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Ancient Warfare Vol VI, Issue 1: From heroes to hoplites: Warfare in Archaic Greece

Ancient Warfare Vol VI, Issue 1: From heroes to hoplites: Warfare in Archaic Greece


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Ancient Warfare Vol VI, Issue 1: From heroes to hoplites: Warfare in Archaic Greece

Ancient Warfare Vol VI, Issue 1: From heroes to hoplites: Warfare in Archaic Greece

This issue of Ancient Warfare magazine focuses on the nature of warfare in Homer's Illiad, how things changed by the Archaic period and the birth of the hoplite and the phalanx, as well as looking at the contrast between the organised group fighting of the hoplite and the individual exploits of the Homeric hero.

In order to do this we start with a look at the reality of warfare in the Illiad. A picture emerges of low-intensity fighting between very open formations, short bursts of intense combat often between named individuals, an important role for the hero, an acceptance of ambushes and sneak attacks, and a world in which prisoners were killed and enemies left unburied.

Greek warfare of the Classical period couldn't have been much different from this. The phalanx required the individual to act entirely as part of a group and had no real place for the hero as portrayed in Homer. Battles were short but decisive. The fate of prisoners might still be uncertain, but formal truces were arranged to allow for the burial of both side's dead. This change probably took place during the Archaic period, and so the articles here look at Archaic warfare, the origin of the hoplite and of the phalanx (both never-ending debates as far as I can tell!).

There is also a useful examination of the First Messenian War, in which Sparta conquered its helots and became a major military power for the first time. This is tied back into the wide topic as the lengthy duration of the war and its lack of major battles suggests that it followed the low intensity format of Homeric warfare more than the high intensity decisive battle of the Classical world.

Away from the main topic there are articles on the Germanic pirates of the 3-4th century and their role in the crumbling of the Western Roman Empire, and on the underground warfare during the Sassanid siege of Dura-Europos in c.255 AD.

Go to Ancient Warfare Magazine Website

Contents
The Source - Poetic licence
The Reenactor - Walking Statues
Age of 'Heroes'? The rules of war in Archaic Greece
Where the Fighting in Hand to Hand: The origins of the hoplite phalanx
Dawn of Spartan Expansionism: The First Messenian War
From Rags to Riches: Tyranny and the hoplite reform
The Find: Twins, Chariot Warfare and Late Geometric Art
Assault from the Sea: Germanic piracy during the 3rd and 4th centuries AD
The Debate: Death in the dark at Dura-Europos



Music of ancient Greece

The music of ancient Greece was almost universally present in ancient Greek society, from marriages, funerals, and religious ceremonies to theatre, folk music, and the ballad-like reciting of epic poetry. It thus played an integral role in the lives of ancient Greeks. There are some significant fragments of actual Greek musical notation [1] [2] as well as many literary references to ancient Greek music, such that some things can be known—or reasonably surmised—about what the music sounded like, the general role of music in society, the economics of music, the importance of a professional caste of musicians, etc. Even archaeological remains reveal an abundance of depictions on ceramics, for example, of music being performed.

The word music comes from the Muses, the daughters of Zeus and patron goddesses of creative and intellectual endeavours.

Concerning the origin of music and musical instruments: the history of music in ancient Greece is so closely interwoven with Greek mythology and legend that it is often difficult to surmise what is historically true and what is myth. The music and music theory of ancient Greece laid the foundation for western music and western music theory, as it would go on to influence the ancient Romans, the early Christian church and the medieval composers. [3] [ page needed ] Specifically the teachings of the Pythagoreans, Ptolemy, Philodemus, Aristoxenus, Aristides, and Plato compile most of our understanding of ancient Greek music theory, musical systems, and musical ethos.

The study of music in ancient Greece was included in the curriculum of great philosophers, Pythagoras in particular believed that music was delegated to the same mathematical laws of harmony as the mechanics of the cosmos, evolving into an idea known as the music of the spheres. [3] [ page needed ] The Pythagoreans focused on the mathematics and the acoustical science of sound and music. They developed tuning systems and harmonic principles that focused on simple integers and ratios, laying a foundation for acoustic science however, this was not the only school of thought in ancient Greece. [3] [ page needed ] Aristoxenus, who wrote a number of musicological treatises, for example, studied music with a more empirical tendency. Aristoxenus believed that intervals should be judged by ear instead of mathematical ratios, [4] though Aristoxenus was influenced by Pythagoras and used mathematics terminology and measurements in his research.


Watch the video: TOP 10 ΗΡΩΕΣ ΤΗΣ ΑΡΧΑΙΑΣ ΕΛΛΑΔΑΣGREEK HEROES (July 2022).


Comments:

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  5. Konnyr

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  6. Monohan

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