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G-2 SS-27 - History

G-2 SS-27 - History

G-2 SS-27


(SS-27: dp. 400 (n.); 1. 161'; b. 13'1"; dr. 12', s. 14 k.
cpl. 24; a. 4 18" tt.; cl. ~2)

G-2 was laid down as Tuna 20 October 1909- renamed G 2, 17 November 1911; launched by the Lake Torpedo Boat Co., Bridgeport, Conn., 10 January 1912, sponsored by Miss MarJorie F. Miller completed in the New York Navy Yard, and commissioned 6 February 1915, Lt. ( j.g. ) R. C. Needham in command.

G 2 joined Division 3 of the Submarine Flotilla 27 .March at Portsmouth, VA., for practice cruises that found her at Norfolk, Charleston, New York, Newport, and Provincetown. The submarine was extensively overhauled in the New York Navy Yard and the Lake Torpedo Boat Co. from 26 March 1916 to 28 June 1917 then reported to the Submarine Flotilla, Patrol Force U.S. Atlantic Fleet at New London, Conn.

The submarine remained at New London for further installations until 23 August when she left for instructional and experimental operations out of Boston off Boston Lightship. With students embarked, she assisted in proving out submarine detection devices for the Experimental Board embarked in Margaret, and in experimental problems with SC - 2 shifted her base from Boston to New London, Conn., 20 October 1917 and combined experimental work on sound detection devices with training for the newly established Submarine School in the area of Block Island and Long Island Sounds. She had defensive patrol duty during June and July 1918, maintaining a listening and periscope alert on station off Block Island. She experimented with magnetic detectors and the Very System Signal device and tested the strength of her hull against depth charges. Concurrently, she trained student officers in cooperation with the experimental Station at New London, Conn.

G-2 continued schoolship and experimental duty until after World War I, and she decommissioned 2 April 1919. She was designated as a target for testing depth charges and ordnance nets in Niantic Bay, Conn. During inspection by a six-man maintenance crew on 30 July 1919, the target boat suddenly flooded and sank at her moorings in Two Tree Channel near Niantic Bay. She went down in 131/2 fathoms, drowning three of the inspection crew. The submarine was never raised.

Florida State Standards for Social Studies: Grade 2

SS.2.A.1.2 Utilize the media center, technology, or other informational sources to locate information that provides answers to questions about a historical topic. 6
Suggested Titles for Florida Social Studies State Standard SS.2.A.1.2

SS.2.A.2. Historical Knowledge

SS.2.A.2.1 Recognize that Native Americans were the first inhabitants in North America. 7
Suggested Titles for Florida Social Studies State Standard SS.2.A.2.1

SS.2.A.2.2 Compare the cultures of Native American tribes from various geographic regions of the United States. 5
Suggested Titles for Florida Social Studies State Standard SS.2.A.2.2

SS.2.A.2.3 Describe the impact of immigrants on the Native Americans. 4
Suggested Titles for Florida Social Studies State Standard SS.2.A.2.3

SS.2.A.2.4 Explore ways the daily life of people living in Colonial America changed over time. 3
Suggested Titles for Florida Social Studies State Standard SS.2.A.2.4

SS.2.A.2.5 Identify reasons people came to the United States throughout history. 3
Suggested Titles for Florida Social Studies State Standard SS.2.A.2.5

SS.2.A.2.6 Discuss the importance of Ellis Island and the Statue of Liberty to immigration from 1892 - 1954. 2
Suggested Titles for Florida Social Studies State Standard SS.2.A.2.6

SS.2.A.2.7 Discuss why immigration continues today. 6
Suggested Titles for Florida Social Studies State Standard SS.2.A.2.7

SS.2.A.2.8 Explain the cultural influences and contributions of immigrants today. 6
Suggested Titles for Florida Social Studies State Standard SS.2.A.2.8

SS.2.A.3. Chronological Thinking

SS.2.A.3.1 Identify terms and designations of time sequence. 14
Suggested Titles for Florida Social Studies State Standard SS.2.A.3.1

FL.SS.2.G. Geography

SS.2.G.1. The World in Spatial Terms

SS.2.G.1.1 Use different types of maps (political, physical, and thematic) to identify map elements. 5
Suggested Titles for Florida Social Studies State Standard SS.2.G.1.1

SS.2.G.1.2 Using maps and globes, locate the student's hometown, Florida, and North America, and locate the state capital and the national capital. 4
Suggested Titles for Florida Social Studies State Standard SS.2.G.1.2

SS.2.G.1.3 Label on a map or globe the continents, oceans, Equator, Prime Meridian, North and South Pole. 6
Suggested Titles for Florida Social Studies State Standard SS.2.G.1.3

SS.2.G.1.4 Use a map to locate the countries in North America (Canada, United States, Mexico, and the Caribbean Islands). 3
Suggested Titles for Florida Social Studies State Standard SS.2.G.1.4

FL.SS.2.E. Economics

SS.2.E.1. Beginning Economics

SS.2.E.1.1 Recognize that people make choices because of limited resources. 2
Suggested Titles for Florida Social Studies State Standard SS.2.E.1.1

SS.2.E.1.2 Recognize that people supply goods and services based on consumer demands. 10
Suggested Titles for Florida Social Studies State Standard SS.2.E.1.2

SS.2.E.1.3 Recognize that the United States trades with other nations to exchange goods and services. 3
Suggested Titles for Florida Social Studies State Standard SS.2.E.1.3

SS.2.E.1.4 Explain the personal benefits and costs involved in saving and spending. 4
Suggested Titles for Florida Social Studies State Standard SS.2.E.1.4

FL.SS.2.C. Civics and Government

SS.2.C.1. Foundations of Government, Law, and the American Political System

SS.2.C.1.1 Explain why people form governments. 6
Suggested Titles for Florida Social Studies State Standard SS.2.C.1.1

SS.2.C.1.2 Explain the consequences of an absence of rules and laws. 5
Suggested Titles for Florida Social Studies State Standard SS.2.C.1.2

SS.2.C.2. Civic and Political Participation

SS.2.C.2.1 Identify what it means to be a United States citizen either by birth or by naturalization. 4
Suggested Titles for Florida Social Studies State Standard SS.2.C.2.1

SS.2.C.2.2 Define and apply the characteristics of responsible citizenship. 10
Suggested Titles for Florida Social Studies State Standard SS.2.C.2.2

SS.2.C.2.3 Explain why United States citizens have guaranteed rights and identify rights. 5
Suggested Titles for Florida Social Studies State Standard SS.2.C.2.3

SS.2.C.2.4 Identify ways citizens can make a positive contribution in their community. 9
Suggested Titles for Florida Social Studies State Standard SS.2.C.2.4

SS.2.C.2.5 Evaluate the contributions of various African Americans, Hispanics, Native Americans, veterans, and women. 22
Suggested Titles for Florida Social Studies State Standard SS.2.C.2.5

SS.2.C.3. Structure and Functions of Government

SS.2.C.3.1 Identify the Constitution as the document which establishes the structure, function, powers, and limits of American government. 5
Suggested Titles for Florida Social Studies State Standard SS.2.C.3.1

SS.2.C.3.2 Recognize symbols, individuals, events, and documents that represent the United States. 8
Suggested Titles for Florida Social Studies State Standard SS.2.C.3.2

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New Jersey Scuba Diving

Type: shipwreck, submarine, U.S. Navy Built: 1912, Bridgeport, CT USA Specs: ( 161 x 13 ft ) 400 tons, no crew Sunk: Wednesday July 30, 1919
foundered after weapons tests – 3 casualties (inspection crew) Depth: 81 ft

(Submarine No. 27: displacement 375 (surf.), 516 (subm.) length 161′ beam 13𔃻″ draft 12𔄀″ speed 14 knots (surf.), 10 knots (subm.) complement 26 armament 6 18″ torpedo tubes class G-1)

Tuna (Submarine No. 27) was laid down on 20 October 1909 at Bridgeport, Conn., by the Lake Torpedo Boat Co. renamed G-2 on 17 November 1911 launched on 10 January 1912 sponsored by Miss Marjorie F. Miller towed to the New York Navy Yard after the termination of the Lake contract on 7 November 1913 and commissioned on 1 December 1913, Lt. (j.g.) Ralph C. Needham in command.

Departing New York under tow of submarine tender Ozark (Monitor No.7) the submersible torpedo boat arrived at the torpedo station, Newport, Rhode Island, on 28 February 1914. Attached to the Atlantic Submarine Flotilla, G-2 spent the next five months conducting dive training and engineering exercises with G-1 in Long Island Sound and Narragansett Bay. During these trials the boat made six submerged runs to a maximum depth of 37 feet. Her engines proved troublesome, however, and after the port armature shaft failed on 31 March, the boat was towed to New York for repairs. While there, financial considerations led to G-2 being put in reserve commission on 15 June 1914.

G-2 was placed in full commission at New York on 6 February 1915, Lt (jg). Ralph C. Needham in command. Attached to Division Three, Submarine Flotilla, Atlantic Fleet, the boat joined G-1, Fulton (Submarine Tender No.1) and tug Sonoma, for a cruise to Norfolk on 25 March. Arriving there two days later, the submersible conducted maneuvers in Hampton Roads before proceeding to Charleston in April, arriving there on the 17th. Following a short yard period for repairs, the division proceeded back to New York, mooring alongside the 135th Street pier on 9 May.

On 18 May, G-2 joined other warships and passed in review before President Woodrow Wilson, who looked on from the yacht Mayflower. The boat then sailed to Nantucket, to participate in a war problem off Block Island, before unloading her torpedoes at Newport on 25 May. Ordered back to New York for an overhaul, the submersible again transited the familiar waters of Long Island Sound before arriving at the mouth of the East River on 22 June. While standing down the river with G-4, however, the two boats collided with submarine K-22 in an unusual three-boat accident. Fortunately, none of the boats suffered any damage. G-2 entered the Navy Yard there for an extended overhaul later that day.

Escorted to Provincetown, Mass., by tug Iwana and Ozark, G-2 commenced final acceptance trials between 1-10 December. Following those successful evolutions, during which the Trial Board noted numerous items requiring modernization, the boat moved back to New York for an overhaul on 14 January 1916. Six months later, G-2 shifted to the Lake Torpedo Boat Company yard for completion, receiving new diving rudder gear, hydroplanes, electrical wiring and a new crankshaft. This yard work required extensive alterations and the boat did not return to service until convoyed to New London by Sunbeam II (SP-42) on 28 June 1917.

On 21 August, G-2 sailed to Boston via the Cape Cod Canal to operate with Aylwin (Destroyer No. 47), submarine chaser SC-6, and steam yacht Margaret (SP-527). There, the boat helped a Navy Experimental Board embarked in Margaret carry out various sound detector tests in nearby waters. The submarine also conducted practice approaches and served as an instruction platform for officer and enlisted submarine students.

Shifting back to New London on 20 October, G-2 combined work on sound detection devices with training for the newly established Submarine School off Block Island and in Long Island Sound. During seven months of operations, she experimented with magnetic detectors and dragging devices and tried out new periscopes and other submarine equipment. The boat carried out these tests with section patrol boats Wacondah (SP-238) and Thetis (SP-391), as well as numerous subchasers. Learning of the possible proximity of German U-boats, she conducted four-day patrols off Block Island in late June 1918 and again in mid-July.

G-2 continued schoolship duty out of New London through the end of World War I, testing listening and flare signaling devices among other pieces of equipment. On 30 August, for example, her crew tested the strength of the pressure hull, and the reliability of electric equipment, against depth charge explosions. On 12 September Thetis experimented with a magnetic detector while G-2 lay on the bottom in 86 feet of water and, in November, G-2 even conducted experimental work with patrol seaplanes. This duty ended in January 1919 when she was scheduled for inactivation.

Decommissioned on 2 April 1919, the boat was designated as a target for testing depth charges and ordnance nets in Niantic Bay, Conn. Tragically, during inspection by a six-man maintenance crew on 30 July 1919, the boat suddenly flooded and sank at her moorings in Two Tree Channel near Niantic Bay. She went down in 13-1/2 fathoms, drowning three of the inspection crew. Too deep and too old to salvage, the submarine was struck from the Navy List on 11 September 1919.

USS Casimir Pulaski (SSBN-633)

Slapping the handles down the Skipper does the quick crouching spin to check all around before stopping at 030.

The low to the water dark hull sails on in the scope seemingly unknowing and uncaring to its impending doom.

The Captain stares a thousand miles into the hydraulic oiled descending shaft, his mind locked onto the job at hand.

"Set depth at one zero feet"

"Flood tube four and open outer door."

"Next observation will be a shooting observation."

"Have the COB report to the Conn."

"COB will you hit the firing key on this one?"

The COB with a strained look on his face, "Aye Skipper."

The Captain with a kind of sad smile says, "It won't be the first now will it?"

"No Skipper, but I hope it's the last like this."

"Been a long time since we walked down the pier together to this boat as non quals, huh Chief?"

"Yeah me an E2 and you an O1, I outranked you even then didn't I?"

The Captain chuckles, which ease the strain on both their faces, "Yes, you always did outrank me in some ways. You took grumpy old chief lessons long before you were even an E5."

Smiling for a second the COB says, "We have both come a long ways since those days, and now they are nearly at an end."

Again the awkward spin around the scope to stop with the submarine in the cross hairs.

"Very well, this will be for MOT, Shoot tube four."

The COB's hand comes up quickly then pauses over the firing key and wavers there. In a stern voice that cracks ever so slightly the Captain says, "Shoot the fish!" The tough hard hand of the chief that doesn't match the pain in his eyes smashes down on the key.

"Tube four fired electrically," The chief reports sadly.

"Fifty Five seconds, Captain."

"COB, I better not have missed."

"Yes Sir, sorry, but it's hard to sink your qual boat."

"Skipper, Sonar reports, Torpedo running hot straight and normal."

"5, 4, 3, 2, 1, Skipper, Plus 1, 2, 3,"

The Captain looks through the periscope his "Damn" to be rewarded with the violent geyser of sea foam under the engine room of the sub. Lifted high already broken in two by the Mark 16 torpedo's explosion she is doomed to the rest of forever on the sea floor. "COB take a look. It's a better end that being scrapped."

Looking, he sees the ends of the broken black hull disappear quickly into the deep blue sea. "Yes she will rest with all her sisters now where she belongs, Skipper. She has served us well again."

This is dedicated to those boats that gave the last final extra measure for us in weapons tests. S(T) Sunk as target from "US Submarines Through 1945" by Norman Friedman. Jim Christley did research in other places and kindly allowed its use here. Also comments have been added by sailors that rode the boat that sank them or have knowledge of the sinking.

  • SS-2 A-1 was target. Sold for scrapping 26 Jan 22 with USS Puritan.
  • SS-3 A-2 Adder 16-Jan-22 1/26/1922 Used as target. Hulk sunk in Manila Bay, near Corregidor
  • SS-4 A-3 Grampus Used as target. Hulk sunk in Manila Bay, near Corregidor
  • SS-5 A-4 Moccasin 16-Jan-22 Used as target. Hulk sunk in Manila Bay, near Corregidor
  • SS-6 A-5 Pike 16-Jan-22 Sunk by explosion 15 Apr 17 Salvaged Used as target. Hulk sunk in Manila Bay, near Corregidor
  • SS-7 A-6 Porpoise 16-Jan-22 Used as target. Hulk sunk in Manila Bay, near Corregidor
  • SS-8 A-7 Shark 16-Jan-22 Used as target. Hulk sunk in Manila Bay, near Corregidor
  • SS-9 C-1 Octopus Used as target. Hulk sunk in Manila Bay, near Corregidor
  • SS-10 B-1 Viper 16-Jan-22 Used as target. Hulk sunk in Manila Bay, near Corregidor
  • SS-11 B-2 Cuttlefish 17-Jan-22 Used as target. Hulk sunk in Manila Bay, near Corregidor
  • SS-12 B-3 Tarantula 17-Jan-22 Used as target. Hulk sunk in Manila Bay, near Corregidor
  • SS-19 1/2 (Seal) G1 designated target 19 Feb 20 stricken 29 Aug 21. S(T) in Narragansett Bay, RI sunk in 105' of water 20 Jun 21 just north of Taylor's Point.
  • SS-26 Thrasher G4 had been designated a depth charge target 6 Dec 19 sold 15 Apr 20.
  • SS-27 Tuna G2 foundered awaiting depth charge tests 30 Jul 19 partially raised and scrapped 1962. She lies off Pleasant Beach near Niantic Bay, CT in 80 feet of water.
  • SS-48 L-8 15 Nov 22 S(T) in 110 feet of water, 3 Miles South of Brenton Reef Light, outside of Narragansett Bay in 1926 in a test of the ill fated Mk 6 magnetic exploder.
  • SS-85 R8 19 Aug 36 bombing. SS-94 R 17 to UK 9 Mar 42 Ret 6 Sept 44 served as target Stricken 22 Jun 45 sold 16 Nov 45.
  • SS-121 S-16 S(T) 3 May 45 in 250 feet of water, 18 miles from Key West
  • SS-122 S-17 S(T) 5 April 45
  • SS-124 S-19 S(T) just off Pearl Harbor [London Treaty] on 18 Dec 38.
  • SS-126 S-21 sunk as sonar target 23 Mar 45.
  • SS-140 S-35 S(T) 4 Apr 46 after use as damage control hulk for new Fleet Damage Control School.
  • SS-142 S-37 S(T) 4 Apr 46 "before being scuttled off San Diego?"
  • SS-143 S-38 S(T) off San Diego 20 Feb 45.
  • SS-164 Bass scuttled as a sonar target 12 Mar 45.
  • SS-184 Skipjack Bikini target sunk 25 Jul 46 raised 2 Sept 46 S(T) 11 Aug 48.
  • SS-196 Searaven Bikini target Jul 46 S(T) 11 Sept 48.
  • SS-203 Tuna Bikini target, S(T) 24 Sept 48.
  • SS-217 Guardfish S(T) 1 Oct 61 by Dogfish and Blenny 97 Miles south of Block Island
  • SS-241 Bashaw S(T) 13 Sep 69 SS-242 scuttled as salvage trainer 3 Dec 70 off Hawaii.
  • SS-243 Bream S(T) 7 Nov 69 by Sculpin (SSN 590) off southern California.
  • SS-259 Jack S(T) by units of US Sixth Fleet on 1 Sep 68 after return from Greece. Sinking took place within 10 Miles of 320 16' N x 1320 05' E. (By Entemedor, note from Frank Hill)
  • SS-260 Lapon Loaned to Greece 8 August 1957. Returned to US control and S(T) in 1973
  • SS-262 Muskellunge S(T) 9 Jul 68 by Tench (SS-417). She still had all the spare parts, tools, etc. aboard when she made the final dive. Any of you that were in New London at that time remember how hard it was to get spare parts to keep the diesel boats running, but the Squadron had a Jarhead guarding the brow so we couldn't salvage anything.
  • SS-263 Paddle (Loaned to Brazil on 18 January 1957. She is reported as having sunk on or about 30 June 1968.
  • SS-270 Raton sold 12 0ct 73 but reported used as target.
  • SS-274 Rock sold 17 Aug 72 but reported used as target.
  • SS-282 Tunny S(T) 19 Jun 70 by USS Volador SS490
  • SS-283 Tinosa Scuttled Nov 60 after use as an ASW target.
  • SS-285 Balao Main hull sunk as target off Charleston, South Carolina 300 46.5'N x 740 11'W on 4 Sep 63. The Conning tower and shears are at Navy Memorial Museum, Washington Navy Yard.
  • SS-292 Devilfish S(T) by USS Wahoo (SS 565) in 2000 fathoms of water at 370 05'N x 1240 8' W during a MK16 Mod8 service test on 14 Aug 68.
  • SS-293 Dragonet S(T) 17 Sept 61 after explosives tests in Upper Chesapeake Bay in 150 feet of water.
  • SS-299 Manta target ship 49-53 S(T) 16 Jul 69 off Norfolk Va.
  • SS-300 Moray S(T) 18 Jun 70 off San Clemente Island.
  • SS-302 Sabalo S(T) 15 Feb 73 in Sub Sink Ex Project Thurber.
  • SS-305 Skate Bikini target Jul 46 then S(T) off San Clemente on 5 October 1948.
  • SS-308 Apogon Bikini target sunk 25 Jul 46 Upright on bottom 800yd SW of Test Baker Site.
  • SS-309 Aspro S(T) 16 Nov 62.
  • SS-311 Archerfish S(T) 17 Oct 68 in 2000 fathoms of water at Lat 320-23.0'N and Lng. 1220-58.1'W. At 2114Z this date a MK37-2 torpedo, fired from USS Snook (SSN-592), hit the stern and detonated, but did not sink the target. This was the second of two MK37-2 torpedoes employed the first did not acquire or attack the target. At 2226Z, after being struck broadside by a MK14-5 torpedo, Archerfish split in half near the after battery hatch and descended to her final resting place off the coast of San Diego, California.
  • SS-312 Burrfish S(T) 19Sept 69.
  • SS-315 Sealion S(T) 8 Jul68.
  • SS-317 Barbero S(T) 7 0ct 64 by Greenfish.
  • SS-324 Blenny sunk as reef off Ocean City NJ. (Book is wrong on this. She was not sunk as target but as a fishing reef off Ocean City MD.)
  • SS-331 Bugara lost under tow for target 1 Jun 71.
  • SS-337 Carbonero S(T) 27 Aug 75.
  • SS-342 Chopper sunk 21 Jul 76 while being rigged as tethered underwater target.
  • SS-347 Cubera S(T) Date unknown by USS Salmon off the coast of San Diego. This was after she was towed from Venezuela, where she had been loaned in 1972.
  • SS-362 Guavina S(T) 14 Nov 67 by Cubera with a Mk 16 off Cape Henry Va. I have a photo of the explosion from Cubera's periscope on back the date is given as 11 Nov 67.
  • SS-377 Menhaden tethered underwater target 76 later sold.
  • SS- 386 Pilotfish Sunk Bikini 25 Jul 46 raised S(T) 16 0ct 48.
  • SS-392 Sterlet S(T) 31Jul 69 by Sargo.
  • SS-393 Queenfish S(T)14 Aug 63 by Swordfish.
  • SS-395 Redfish S(T) 16 0ct 69 by Sea Fox.
  • SS-398 Segundo S(T) 8 Aug 70 by Salmon.
  • SS-399 Sea Cat test hulk 1968-72 sold 18 May 73 (also reported sunk)
  • SS-400 Sea Devil S(T) 24 Nov 64 was sunk by USS VOLADOR
  • SS-490, a unit of SUBFLOT ONE/SUBRON FIVE by a MK37-1. LCDR Glenn M. Brewer was C.O. of VOLADOR at the time. I was on the TDjC and LT John B. Thomas, a former ENC(SS) aboard SEA DEVIL actually hit the firing plunger for the shot. Torpedo hit in the After Engine Room area. Sea Devil didn't sink until shelled (5 inch) by USS Halsey (DLG) later CG.
  • SS-401 Sea Dog S(T) 18 May68.
  • SS-404 Spikefish Reported S(T) 4 Aug 64
  • SS-412 Trepang S(T) 16 Sept 69.
  • SS-416 Tiru last fleet submarine in service planned for conversion to remote control submersible target S(T) 2 0ct 76 by USS Silversides.
  • SS-419 Tigrone S(T) on 25 Oct 76. USS Sea Devil (SSN-664) fired MK 48 warshot at submerged target. Weapon acquired several times but kept turning away . . . some conjectured at the time that the onboard computer would not validate the target for close-in due to the absence of any noise whatsoever emanating from the target which was suspended stationary from two salvage pontoons. Cable on one pontoon parted next morning in rough seas and target sank . . . Weapons Officer and TM3 on bridge of Sea Devil at the time . . . pontoon shot up out of water . . . lots of roiling air on surface . . . only flotsam spotted were pieces of wood decking.
  • SS-422 Toro Sold Apr 65 (also reported sunk)
  • SS-428 Ulua suspended 12 Aug 45 used as underwater explosion test hulk Norfolk 51-58 stricken 12 Jun 58.
  • SS-568 Harder S(T) off Pearl Harbor, 1991
  • SS-573 Salmon for converted to shallow water sonar target. Sunk near Hudson Canyon as bottom target, June 1993
  • SSG-574 Grayback 13 April 86 Sunk as target in or near Subic Bay, RPI. SS-576 Darter S(T) 7 Jan 92 off Pearl Harbor, HI. by USS Tautog (SSN 639) in a Mk 48 ADCAP test .

Sea Dogs

SAILORS HAVE BEEN TAKING DOGS TO SEA SINCE A PAIR OF canines shipped out with Noah. Nevertheless, the picture of the floppy-eared poodle, looking as jaunty and confident as the young submariners who surrounded her, surprised me. What was the dog's name? I wondered. Why was it on a submarine? A scrawl on the back of the photo revealed only that this was the crew of the USS Whale after its return from its eighth war patrol in the Pacific. The Submarine Force Library and Museum in Groton, Connecticut, where I'm the director, has thousands of books, documents, and photographs about U.S. Submarine operations but no file, I realized, about mascots. Were there dogs on board other submarines? If so, could we find enough information about them to perhaps mount an exhibit for the museum? For the next six months the curator, the archivist, and I kept a watch for pictures and stories of what we came to call sea dogs. Our finds were infrequent once in a while we'd turn up a picture in a folder or a brief reference in a yellowed news clipping. Then I published an appeal in Polaris, the monthly magazine of the Submarine Veterans of World War II. In poured letters with photographs, ID cards, service records, and newspaper stories. The replies showed that after nearly fifty years the veterans' feelings for their pets remained strong. One wrote: "She was truly one of our crew, and we all loved her. She was a comfort. . . When we were in silent running and getting a good depth charging." Another recalled: "Some chief from one of the seven hundred-odd ships in the anchorage (at Ulithi) decided to abscond with our dog, and I interceded and got a broken nose for my efforts. Hope Garbo appreciated it!" A third remembered: "Since I left the boat before Betty did, I cannot tell you of her final fate. May her soul rest in peace." From this correspondence I discovered that during World War II many United States submariners carried mascots with them in the Pacific. We did put together an exhibit called "Sea Dogs: Mascots of the Silent Service." Still on display, it is as popular with the public as the mascots were with their crews and for the same reason: The dogs touched their hearts.

Submariners' pets were usually small and of mixed breed. Crews acquired them through purchase and gift or in trade for a case or two of beer. One dog even dashed aboard a sub as the boat was getting under way. The dogs cheered and amused the men during their long war patrols. They helped relieve the tension and weariness of hours of silent running or nights of surface attacks. The men doted on their dogs. They fed them steak and bacon they gave them ID cards and service records they took them on liberty all over the Pacific, and more than one mascot acquired a taste for beer. Crews made their pets leashes and collars, complete with combat submarine insignia and service stars. Some dogs wore special coats emblazoned with their boat's war record. At least one miscreant even went to captain's mast. Garbo was the perfect submarine mascot. A mongrel puppy so small she could be concealed in a white sailor's hat, she came aboard the USS Gar (SS 206) in Hawaii about the time of the boat's tenth war patrol. She and the crew took an immediate liking to each other, and she remained on board for the rest of the Gar's fifteen war patrols. The puppy made her home in the forward torpedo room. Whenever the sub got under way, Garbo stationed herself all the way forward on the bullnose and barked. Once each patrol she toured the Gar from stem to stern as she arrived in each compartment, the crew there would come to attention. "She owned the boat and knew it," recalled Motor Machinist Mate Second Class Jim Bunn. Garbo earned the combat submarine insignia that she wore on her collar, along with a star for each successful patrol she made on the Gar. Under the heaviest depthcharge attacks, when the gauges were leaking, light bulbs breaking, and fires breaking out, Garbo remained as playful as ever. Bunn said, "She should have gotten a medal for keeping our spirits and morale up when we needed it most." Anyone was welcome to pet her, but only the skipper, Lt. Cmdr. George Lautrup, Jr., and the cook, Red Balthorp, could pick her up. The skipper would put her on his shoulder and carry her up the ladder to the bridge at night for fresh air.

One night while the Gar was running on the surface during a war patrol in the Palau Islands, Garbo stepped off the cigarette deck and vanished into the darkness. The C.O. Immediately began a dogoverboard search. With the boat making frantic circles in enemy waters, a lookout finally spotted the mascot below the bridge, safe on the main deck. Between patrols Garbo stayed with the crew at their hotel in Pearl Harbor. She joined in the ship's parties, and like some of her two-legged shipmates, she didn't know her limit. After lapping up too much beer, she tended to blunder into furniture. Garbo gave birth to two pups while the sub was en route to Ulithi the father belonged to the USS Tambor (SS 198). The Gar's crew traded the pups to other submarines for cases of beer. At the end of the war, when the Gar returned to the States, Chief Motor Machinist Mate Jim Ellis took Garbo home with him. Skeeter's second trip to mast came when he mistook a chief petty officer's leg for a fire hydrant. Sugie joined the crew of the USS Besugo (SS 321) when he was six weeks old. At the sub's commissioning party in June 1944, the puppy, wearing a custom-made sailor's blue jumper, looked on from the arms of the exec. Sugie made the shakedown cruise and all five war patrols during which the Besugo sank more than forty thousand tons of enemy shipping. He liked beer and whiskey, disdained gilly (a vile beverage distilled from the alcohol in torpedo fuel), and would, in a pinch, drink a pink lady. Submarine food suited him fine, and he especially enjoyed sitting in a chair while the crew spoon-fed him. His appetite didn't stop there: he chewed gum (and swallowed it), he would eat soap if someone didn't keep an eye on him, and he liked to chew up socks whenever he could, especially the skipper's. Skeeter, mascot of the USS Halibut (SS 232), was a swashbuckler too. The crew acquired him in Lefty's bar in San Francisco while the sub was undergoing overhaul in 1944. During his tour on the Halibut, Skeeter appeared at captain's mast twice, perhaps a canine record.

He was first charged with disturbing the peace in the forward battery compartment and with being surly and belligerent. Cmdr. I. J. Galantin, the Halibut's C.O., dismissed the case with a warning. Skeeter's second trip to mast came when he mistook a chief petty officer's leg for a fire hydrant. But the dog eventually received an honorable discharge and was mustered out of the Navy in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, in July 1945. Others were not so fortunate. Potshot survived three war cruises aboard the USS Hoe (SS 258) only to be run over and killed by a torpedo truck during a routine stop at Pearl Harbor. Myrna, the mascot of the USS Sawfish (SS 276), another casualty of war, was one of a litter of six pups born to Luau, the mascot of the USS Spadefish (SS 411). Myrna still wasn't weaned when her crew smuggled her aboard the Sawfish the corpsman fed her a formula of milk, Karo syrup, cod-liver oil, and vitamin pills. At the end of the Sawfish's ninth war patrol, the sub went to Camp Dealy on Guam for rest and recreation. Myrna was sleeping under a table on which several sailors were sitting when another man joined them, the table collapsed, crushing their mascot. The accident left the crew depressed for weeks. Myrna's mother, Luau, was a plank owner on the Spadefish, having come aboard in February 1944, lured from the landlubber's life by a large, tender steak after the crew discovered her in a Vallejo, California, bar. She distinguished herself in the service. When writing up the Spadefish's first war patrol, Lt. Cmdr. G. W. Underwood noted that Luau "contributed greatly to the morale with her ready playfulness with all hands. She was a bit perturbed by the depth charges, but soon recovered with only a slight case of depth charge nerves." If Hollywood had dreamed up a sea dog, it would have been Betty, a white toy poodle who was the mascot of the USS Whale (SS 239). She came aboard in Honolulu in September 1943, prevailing over the protests of the Whale's executive officer by licking the captain's hand. She was then designated Dog First Class, issued service and medical records, and given the run of the ship. She avoided the noisy engine rooms and hid in the control room during gunnery practice.

The men liked to take their dog on liberty in Pearl Harbor because, as Lt. Emmett Fowler, Jr., recalled, Betty was a "girl getter" it didn't take long for the poodle's escorts to strike up conversations with their mascot's attractive admirers. The weather was bad at Midway when the Whale returned from one patrol, and the port captain ordered the sub to remain outside the harbor till conditions improved. Unwilling to linger where his vessel might become a target for Japanese submarines, the C.O. entered port anyway. The irate port captain met the sub at the pier and yelled at the C.O. while the Whale was going alongside, then came aboard and continued to argue. Tiring of the stream of abuse, Betty slashed an eight-inch rip in the port captain's pants leg. A subsequent admiral's inquiry in Pearl Harbor exonerated the Whale's C.O. Betty had only been defending her crew. The port captain was relieved of his duties. Victory and the end of the war meant the breaking up of most submarine crews. Garbo, Skeeter, Betty, and other dogs went home with crew members. Porches, lawns, and the occasional cat replaced steel hulls, tile decks, and depth charges. Gabby, mascot of the USS Gabilan (SS 252), proudly represented all submarine sea dogs when he marched with his crew in a welcome-home victory parade in Mobile, Alabama, in October 1945.

A Silent Warrior's Final Day

On a dark and gloomy rain-filled day, a shroud of secrecy permeated the air on the Bremerton waterfront. It was the perfect setting for the final day in the top-secret career of the Bangor-based USS Parche, one of the world's most prolific spy submarines. By the time its life ended Tuesday in a decommissioning ceremony at the Bremerton naval base, the Parche was the most highly decorated ship in Navy history - even though most Americans have never heard of it. Commissioned in 1974, the Parche spent 30 years and 19 deployments as America's top espionage sub, reportedly tapping the undersea military communication lines of the Soviet Union during the Cold War, plucking lost Soviet weaponry from the ocean floor and gathering intelligence on other enemies afterward. The Parche (pronounced PAR-chee) was officially designated by the Navy as a "research and development" submarine. And it did plenty of that, testing new sonar and undersea warfare technologies. But its highly classified missions, none of which have ever been officially confirmed, are the most intriguing aspect of its history. Many of those missions were deemed to be of "vital importance to U.S. national security," earning the submarine an unprecedented nine Presidential Unit Citations. The vast majority of ships never receive even one. For being the most decorated ship ever, shouldn't more people be made aware of what it accomplished? "Those that need to know, know," said a matter-of-fact Rear Adm. Ben Wachendorf, who commanded the Parche from 1988 to 1993. Wachendorf, now U.S. defense attachй in Moscow, traveled from Russia to be at Tuesday's ceremony. "I wouldn't have missed it for anything," he said. "It means a lot to be able to say goodbye to an old friend." In fact, all but one of the Parche's nine former commanders were present at the Parche's decommissioning. In addition, about 130 former crew members, most belonging to the USS Parche Association, were on hand to witness the sub's inactivation. Those who returned to see their sub one last time said it was not only the camaraderie of submarine life that made Parche special, but also the exotic and extremely challenging missions it completed, which often involved excruciatingly long periods spent submerged with dwindling food and supplies. "It's the end of the life cycle," said Manchester resident Will Longman, chairman of the Parche Association. "It's very meaningful. The camaraderie does not go away. And the uniqueness of Parche imparts its own special camaraderie."

The Parche also was the last of the Navy's 37 Sturgeon-class fast attack subs to be deactivated - though it barely resembled any of the other ships of that class. That's because its hull was extended by 100 feet to accommodate extensive classified modifications in a four-year stay at Mare Island Naval Shipyard near San Francisco in the late 1980s and early 1990s. In 1994, the Parche and its crew of 190 moved from Mare Island to Bangor. It had already earned six Presidential Unit Citations by that time and earned another three after its transfer to Bangor, including a ninth for its final deployment that ended in late September. The Parche's final resume also included 13 Navy Expeditionary Medals and 10 Navy Unit Commendations - all unprecedented numbers. "Parche has had a career unmatched in the annals of submarine history," said Rear Adm. Paul Sullivan, commander of the Pacific Fleet submarine force. "Parche has gathered enough citations that are just truly remarkable ..based on her superb performance in critical national tasking. "She now ranks among the most legendary vessels to ever have sailed under our flag." Sullivan compared the Parche's storied past to other historic Navy vessels, such USS Constitution, USS Monitor, USS Missouri and USS Nautilus. "And now there is Parche," he said. The ship figured prominently in "Blind Man's Bluff: The Untold Story of American Submarine Espionage," a nonfiction book published in the 1990s, which described how it spent its Cold War days spying on the Soviet Union. It's also been reported the sub, with a claw-like device, was able to pick up lost Soviet missiles or bombs from the sea floor. Later, it reportedly deployed unmanned drones to complete many of the espionage tactics. Following the Cold War, the Parche continued its highly classified missions, with many observers citing an even higher sense of secrecy. It's said the Parche spent plenty of time in the Persian Gulf, gleaning intelligence on Iraq and Iran, and traveled through the Western Pacific keeping tabs on China and North Korea.

Capt. Richard Charles, the Parche's first commander, traveled from Mobile, Ala., for Tuesday's ceremony. He took command while the sub was being built and went on its first deployment, a five-month journey in the Mediterranean Sea. After that, the sub transferred to the West Coast and began its spy missions a few years later. "Those guys in the Pacific had all the fun," Charles joked. "I just built it. It's always sad to see a ship retire, but after a while, they are like you and me they wear out." Ironically, the name of the Parche's last at-sea commander, Capt. Charles Richard, was a mirror image of the sub's first. Richard was relieved in a change-of-command ceremony Tuesday after leading the Parche on two post-September 11th deployments, including one that lasted 122 days in 2002. "Being commander of this ship was an extraordinary experience and I was fortunate to be given the experience," he said. "I hope that each man who has served aboard this ship will look back and swell with pride knowing that he answered his country's call." Following the ceremony, the Parche, probably one of the least known subs to the general public because of its highly classified missions, silently shifted over to Puget Sound Naval Shipyard. There, it will be torn apart and recycled over the next few years. And it's probably the first time in the Parche's history that its whereabouts will be known. "That just proves our success that nobody knows what we do," said Bremerton resident Curt Mathews, who retired off the Parche last year. "It's kind of fun. People say, 'The Parche? I never heard of it?' Well, that's good. And we like it that way and that's why we were successful in all of our missions."

New Jersey Scuba Diving

World War II – USS Blenny SS-324 – 312 ft, 1,810 tons, 8 knots submerged

Everyone knows what a submarine is – a ship that can go underwater. Hardly needs any explanation. Unless you’re in the US Navy. By the Navy definition, only their modern, nuclear-powered boats ( all submarines are called “boats” ) are true submarines, designed to operate beneath the surface almost indefinitely. Anything else is merely a “submersible”, tied to the surface by the need for fuel and air. Whatever.

Submarines have a long history. Leonardo DaVinci sketched submarine vessels in the 1500s, but that’s a far cry from actually building one. Both the North and the South experimented with submarines during the Civil War, although only the desperate South actually used theirs in combat – the famous Hunley. Submarine development continued in Europe during the later 1800s, with no really useful results.

It was two Americans who separately built the first really practical submarines around the turn of the century, both right here in New Jersey. John Holland’s 45 ft Holland IV, built in Elizabeth, became the SS-1, the first boat accepted by the US Navy for operational use. The choice was more for political reasons than any superiority of design. While the Holland functioned adequately above and below the water, Holland’s methods for submerging, surfacing, and depth-keeping were clumsy. The perfection of diving and underwater control was left to Simon Lake, who began his work in Keyport, later in Toms River. Lake’s submarine designs were much more advanced than Holland’s, and Simon Lake should really be considered the father of the modern submarine. However, although the Navy eventually bought several of Lake’s submarines as well, their early preference for Holland has enshrined his name with that title. Lake spent his later years and much of his fortune vainly searching for the wreck of the HMS Hussar and its sunken treasure in the 1930s.

World War II – German Type IXc U-boat – 251 ft, 1,051 tons, 8 knots submerged

None of these early submarines were practical as weapons of war – they were small, short ranged, and extremely slow. In addition, these early subs lacked periscopes for underwater navigation and targeting, and like the Hunley, they carried primitive weapons that were at least as dangerous to themselves as to any enemy. All that changed during World War I with rapid advances in submarine technology and weapons, mainly in Germany. ( see U-151 ) these advances continued through World War II, when German U-boats were the scourge of the Atlantic, operating right up to our coast, sinking hundreds of ships over the course of the war. Similarly, long-ranged American submarines prowled the Pacific, eventually sinking almost every Japanese merchant vessel. While the Germans ultimately lost the Battle of the Atlantic, the Americans certainly won the “Battle of the Pacific.” After the war, advanced technology captured from the Germans, who were again at the forefront of submarine development, was combined with nuclear power to produce what the Navy now considers to be the true submarine.

An Ohio-class nuclear powered Trident missile submarine 560 ft, 18,700 tons submerged, 25+ knots submerged

Ironically, modern submarines carry such fearsomely destructive arsenals that they no longer even bother to target surface ships. Instead, their primary mission is now to hunt each other.

2004 – the US Navy’s newest class of attack submarine – USS Virginia SSN-774 377 ft, 7,800 tons submerged, 32+ knots submerged

G-2 SS-27 - History

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SS, abbreviation of Schutzstaffel (German: “Protective Echelon”), the black-uniformed elite corps and self-described “political soldiers” of the Nazi Party. Founded by Adolf Hitler in April 1925 as a small personal bodyguard, the SS grew with the success of the Nazi movement and, gathering immense police and military powers, became virtually a state within a state.

From 1929 until its dissolution in 1945, the SS was headed by Heinrich Himmler, who built up the SS from fewer than 300 members to more than 50,000 by the time the Nazis came to power in 1933. Himmler, a racist fanatic, screened applicants for their supposed physical perfection and racial purity but recruited members from all ranks of German society. With their sleek black uniforms and special insignia (lightninglike runic S’s, death’s head badges, and silver daggers), the men of the SS felt superior to the brawling brown-shirted Storm Troopers of the SA, to which initially they were nominally subordinate.

When Hitler, with SS help, purged the SA in 1934 and reduced it to political impotence, the SS became an independent group responsible, via Himmler, to Hitler alone. Between 1934 and 1936 Himmler and his chief adjutant, Reinhard Heydrich, consolidated SS strength by gaining control of all of Germany’s police forces and expanding their organization’s responsibilities and activities. At the same time, special military SS units were trained and equipped along the lines of the regular army. By 1939 the SS, now numbering about 250,000 men, had become a massive and labyrinthian bureaucracy, divided mainly into two groups: the Allgemeine-SS (General SS) and the Waffen-SS (Armed SS).

The Allgemeine-SS dealt mainly with police and “racial” matters. Its most important division was the Reichssicherheitshauptamt (RSHA Reich Security Central Office), which oversaw the Sicherheitspolizei (Sipo Security Police), which, in turn, was divided into the Kriminalpolizei (Kripo Criminal Police) and the dreaded Gestapo under Heinrich Müller. The RSHA also included the Sicherheitsdienst (SD Security Service), a security department in charge of foreign and domestic intelligence and espionage.

The Waffen-SS was made up of three subgroups: the Leibstandarte, Hitler’s personal bodyguard the Totenkopfverbände (Death’s-Head Battalions), which administered the concentration camps and a vast empire of slave labour drawn from the Jews and the populations of the occupied territories and the Verfügungstruppen (Disposition Troops), which swelled to 39 divisions in World War II and which, serving as elite combat troops alongside the regular army, gained a reputation as fanatical fighters.

SS men were schooled in racial hatred and admonished to harden their hearts to human suffering. Their chief “virtue” was their absolute obedience and loyalty to the Führer, who gave them their motto: “Thy honour is thy loyalty.” During World War II the SS carried out massive executions of political opponents, Roma (Gypsies), Jews, Polish leaders, communist authorities, partisan resisters, and Russian prisoners of war. Following the defeat of Nazi Germany by the Allies, the SS was declared a criminal organization by the Allied Tribunal in Nürnberg in 1946.


This is the point where you start the real evaluation of the piece and try to figure out the purpose for its creation. You must be able to think as the author of the document. At this point you are still only focusing on the single piece of work you are evaluating.

  1. a. Why does this document exist?
  2. b. Why did the author create this piece of work?
  3. c. What is the intent?
  4. d. Why did the author choose this particular format?
  5. e. Who is the intended audience?
  6. f. Who was the author thinking would receive this?
  7. g. What does the document &ldquosay&rdquo?
  8. h. Can it tell you more than is on the surface?

Company History

G2 Secure Staff, LLC employs over 6,000 aviation services professionals at 54 top traveled airports across the United States.

We provide a wide range of aviation service solutions, including Terminal, Security, Aircraft Appearance, Ramp, Passenger Service, Cargo and Maintenance services. Please see our services tab at the top of our page to view a detailed page with each service. We provide services for long and short term agreements based on your company’s needs .

We only use the most up-to-date technology to assure our operations run as smooth as possible. Our tablet devices can track the location of our work force as well as assign necessary assignments in order to create a quick and smooth experience for our customers . We also utilize the same technology to improve timeliness within our operations .

Due to experience, we have a great understanding of the aviation industry and take notice when we see an employee going above and beyond their line of work. To those employees who work hard day in and day out we award with a Service Excellence Pin. This unique pin can be proudly displayed on their outer most garments while they work.

Our customers have all responded very favorably to our service delivery which is led by experienced management and dedicated employees. Our Operations management consists of a blend of former airline, aviation staffing and aviation security professionals. The talent level and diversity of this team allows G2 to funnel customer resources directly to the operation in a quality manner.

Our primary focus is to ultimately limit air carrier expenses in challenging times. Accordingly, all legacy and many low cost air carriers are included in our overall client portfolio of approximately 100 customers.

Social Security

First version of SSN card. No form number and no revision date. The preprinted information on the card face was in blue ink with a Social Security Board seal (in a lighter shade of blue) in the center of card. The SSN was in red ink. The date of issue was typed on the card. Had a &ldquostub&rdquo to type in the mailing address. (The stub was to be put away for safe keeping.) Left edge was perforated. The card had a curved header showing &ldquoSocial Security Act.&rdquo Under the header was &ldquoaccount number.&rdquo Had preprinted legends &ldquodate of issue&rdquo and &ldquoemployee's signature.&rdquo The instructions on the back were in black ink.

Second version of SSN card . Same as the first version of the card. The stub had a centered legend &ldquoFor Office Use Only.&rdquo

Third version of SSN card . The card itself was the same as the prior version but there were some variations in the printings. In some printings the SSN was printed on the stub in others it had to be typed on. In some printings the stub had pre-printed spaces for the NH's name and address.

First version of replacement SSN card . On the back of the card the form number was shown as &ldquoForm OA-702 DUP.&rdquo The card format was the same as the original SSN card except it was light green and had &ldquoDUPLICATE&rdquo printed diagonally across the face in red letters (green letters for those used by RRB). There was a Social Security Board seal in the middle of the card. The left margin was not perforated. The back of the RRB version showed only &ldquoRR&rdquo in large letters. The cards did not have a stub.

Second version of replacement SSN card . The preprinted information was in blue ink. &ldquoDuplicate&rdquo was not printed on the card. On the back of the card was &ldquoForm OA-702.1.&rdquo Date of issue was omitted. All printed information was in black ink. Back of card had: Federal Security Agency, Social Security Board

Fourth version of SSN card . The preprinted &ldquodate of issue&rdquo was eliminated. &ldquoEmployee's signature&rdquo changed to &ldquoworker's signature.&rdquo The stub had the SSN preprinted in red. &ldquoFederal Security Agency&rdquo was printed on the back of the stub. Instructions said to show card to employer.

Third version of replacement SSN card . The card was the same as the prior version. The stub had a box designated &ldquoworker's name and home address.&rdquo

Fourth version of replacement SSN card (12/42 revision). The revision date was printed on the back of the card. The legend &ldquoemployer's name&rdquo was pre-printed on the stub. Preprinted information on the card and stub was in blue ink. Instructions (in black ink) included information about name changes.

Fifth version of SSN card (4/43 revision). The card looked the same as the prior version. Instructions on the back of the card were expanded.

Sixth version of SSN card (7/44 revision). The same as the prior version, except the left edge was straight and the form number (&ldquoForm OA-702&rdquo) and the revision date (7-44) appeared in the lower left corner of the stub and the back of the card.

Fifth version of replacement SSN card (7/44 revision). The card was the same as the prior version. &ldquoEmployer's name&rdquo was no longer preprinted on stub.

Seventh version of SSN card (1/46 revision). The seal was now the Social Security Administration Seal and both the card and the stub bore the legend &ldquoFor Social Security Purposes Not For Identification.&rdquo Back of the card showed: Federal Security Agency, Social Security Administration.

Sixth version of replacement SSN card (1/46 revision). Both card and stub showed &ldquoFor Social Security Purposes--Not For Identification&rdquo across the bottom. Back of card showed: Federal Security Agency, Social Security Administration.

Eighth version of SSN card (6/48 revision). Some cards were the same as the prior version others had a new header, &ldquoSocial Security&rdquo with a small SSA seal in the header between &ldquoSocial&rdquo and &ldquoSecurity.&rdquo There were variations in the printings of this version.

Seventh version of replacement SSN card (3/48 revision). Card had the Social Security Administration seal instead of the Social Security Board seal. Back of card showed: Federal Security Agency, Social Security Administration.

Eighth version of replacement SSN card (10/48 revision). The SSA seal appeared as a slightly stippled design in the same shade of blue as the rest of the format. Instructions on the back of the card and the stub were printed in blue ink.

Ninth version of replacement SSN card (7/49 revision). The card was the same as the prior versions with the &ldquoSocial Security&rdquo header.

Printings of the 6/48 version of the SSN card had a header &ldquoSocial Security&rdquo with a small SSA seal between the two words.

Ninth version o f SSN card (1/52 revision). &ldquoSignature&rdquo instead of &ldquoWorker's signature&rdquo appeared on card and stub.

Tenth version of replacement SSN card (1/52 revision). &ldquoSignature&rdquo rather than &ldquoWorker's signature&rdquo appeared on card and stub.

Tenth version of SSN card (4/53 revision). The card was the same as the prior version. The instructions on the back of the card were revised. Also showed: Department of Heath, Education, and Welfare, Social Security Administration.

Eleventh version of replacement SSN card (4/53 revision). The card was the same as the prior version. Instructions on back of card were changed. Back showed: Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Social Security Administration.

Eleventh version of SSN card (2/54 version). The seal on the card was changed to a small DHEW seal.

Twelfth version of replacement SSN card (2/54 revision). The seal was changed to a DHEW seal.

Twelfth version of SSN card (7/54 revision). The card was the same as the prior version. There were small changes in the instructions on the back of the card.

Thirteenth version of replacement SSN card (7/54 revision). Card and stub were the same as the prior version. Instructions on the back of the card and stub used the term &ldquofield office&rdquo rather than &ldquodistrict office.&rdquo

Fourteenth version of replacement SSN card (3/56 revision). The card and stub were the same as the prior version. Instructions included information for the NH to get in touch with SSA if totally disabled.

Thirteenth version of SSN card (4/56 revision). The card was the same as the prior version. Instructions on the back of the card said to get in touch with SSA if a worker became totally disabled.

Fifteenth version of replacement SSN card (4/56 revision). The card and stub were the same as the prior version. Some cards may have been printed with 4/56 revision date (rather than 3/56).

Sixteenth version of replacement SSN card (10/58 revision). The card and stub were the same as the prior version. Instructions included information that a woman should contact SSA when she reached age 62.

Fourteenth version of SSN card (5/59 revision). The card and the stub were the same as the prior version. Instructions added information that a woman should contact SSA when she reached age 62. The instructions on the back were in black ink.

Fifteenth version of SSN card (9/61 revision). The card and stub revised to read &ldquoFor Social Security and Tax Purposes -- Not For Identification.&rdquo

Seventeenth version of replacement SSN card (11/61 version). The card and stub revised to read &ldquoFor Social Security and Tax Purposes -- Not For Identification.&rdquo

Seventeenth version of SSN card

Eighteenth version of SSN card (1/72 revision). Legend &ldquoNot For Identification&rdquo was no longer on card (shown from 1946 to 1972). A large DHEW seal was in the middle of the card. The format of the stub was changed to envelope size (the card was a small two-sided tear-off of the stub). The instructions were expanded on the back of the card and stub and were in black ink.

Eighteen version of replacement SSN card . This was the last version of the replacement SSN card. Thereafter, original and replacement cards looked the same.

Nineteenth version of SSN card (4/76 revision). The card is the same as the prior version. The stub size is smaller. The instructions are less and are printed in blue ink.

Twentieth version of the SSN card (5/80 revision). The seal is changed to a DHHS seal.

Twenty-first version of the SSN card (4/81 revision). The card is the same as the prior version.

On May 17, 1982, SSA began annotating SSN cards issued to aliens assigned nonwork SSNs &ldquoNOT VALID FOR EMPLOYMENT.&rdquo

Twenty-second version of SSN card (6/82 revision). The card is the same as the prior version. The SSN was removed from the card stub. Instructions add information about legend on non-work SSN cards.

Twenty-third version of SSN card (9/82 version). The card is the same as the prior version.

Twenty-fourth version of SSN card (10/83 revision). SSA begins issuing counterfeit resistant SSN card (on blue banknote paper with randomly placed colored planchettes on the back).

Twenty-fifth version of SSN card (4/84 revision). The card is the same as the prior version with the instructions reformatted.

Twenty-sixth version of SSN card (1/87 revision). Same as prior version with slightly darker shade of blue ink on back of card and stub.

Twenty-seventh version of SSN card (1/88 revision). Anti-copy VOID pattern added as security feature for card.

On September 14, 1992, SSA began showing the legend &ldquo VALID FOR WORK ONLY WITH INS AUTHORIZATION &rdquo for aliens with temporary work authorization.

Twenty-eighth version of SSN card ( January 1994). Language on the card tells NHs to &ldquoKeep card in a safe place to prevent loss or theft.&rdquo

Twenty-ninth version of SSN card ( April 1995), has SSA's new seal on the card.

Thirtieth version of the SSN card (06/99). Corrected SSA address to which cards should be returned.

Thirty-first version of the SSN card (12/2002). Instructions updated for clarity, to ask that the NH report changes in name, U.S. citizenship or alien status to SSA and not allow others to use SSN. The instruction &ldquodo not carry it with you&rdquo added to the back of the card.

Thirty-second version of the SSN card (03/2004). The language, &ldquoDO NOT CARRY IT WITH YOU&rdquo is added to the face of the card and the anti-copy VOID pattern is removed. In April 2004 the restrictive legend, VALID FOR WORK WITH INS AUTHORIZATION is changed to show INS change to DHS.

Thirty-third version of the SSN card (11-2006). Left side of SSN card carrier includes an explanation of the date printed under signature line on SSN card. Right side of carrier provides instructions for signing card. Beginning 04/07, the date the card is issued is printed under the signature line. Beginning 9/08/07, the number holder&rsquos name will always be printed on two lines, with the last name printed directly below the first and middle names.

Thirty-fourth version of the SSN card (10-2007). The 10-2007 version of the SSN card includes additional security features. Some of the more recognizable features are:

A unique non-repeating spiral design, replacing the existing marbleized pattern. The new pattern will be the same or a very similar color to the current background and will continue to be erasable.

Color shifting inks added to the face of the card very recognizable since it is used in currency.

A latent image on the face of the card, visible only when the document is viewed at specific angles.

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