonized October 6, 2002 feast day June 26), Spanish prelate of the Roman Catholic Church, founder in 1928 of Opus Dei, a Catholic organization of laypeople and priests claiming to strive to live Christian lives in their chosen professions. By the time of Escrivá’s death in 1975, its members numbered some 60,000 in 80 countries, and its critics charged it with wielding undue economic and political power, especially in Spain during the rule of Francisco Franco.
The son of an Aragonese businessman, Escrivá studied law at the University of Saragossa and attended the archdiocesan seminary there, becoming ordained on March 28, 1925. Except for a period during the Spanish Civil War when he was in hiding and then was a refugee from the anticlerical Republicans, he did pastoral work in Madrid until 1946, when he moved permanently to Rome. It was during this period (on October 2, 1928) that Escrivá is said to have received a vision from God, which provided the inspiration for the foundation of his Opus Dei. From that moment, Escrivá claimed, he dedicated himself to the creation of an organization that would spread holiness and sanctify daily work. The year after he moved to Rome he was promoted to the rank of monsignor, and from 1947 to 1950 he secured Vatican approval of Opus Dei, which was made a personal prelature by Pope John Paul II in 1982.
While in Rome, Escrivá met with experts and fathers associated with the Second Vatican Council. He also oversaw the gradual establishment of vocational, trade, and agricultural centres, numerous high schools and schools of business administration, and the founding of the University of Navarra, which many consider Spain’s finest university. In Spain members of Opus Dei were recruited by Franco when he needed highly trained technicians to implement a program of economic development. Although accused of elitism, secrecy, and cultlike practices, the organization remained popular, and Escrivá moved rapidly toward sainthood. After one of the shortest waiting periods in papal history (27 years), Escrivá was canonized by Pope John Paul II in 2002.
This article was most recently revised and updated by Melissa Petruzzello, Assistant Editor.
Spanish Civil War breaks out
On July 18, 1936, the Spanish Civil War begins as a revolt by right-wing Spanish military officers in Spanish Morocco and spreads to mainland Spain. From the Canary Islands, General Francisco Franco broadcasts a message calling for all army officers to join the uprising and overthrow Spain’s leftist Republican government. Within three days, the rebels captured Morocco, much of northern Spain, and several key cities in the south. The Republicans succeeded in putting down the uprising in other areas, including Madrid, Spain’s capital. The Republicans and the Nationalists, as the rebels were called, then proceeded to secure their respective territories by executing thousands of suspected political opponents. Meanwhile, Franco flew to Morocco and prepared to bring the Army of Africa over to the mainland.
In 1931, Spanish King Alfonso XIII authorized elections to decide the government of Spain, and voters overwhelmingly chose to abolish the monarchy in favor of a liberal republic. Alfonso went into exile, and the Second Republic, initially dominated by middle-class liberals and moderate socialists, was proclaimed. During the first two years of the Republic, organized labor and leftist radicals forced widespread liberal reforms, and the independence-minded region of Catalonia and the Basque provinces achieved virtual autonomy.
The landed aristocracy, the church and a large military clique opposed the Republic, and in November 1933 conservative forces regained control of the government in elections. In response, socialists launched a revolution in the mining districts of Asturias, and Catalan nationalists rebelled in Barcelona. General Franco crushed the so-called October Revolution on behalf of the conservative government, and in 1935 he was appointed army chief of staff. In February 1936, new elections brought the Popular Front, a leftist coalition, to power, and Franco, a strict monarchist, was sent to an obscure command in the Canary Islands off Africa.
Fearing that the liberal government would give way to Marxist revolution, army officers conspired to seize power. After a period of hesitation, Franco agreed to join the military conspiracy, which was scheduled to begin in Morocco at 5 a.m. on July 18 and then in Spain 24 hours later. The difference in time was to allow the Army of Africa time to secure Morocco before being transported to Spain’s Andalusian coast by the navy.
On the afternoon of July 17, the plan for the next morning was discovered in the Moroccan town of Melilla, and the rebels were forced into premature action. Melilla, Ceuta, and Tetuan were soon in the hands of the Nationalists, who were aided by conservative Moroccan troops that also opposed the leftist government in Madrid. The Republican government learned of the revolt soon after it broke out but took few actions to prevent its spread to the mainland.
On July 18, Spanish garrisons rose up in revolt all across Spain. Workers and peasants fought the uprising, but in many cities the Republican government denied them weapons, and the Nationalists soon gained control. In conservative regions, such as Old Castile and Navarre, the Nationalists seized control with little bloodshed, but in other regions, such as the fiercely independent city of Bilbao, they didn’t dare leave their garrisons. The Nationalist revolt in the Spanish navy largely failed, and warships run by committees of sailors were instrumental in securing a number of coastal cities for the Republic. Nevertheless, Franco managed to ferry his Army of Africa over from Morocco, and during the next few months Nationalist forces rapidly overran much of the Republican-controlled areas in central and northern Spain. Madrid was put under siege in November.
During 1937, Franco unified the Nationalist forces under the command of the Falange, Spain’s fascist party, while the Republicans fell under the sway of the communists. Germany and Italy aided Franco with an abundance of planes, tanks, and arms, while the Soviet Union aided the Republican side. In addition, thousands of communists and other radicals from France, the USSR, America, and elsewhere formed the International Brigades to aid the Republican cause. The most significant contribution of these foreign units was the successful defense of Madrid until the end of the war.
In June 1938, the Nationalists drove to the Mediterranean Sea and cut Republican territory in two. Later in the year, Franco mounted a major offensive against Catalonia. In January 1939, its capital, Barcelona, was captured, and soon after, the rest of Catalonia fell. With the Republican cause all but lost, its leaders attempted to negotiate a peace, but Franco refused. On March 28, 1939, the Republicans finally surrendered Madrid, bringing the Spanish Civil War to an end. Up to a million lives were lost in the conflict, the most devastating in Spanish history. Franco subsequently served as dictator of Spain until his death in 1975.
Spain Info and Properties
The war left it's scars, on the people, the buildings around them, and the infrastructure of the country.
Franco had said that everything would sort itself out but the country was not a good economic state. There was also another world war going, which Spain stayed out of.
Newspapers were censored before printing in early Franco times, later on, they could still be closed down for critisizing the regime.
The church became strong again and people could get into serious trouble for moral issues such as unmarried couples holding hands in public, or women exposing a little too much skin.
In-fact women do not appear to have had an easy time - divorce was not possible and by law they would need their husbands permission for things like getting a job. You would be unlikely to see a woman driving a car, even in later Franco years and adultery was considered a serious offense if committed by a woman but not if by a man.
Spain's economic recovery was given a boost in 1953 when, during the "cold war", the country received a large amount of aid from the United States in return for allowing US air bases to be built on Spanish soil. The Franco regime also received more international recognition at this time.
During the 1960's, Spain embraced tourism, bringing much needed foreign currency with the annual number of visitors reaching over 40 million by 1975. The tourists didn't always fit in with the Spanish moral issues in the early days though - and women could be arrested for wearing a bikini on a beach.
Spanish industry also grew at high rate and large numbers of the rural population moved to the cities to work in the factories. In Andalucia in particular (a strongly agricultural region) a large number of small villages were left deserted as the population moved out.
By the end of the 1960's, a certain amount of liberalism was creeping in and Franco was planning for what would happen after he was gone. He retired in 1973 and died in 1975.
In the same year that Franco died, Juan Carlos, took the throne, swearing a loyalty to the Franco regime. Franco had in-fact been grooming Juan Carlos for some time to take the role of king after he was gone.
This could have been a difficult time, the king was still relatively unknown to the people, the king's father still had a claim to the throne which had passed him by (the last king had been Juan Carlos' grandfather), and unrest had been brewing a few years with violence on the increase.