History Podcasts

Bluebird AM-72 - History

Bluebird AM-72 - History

Bluebird

The bluebird is a small North American songbird.

SP-465, a 67-foot motor boat of 1917-19, was also known as Blue Bird.

I

(AM-72: dp. 465; 1. 132'4"; b. 24'; dr. 12'; s. 10 k.;
a. 13")

Bluebird (AM-72) was launched 7 April 1931 as Maine by Bath Iron Works Corp., Bath, Maine; purchased by the Navy 13 August 1940; converted into a minesweeper at General Ship and Engine Works, Inc., East Boston, Mass.; and commissioned 22 November 1940, Lieutenant J. T. Baldwin in command.

During World War II Bluebird operated throughout the Iceland-Greenland Newfoundland area on minesweeping and patrol operations. Her classification was changed to IX-172, 1 June 1944. On 31 October 1944 she arrived at Boston and reported to Commandant, 1st Naval District, for disposition. Bluebird was decommissioned 12 January 1945 and transferred to the Maritime Commission 15 November 1945.

The name Bluebird was assigned to AM-415, but the contract was cancelled 12 August 1945 prior to keel laying.


Bluebird History

The following offers not only Bluebird history, but how you can offer winter protection for these birds by providing a roosting box. With complete dimensions.

This brightly colored bird has always been a romantic symbol for their unusual coloring as well as their gentle loving nature.

In Victorian times, they were a common artful addition to romantic floral artwork on greeting cards and calling cards. Today, it is a rare thing to see a Bluebird flitting about.

The Bluebird is a native American.


Datsun 510 For Sale

Welcome to 510ForSale.com!
The Datsun 510 is a historical automobile that is collectible today by both racing (rally) and classic car enthusiasts. Made by Nissan from 1968 to 1973, its short timeframe on the market and limited production numbers makes it a rare find.

This is especially true for the buyer looking for a quality 510. The Datsun 510 is also known as the Datsun 1600 and Yue Loong Bluebird 706, as it was a variant of the Datsun Bluebird.

It is common to find the 510 for sale on Craigslist and eBay and there are scattered resources online for modifications, repair and restoration. This website is designed to be a central place for potential buyers to find 510’s For Sale and for Datsun 510 sellers to post their cars for sale.

The goal is also to collectively pool resources and include information about parts, repair, aftermarket mods and OEM restorations. Thank you for visiting the site and please Contact Us with any questions.

Premier Listings

1973 KA24DE 2DR in Tualatin, OR

This is a completely new rotisserie build. Rebuilt engine and trans also. Almost every nut and bolt new. Car was dismantled and then sent to a chemical dipper to remove any rust. Paint is single […]


Re. "Bluebird" vs. "blue bird": this song can be found both ways. The Opies (who wrote about nursery rhymes and folk traditions) have it as "bluebird" and Lomax (who collected folk songs) has it as "blue bird".

Children stand in a circle holding hands high up in arches (to form the "windows" in the song). One kid is the "Blue Bird" who flies in and out of the arches or "windows". During the second verse, the "bird" chooses a partner by patting him/her on the shoulder. The second kid then follows holding the 1st kids shoulders while they pass through the "windows". Then game continues on until all the kids make a chain and there are only 2 children left forming an arch (or "window". They become the first two bluebirds in the next round.

Many thanks to Dale Durdunas for singing this song for us!


Boeing 737 history

Boeing 737-300 program was launched in March 1981. The market requirements for this derivative airplane became clear during the late 1970s in an environment of airline deregulation and the fierce competition that followed. As a result of increased competition, there were changes in the way air routes were served at that time. Airplanes flew into airports operated as hubs, then dispersed into a spoke configuration, often to short-distance destinations. The 737 proved ideal for airlines operating frequent short- to medium-range routes.

A fuselage extension of 104 inches (2.6 m) in total, one forward and one aft of the wing were added giving an overall fuselage length of 105 feet 7 inches.

From the outset, one of the main objectives of the 737-300 program was to maintain commonality with the existing fleet. The airplane would use new and larger CFM56-3 engines, an advanced-technology flight deck and a common airframe. These features afforded airlines a lower investment in spares, interchangeable flight crews, and less ground support equipment and maintenance training. New aluminum alloys and composites were used to reduce the airplane’s weight, and aerodynamic improvements were adapted from the 757 and 767 airplanes.

Unlike its predecessor, the 737-200, which was powered by Pratt & Whitney JT8D engines mounted against the underside of the wing in long thin nacelles, the new CFM56 power plants for the 737-300 – as well as all subsequent versions of the 737 – were mounted on pylon struts, moved forward and raised, level with the upper surface of the wing and tilted 5 degrees up which not only helped the ground clearance but also directed the exhaust downwards which reduced the effects of pylon overheating and gave some vectored thrust to assist take-off performance. The CFM56-3 proved to be almost 20% more efficient than the JT8D. Relocating engine accessories from the bottom of the engine to the side and flattening the bottom of the inlet lip solved the ground-clearance problem created by the larger engines. In addition, the nose landing gear was lengthened 6 inches and repositioned to help provide the same engine inlet ground clearance as the –200.

Besides the new engines, the flight deck of the 737-300 was upgraded to make use of digital technology like that of the 757 and 767 airplanes. These electronics systems provide concise flight information, which allows increased fuel efficiency and improves the airplane’s ability to land in bad weather.

The first 737-300 rolled out of the Boeing Renton, Washington, plant on Jan. 17, 1984, and made its initial flight Feb. 24, 1984. That began a 9-month flight test program, during which a fleet of three 737-300s logged nearly 1,300 hours in the air.

Certification of the 737-300 by the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration was awarded Nov. 14, 1984. First deliveries of the new aircraft occurred Nov. 28, 1984, to USAir and Nov. 30, 1984, to Southwest Airlines. Both carriers put their new aircraft into revenue service during December 1984. The British Civil Aviation Authority granted certification on Jan. 29, 1985, the same day that Orion Airways of Great Britain became the first non-U.S. customer to take delivery.

In 1991 Pemco Air Services in Dothan, Alabama was first awarded approval by the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration to perform a 737-300 cargo-conversion. Shortly thereafter programs were launched due to increased demand for a short to –medium range dedicated freighter aircraft, which would be large enough for those routes and quiet enough to meet the increased noise regulations around the many airports around the world.

There are now several separate cargo-conversion programs available for the 737–300/ -400 aircraft, which will give capacity for 8/9 pallets and an 18,900/20,900kg payload respectively once converted to a dedicated freighter aircraft.


Bluebird AM-72 - History

We actually tried not to found the North American Bluebird Society! In the spring of 1977, Dr. Lawrence Zeleny, bluebird activist and author (The Bluebird: How You Can Help Its Fight for Survival, 1976, Indiana University Press) and I, president of the Audubon Naturalist Society of the Central Atlantic States (ANS), Chevy Chase, Maryland, journeyed to New York City to meet with the executive director of the National Audubon Society (NAS). Although cordial, the meeting did not produce the desired result--support for a national bluebird preservation effort.

Since the publication of Larry's article, "Song of Hope for the Bluebirds" in the June 1977 issue of National Geographic Magazine (NG) was pending, the time seemed ripe for the major conservation organizations, i.e. NAS and National Wildlife Federation, to get into high gear regarding bluebirds. Larry had been alerting people to the plummeting bluebird population in his monthly column in the Purple Martin News of Griggsville, Illinois (now the Nature Society News). Each late winter he had also been sending out press releases to newspapers under the auspices of the Maryland Ornithological Society. He supplied nest box plans and instructions along with a brief summary of the bluebird's problems, and an explanation of how individuals could help. The NG article was the first in a large, general-interest publication to highlight the bluebird's plight. Because ANS had been the sponsor of Larry's book, his "bluebirder" friends tried to get that organization interested in spearheading a "bluebird conservation movement" continent wide, based on the interest generated by the article. All efforts were to no avail. The prevailing opinion of the national conservation organizations seemed to be, "Why concentrate on just one bird? This organization exists for all species!"

Three meetings for bluebird enthusiasts were scheduled at ANS' Woodend headquarters. Organizations represented were ANS, the Prince George's County Chapter of NAS, and the Virginia Society of Ornithology. Speaking for ANS was Bob Lavell, who officially stated that, as a regional organization, they could not lead a continent wide effort on behalf of bluebird conservation. Delos C. "Chuck" Dupree, at that time an ANS board member, made a strong case for starting a new group to promote the conservation of bluebirds and other native cavity nesters. Another strong proponent of a new organization was Bob Patterson, president of the Prince George's County Chapter, NAS.

At the end of the third Woodend meeting, the decision was made to organize a new group. The founding officers and board of directors were selected. Larry Zeleny officially became the founder of the newly-formed North American Bluebird Society (NABS). Its office would be in Silver Spring, Maryland, in the home of Executive Director Mary Janetatos, whose term as ANS president had expired. President Bob Patterson secured the IRS non-profit status and the bulk-mailing permit he also formulated the by-laws and constitution, which were modeled on the NAS chapter documents. Treasurer Chuck Dupree set up the financial base which was to be instrumental in maintaining solvency. The date of incorporation was March 20, 1978 (Sialia 1:33-34).

The core of the new group's charter members were those people who had written to Larry Zeleny with bluebird questions in response to his articles in various publications. These members were located all over the United States, Canada, and Bermuda. Among them were Norah Lane, widow of John Lane, of Brandon, Manitoba, and Lorne Scott, of Indian Head, Saskatchewan. These three veteran bluebirders had encouraged healthy populations of Mountain Bluebirds in Canada. Hubert Prescott, of Eugene, Oregon, was representative of those working to aid the Western Bluebird. More than 600 of these enthusiasts became NABS charter members immediately.

Editor Jon E. Boone designed the quarterly journal, Sialia. Jon was also instrumental in creating the beautiful color brochure, "Where Have All the Bluebirds Gone?" More than one million copies have been distributed. With the second issue of volume two, Joanne K. Solem became the editor, maintaining the quality of the journal and winning widespread respect for the balance of general interest articles and scientific research. The founding art editor was Suzanne Pennell. M. Suzanne Probst, the current art editor, has occupied that volunteer position since the Autumn 1988 issue. The journal stands as one of NABS' greatest achievements. It has a Library of Congress listing.

The Society's logo (a juvenile bluebird, signifying all three bluebird species, perched near a nest box) and slogan (Effective Conservation) were devised jointly by the founding president, editor, executive director, treasurer, and art editor. Both were approved by Founder Larry Zeleny.

The event which really put NABS "on the map" was the Joan Rattner Heilman article, "You Can Hear the Bluebird's Song Again" in the November 25, 1979 issue of Parade Magazine, the Sunday supplement which goes to 15 million readers across the country. Approximately 80,000 people responded, each one requesting the NABS brochure, "Where Have All the Bluebirds Gone?" Coping with that volume of mail was a challenge met by Executive Director Mary Janetatos with the help of hundreds of people inside and outside the birding community. By the end of February 1980, the last of the inquiries had been answered and new memberships were flooding in (Sialia 2:80-82). Among those new members were future NABS presidents: Sadie Dorber, Vestal, New York, who currently chairs the Nominating Committee and Charlotte Jernigan, Wagoner, Oklahoma, now serving as president.

From the beginning, the Board of Directors had mandated a place for all native cavity-nesting birds in the scope of NABS' work. The three species of bluebirds (Eastern, Western, and Mountain) may have been our "banner birds," but all native cavity nesters were to be protected and their welfare promoted. The Society's Education Committee revised the brochure, "Where Have All the Bluebirds Gone." They also produced the first slide program under the direction of Richard Tuttle, of Delaware, Ohio.' This program made it possible for the Speakers' Bureau to function.

There is a new addition: the cavity nester slide program assembled by Myrna Pearman, a former NABS board member and biologist at the Ellis Bird Farm, Lacombe, Alberta. The Speakers' Bureau is energetically and capably headed by Ron Kingston, Charlottesville, Virginia, who reports on its activities regularly in Sialia. In the Winter 1997 issue, Ron reported that a total of 738 programs were presented in 1995. Past-president Sadie Dorber chaired the Education Committee's effort to produce an educational packet for use in the middle elementary school grades. It is titled "Getting to Know Bluebirds" and has been well received by teachers and youth leaders.

In order to make nest boxes readily available to bluebirders, NABS has used a number of suppliers. Veteran bluebirder Orville Rowe of Elkhart, until Orville's death in the mid-1980s. After the Parade article came out, a family-owned factory called Indian Country near Binghamton, New York, augmented NABS' capability to fill nest box orders. At present, orders are filled by various craftsmen. The list of articles for sale grew into a four-page picture catalogue of bluebird-related books, nest boxes, sparrow traps, and collectibles.

Since its inception, research has been a high priority for the Society. Larry Zeleny had hoped that research would address the problems faced by bluebirds, i.e. sparrow competition, predation, brood failure, etc. Chuck Dupree, however, always made the case for "pure research" and this opinion prevailed with the NABS board through the years. The Research Committee has always had input from or been headed by individuals from the academic community. These included Ben Pinkowski, of Kalamazoo, Michigan, whose doctoral thesis concentrated on bluebird biology, Tedd Gutzke, division chief at Medicine Lake National Wildlife Refuge in Montana, and the present capable chairman, Associate Professor Kevin Berner, SUNY, Cobleskill, New York. In 1985, Tedd Gutzke compiled A Bibliography of the Technical Literature of the Bluebird Genus Sialia, which was published by NABS. It was expanded and updated in 1992 by Nancy E. Niles, SUNY, Cobleskill. This edition was funded and published by the Minnesota Bluebird Recovery Program. Over the years approximately $100,000 has been awarded as NABS Research Grants on a broad range of subjects about many species of native cavity-nesting birds. Bequests, grants from several bluebird organizations, and individual donations have funded this program.

The late Duncan Mackintosh of Lethbridge, Alberta, founded Mountain Bluebird Trails in 1980. Later, Art Aylesworth of Ronan, Montana, began a similar group. Both men had served as NABS board members Art has also served on the NABS Nominating Committee. At the urging of these veteran bluebirders, NABS revised its "Nest Box Plans and Instructions" handout to accommodate the slightly larger Mountain Bluebird with an entrance hole measuring 19/16 in. instead of 1 1/2 in for the other two species.

Larry Zeleny continued to be our "bluebird guru" as he monitored his 60+ nest box trail on the grounds of the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Research Center at Beltsville, Maryland. He monitored his trail until 1992, three years before his death on May 27, 1995 at the age of 91. His trail adjoined that of Chuck Dupree's at the Goddard Space Flight Center. When Chuck retired as chief of grounds in 1983, he found others to monitor those nest boxes. He was then free to devote much wore of his time to NABS, which he did until his sudden death at the age of 76 on May 6, 1996.

In addition to research, another priority from the beginning has been motivating governmental agencies to concentrate more attention and resources on non-game bird species, especially the bluebird and other native cavity nesters. From its founding, NABS was prepared to respond to the growing and widespread interest in bluebirds and cavity nesters by state and provincial departments. We furnished information through the slide programs, the color brochure, and personalized help to individuals, groups, and a number of agencies.

NABS has assisted other bird conservation movements, whenever help was requested. Dr. James R. Hill, III, founder of the Purple Martin Conservation Association visited NABS headquarters prior to his starting that group. We shared with him many of the pressures and pitfalls he might encounter. He has conveyed his gratitude for the encouragement and assistance he received. A hummingbird society is also on the horizon and its founder, Ross Hawkins, of Newark, Delaware, has asked assistance from NABS.

Political activity, even that involving other environmental causes, has always been studiously avoided by NABS, as clearly stated in the by-laws. It is a matter of some pride that no tax money has ever been sought by the Society. Funding for programs and operational expenses has come from dues, donations, and profits from the sale of bluebird-related items, along with corporate grants, awards from private foundations, and bequests. Our government involvement has always been centered in the effort to persuade agencies dealing with ecological concerns to direct some of their resources to the well-being of native cavity-nesting bird species.

The slogan "Effective Conservation" says it all. NABS has sought to educate, persuade, and enlighten the public in methods that an interested person could use to help bluebirds or other native cavity nesters. Chandler S. Robbins, noted ornithologist and author, has said that there is not much the average person can do to help the Bald Eagle or the Whooping Crane, but an individual can help the bluebird. The bluebird conservation movement has been truly a "grassroots" effort. The originators and leaders of many of the various state, provincial, and regional bluebird societies have served as officers and board members of the North American Bluebird Society. It is hoped that as NABS enters a new phase without its guiding lights, Larry Zeleny and Chuck Dupree, we can continue as they would want us to do, inspired by their memory and guided by their wisdom and love of bluebirds!

This history was written by Executive Director (now Emeritus) Alary D. Janetatos May 27, 1996 for the NABS Board of Directors. The list of publications and
meetings has been updated to February 1998.

NABS Publications

  • Sialia - published quarterly, vols. 1-20
  • Where Have All the Bluebirds Gone?- color brochure
  • Nest Box Plans and Instructions for Eastern Bluebirds also for Western and Mountain Bluebirds and Nest Box Report Form
  • Getting to Know Bluebirds- an educational package designed for the middle elementary school grades
  • Bluebird Slide Program - updated in 1994 . Luther Goldman Cavity Nesters Slide Program - co-produced with Ellis Bird Farm, Ltd., Lacombe, Alberta
  • Directory of Bluebird Conservation Programs: North America and Bermuda, last revised in 1997 - co-produced with Ellis Bird Farm, Ltd
  • A Bibliography on the Technical Literature of the Bluebird Genus, Sialia- March, 1985, - compiled by Theodore W. Gutzke, Research Committee Chairman, NABS. In 1992, an updated version of the bibliography was compiled by Nancy E. Niles, SUNY, Cobleskill, NY, funded and published by the Minnesota Bluebird Recovery Program
  • Research Committee information sheets (each is a single two-sided sheet). Getting Started with Bluebirds Recommended Bluebird Nest Box Specifications
  • Monitoring Bluebird Nest Boxes
  • Welcome Back the Bluebird-revised color brochure, 1998

The OLD Website: http://www.cobleskill.edu/nabs/

NABS Annual Meetings

Nov. 1978 - Lanham, MD
Nov. 1979 - Front Royal, VA
Nov. 1980 - Lorton, VA
Oct. 1981 - Cleveland, OH
Nov. 1982 - Southern Pines, NC
Sept. 1983 - Binghamton, NY
Oct. 1984 - Jackson, MS July 1985 - Red Deer, Alberta
Oct. 1986 - Wagoner, OK
Oct. 1987 - Chevy Chase, MD
July 1988 - Laval, Quebec
July 1989 -Missoula, MT
Oct. 1990 - Gettysburg, PA
Oct. 1991 - Ferry Reach, Bermuda
Sept. 1992 - Minneapolis, MN
Oct. 1993 - Pine Mountain, GA
June 1994 -Boise, ID
Mar. 1995 - Jackson, MI
Sept. 1996 - Burlington, Ontario
May 1997 -Newport Beach, CA

NABS Regional Meetings

June 1981 - Brandon, Manitoba
June 1983 - Portland, OR

Presidents of NABS
Robert M. Patterson, MD
George N. Grant, NY
Jeanne Price, VA
Anne Sturm, MD Marilyn Guerra, MD
Lillian Files, MA
Sadie Dorber, NY
Charlette Jernigan, OK

Vice Presidents
Jon E. Boone, MD
George N. Grant, NY
Martha Chestem, MD
Thomas Tait, MD Robert Bodine, PA

Secretaries
Barbara Inzana, VA
Anne Sturm, MD
Suzanne Pennell, VA
Joseph Tait, VA
Rev. Raymond Prybis, OMI
Mark Raabe, VA
Douglas LeVasseur, OH

Treasurers
Delos C. Dupree, MD

North American Bluebird Society P. O. Box 74 Darlington, WI 53530

"We are like dwarfs on the shoulders of giants, so that we can see more than they, and things at a greater distance, not by virtue of any sharpness on sight on our part, or any physical distinction, but because we are carried high and raised up by their giant size. "

John of Salisbury, Metalogicon, 1159

May all your blues be birds!

If you experience problems with the website/find broken links/have suggestions/corrections, please contact me!
The purpose of this site is to share information with anyone interested in bluebird conservation.
Feel free to link to it (preferred as I update content regularly), or use text from it for personal or educational purposes, with a link back to http://www.sialis.org or a citation for the author.
No permission is granted for commercial use.
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Photo in header by Wendell Long.
© Original photographs are copyrighted, and may not be used without the express permission of the photographer. Please honor their copyright protection.
See disclaimer, necessitated by today's sadly litigious world.
Last updated December 2, 2020 . Design by Chimalis.


Settlement

In the late 1700s, Moravian missionary, David Zeisberger, described the Eastern bluebird as having ". a reddish breast also, otherwise its color is a beautiful azure. It makes its appearance in spring before any other bird."

19th Century

Ohio's Eastern bluebird population expanded their range in the 19th century and were widely distributed by the end of the century. Severe and unexpected cold weather, as well as competition with other species for nesting cavities, caused bluebird numbers to change dramatically from year to year. In the spring of 1895, a sudden return of cold weather almost wiped out bluebirds in the Great Lake states and New England.

20th Century

With changes in farming practices during the 20th century, food and nesting sources for bluebirds decreased. There were fewer wooden fence rows, short grass pastures and animal manure in which insects breed. Pesticides and herbicides also eliminated the bluebird's diet.

As cities grew and nest trees were cut down, introduced species of birds, such as the English house sparrow and European starling began to compete with the bluebird for nesting areas. These more aggressive species forced the bluebird out of the area.

Severe winters in 1958-60 and 1976-78 caused a decline in populations. Although recovery is usually quick, it sometimes takes 3 - 6 years for bluebirds to recover after a severe drop in numbers.

Bluebirds are most common in southern and eastern counties. They are less common in areas with extensive farming, such as northwestern and west-central Ohio, where nesting cavities have been removed.

Today, there are groups such as the Ohio Bluebird Society, who are dedicated to encouraging the return of the Eastern bluebird in Ohio. One of their projects to provide proper habitat is the establishment of bluebird trails. These man-made nesting boxes are monitored regularly to eliminate competitive species that often force out nesting bluebirds.


Bluebird Totem Animal

Having a bluebird symbol suggests that you love having a nest that creates everybody experience comfy. You appreciate the firm of others, and also you phone them out in your own way with a tune filled with affection.

Individuals that reply to your advance are actually commonly the folks that you depend on, rely on, as well as appreciate daily life with.

For folks along with bluebird animal totem, solid foundations are extremely necessary. You require a foundation where you hatch out all your strategies and also systems.

Bluebird pet emblem people can regularly discover a method to equate hope right into truth, and it’s this sound preparation as well as planning that gives them an advantage over others. It likewise would not harm if you possess an organic charm concerning you, which positively affects the end result of your interactions.

A bluebird emblem additionally implies that a person is incredibly intimate and also monogamous. They tweet signs and certain vibrations that tune them to their lover.

Once they find their life partner, they often tend to begin a household rather quickly. Like the bluebird, they are very safety of their nest and also do not permit any person to interfere with the caring tranquility of their lifestyles.

A bluebird emblem may deliver the company in to the supernatural solution of the excellent sens somehow. You may end up being a partner or a spiritual guide to others, which in itself is a true instance of bluebird medication at its own finest.


Bluebird

The Bluebird is a copper mine located in Gila county, Arizona at an elevation of 3,445 feet.

About the MRDS Data:

All mine locations were obtained from the USGS Mineral Resources Data System. The locations and other information in this database have not been verified for accuracy. It should be assumed that all mines are on private property.

Mine Info

Elevation: 3,445 Feet (1,050 Meters)

Primary Mineral: Copper

Lat, Long: 33.4097, -110.90420

Bluebird MRDS details

Site Name

Primary: Bluebird
Secondary: Blue Bird

Commodity

Location

State: Arizona
County: Gila
District: Miami District

Land Status

Land ownership: National Forest

Holdings

Workings

Ownership

Owner Name: Cyprus Miami Mining Corp.
Company ID: 200158
Percent: 100.0
Home Office: P. O. Box 4444, Claypool, Az
Info Year: 1992

Production

Year: 1981
Description: 971450 Mt Ore Mined
Year: 1982
Description: Leach Op/Sx-Ew Plant Closed 10/25/82 1406 Mt Cu Cathode
Year: 1981
Description: Mine Closed But Leach/Sx-Ew Operating 6045 Mt Cu Cathode
Year: 1980
Description: 5904 Mt Cu Cathode
Year: 1980
Description: 3622580 Mt Ore Mined
Year: 1979
Description: 4969 Mt Cu Cathode
Year: 1979
Description: 3428290 Mt Ore Mined
Year: 1978
Description: 1781 Mt Cu Cathode
Year: 1978
Description: 937850 Mt Ore Mined
Year: 1977
Description: 2037680 Mt Ore Mined
Year: 1977
Description: 7742 Mt Cu Cathode
Year: 1976
Description: 8108 Mt Cu Cathode
Year: 1976
Description: 3129580 Mt Ore Mined
Year: 1975
Description: 6859 Mt Cu Cathode
Year: 1975
Description: 3969370 Mt Ore Mined
Year: 1974
Description: 6960 Mt Cu Cathode
Year: 1974
Description: 4964210 Mt Ore Mined
Year: 1973
Description: 6806 Mt Cu Cathode
Year: 1972
Description: 6659 Mt Cu Cathode
Year: 1971
Description: 5650 Mt Cu Cathode
Year: 1970
Description: 5225 Mt Cu Cathode
Year: 1967
Description: 3488 Mt Cu Prod From Leach Ppt
Year: 1969
Description: Solvent Extraction Started In 1969 4500 Mt Cu Cathode
Year: 1968
Description: 657 Mt Cu Prod From Leach Ppt

Deposit

Record Type: Deposit
Operation Category: Past Producer
Deposit Type: Porphyry Cu
Operation Type: Surface
Mining Method: Unknown
Year First Production: 1961
Discovery Year: 1900
Years of Production:
Organization:
Significant: Y
Deposit Size: M

Physiography

General Physiographic Area: Intermontane Plateaus
Physiographic Province: Basin And Range Province
Physiographic Section: Mexican Highland

Mineral Deposit Model

Model Name: Porphyry Cu

Orebody

Structure

Type: L
Structure: Low Angle Bulldog Fault, Miami Fault- Both Cutting Are Into Distinct Pieces

Alterations

Alteration Type: L
Alteration: Argillization

Rocks

Name: Schist
Role: Host
Description: sequence of coarse grained quartz-muscovite schist, fine grained quartz-sericite-chlorite schist and some fine grained amphibole schist.
Age Type: Host Rock Unit
Age Young: Mesoproterozoic

Role: Host
Description: multiple phase-predominantly a porphyritic quartz-monzonite (adamellite), although in the mine area it includes granodiorite, quartz-monzonite and porphyritic quartz-monzonite and later phase granite porphyry.
Age Type: Host Rock Unit
Age Young: Paleocene

Analytical Data

Materials

Ore: Galena
Ore: Malachite
Ore: Curite
Ore: Chalcocite
Ore: Azurite
Ore: Covellite
Ore: Bornite
Ore: Chalcopyrite
Ore: Molybdenite
Ore: Chrysocolla

Comments

Comment (Deposit): MILS REF PROPERTY VISITED 9/77. PROPERTY UPDATE JULY 1987 PROPERTY UPDATED JUNE 1992. THIS PROPERTY HAS BEEN COMBINED INTO THE CYPRUS MIAMI (INSPIRATION) PROPERTY (SEQ NO 0040070008). CYPRUS MINERALS COMPANY CONSOLIDATED THIS PROPERTY AND THE OX HIDE (SEQUENCE NO 0040070060) INTO ONE OPERATING UNIT ALONG WITH THE INSPIRATION PROPERTY.

Comment (Identification): The Bluebird property is part of the Cyprus Miami Properties ******SEE Cyprus Miami- Deposit ID 10186051 for full record info

References

Reference (Geology): The Porter GeoConsultancy webpages for Globe Miami and Miami Inspiration contain descriptions of the geology. Accessed on 9/2/2010. http://www.portergeo.com.au/
URL: http://www.portergeo.com.au

Reference (Geology): RANSOME,F L,1919, THE COPPER DEPOSITS OF RAY & MIAMI, ARIZ.: USGS PROF. PA. 115, 157 PP.

Reference (Deposit): RANCHERS EXPLORATION & DEVELOPMENT CORP., APPLICATION FOR MINERAL & MILLSITE PATENTS, 22 PP. (EXPLORATION, LANDS)

Reference (Workings): MCCOLLY,R A,1974, MINERAL REPORT FOR BLUEBIRD PATENT APPLICATION, US BLM (DESCRIPTION OF MINE, PLANT, GEOL.,& ENV.)

Reference (Reserve-Resource): RANCHERS EXPLORATION & DEVELOPMENT CORP., ANNUAL REPORTS 1964-76. (EXPLORATION, RESERVES, PRODUCTION,MINING COSTS)

Reference (Reserve-Resource): PAYDIRT,9/27/71, P.387. (RESOURCE CALCULATIONS)

Reference (Geology): SKILLINGS MINING REVIEW, 5/25/68 & 1/14/78.(POWER,PROCESSES)

Reference (Geology): POTTER,S C,1972, GEOLOGY & ORE DEPOSIT AT THE BLUEBIRD MINE, GILA COUNTY, ARIZ., UNPUBLISHED REPT FOR RANCHERS EXPLOATION & DEVELOPMENT CORP., 19 P. (GEOLOGY, ENVIRONMENT)

Reference (Geology): PETERSON,N P, 1962, GEOL. & ORE DEPOSITS OF THE GLOBE-MIAMI DISTRICT, ARIZONA: USGS PROF. PA 342, 146 P. (GEOLOGY)

Reference (Production): MILLER,A,1967, HEAP LEACHING COPPER ORE AT RANCHERS BLUEBIRD MINE, MIAMI, ARIZONA, AIME PREPRINT 67-B-339 (EXPLORATION GEOLOGY, LEACHING, MINE EQUIP., SOLVENT-EXTRACTION)

Reference (Production): GANT,T L,1971, CERTIFICATE OF SURVEYOR- MINERAL SURVEY 4684A & 4684B, LOCATED IN USBLM MINERAL PATENT FILE A7196 (SIZES OF BUILDING & VALUE OF MINE & LEACH PLANT)

Reference (Production): BAER,R,1977, TRIP NOTES FOR THE BLUEBIRD MINE, GILA COUNTY, ARIZONA. (DETAILS ABOUT GEOLOGY, MINE, SOLVENT-EXTRACTION PLANT & MARKETING)


The 4th of January - the last time.

Donald arrived down at the lakeside shortly after 7.30, parking his Jaguar E-type in its usual position beside Pier Cottage. ‘Another bloody false alarm,’ he remarked, ‘but let’s just have a look and see how quickly we’ll be back for a proper breakfast.’ Donald walked to the end of the jetty with his binoculars to study conditions in the half-light before the sun finally rose behind the Grizedale fells. Scanning the lake, Donald saw the ‘smooth’ lake surface for himself. In no time, he had located Leo Villa, and asked his chief engineer to get everyone out to their stations and get Bluebird launched. Donald stepped into Bluebird’s cockpit just after 8.10, still some 25 minutes before sunrise proper. With a smile and his usual wink, Donald donned his leather helmet and began to do up his 4-point safety harness. The boat was lowered down the slipway and pulled round to the edge of the jetty once she had floated free of her cradle. At 8.40, Donald asked for a conditions update from Leo and Keith and received positive responses.

Campbell commenced the first run of his last record attempt at just after 8.45. Bluebird moved slowly out towards the middle of the lake, where she paused for a brief second as Donald lined her up. Here we go.. Here we go…. With a deafening blast of power, Donald applied full throttle and Bluebird began to surge forward. Clouds of spray issued from the jet pipe and after a few hundred yards, at 70 mph, Bluebird unstuck from the surface and rocketed off towards the southern end of the lake, producing her characteristic comet’s tail of spray.OK we’re up and away . and passing through er . tramping very hard at 150 . very hard indeed … FULL POWER . Passing through 2 . 25 out of the way… tramping like hell Leo, I don’t think I can get over the top, but I’ll try, She entered the measured kilometre at 8.46. Leo Villa witnessed her passing the first marker buoy at about 285 mph in perfect steady planing trim, her nose slightly down, still accelerating. 7.525 seconds later, Keith Harrison saw her leave the measured kilometre at a speed of over 310 mph. FULL HOUSE . and I can’t see where I am … FULL HOUSE – FULL HOUSE – FULL HOUSE . POWER OFF NOW! . I’M THROUGH!! .

K7 on her first run on the 4 th of January © Authors Collection & PA

Campbell lifted his foot from the throttle about 3/10 of a second before passing the southern kilometre marker. As he left the measured kilometre, Bluebird’s engine flamed out for some inexplicable reason. The water brake was applied as he came up to and passed Peel Island at around 200 mph. He referred to relighting the engine, but given the indistinct, excited voice coming from the cockpit, no one listening in on the radio loop at the time picked up on the comment. If it had been picked up, it would have alarmed Leo. The flame out would not have been caused by water entering the intakes – Bluebird was still in the planing position – but by an interruption in the fuel supply, caused by a fuel system or electrical problem. If that was repeated under maximum jet thrust, it could have catastrophic consequences.

Campbell was impatient to get his speed from his first run. Taking 250 mph as a baseline, his speed came back‘+ 47’ meant 47 mph over that figure he had in fact averaged 297.6 mph. Bluebird had peaked at around 315 mph just as Campbell lifted off, before she left the measured kilometre.

Under the rules laid down by the UIM, an hour was allowed in which to make both runs. This was more than enough time for the wash to disperse and the lake to regain its glassy appearance, assuming there was no adverse change in the weather. At speed, Bluebird’s planing created comparatively little wash and it took quite some time for the slow-moving wash to be reflected back into the centre of the lake. This gave the option of making the return run very soon after the first one. Donald knew how long he would have to do this.

Bluebird was now turning in a wide arc at the southernmost tip of the lake, about one kilometre south of Peel Island. Having heard his speed, Donald announced that he was starting his return run. Campbell commenced what was to be his final run at 8.48 – less than two minutes after exiting the kilometre on his first north–south run. The condition of the water two kilometres south of the actual measured kilometre was much rougher than Donald could have anticipated. He had used the water brake to shed about 130 mph of Bluebird’s speed at the narrowest part of the lake past Peel Island. The wash this created was now rippling back into the centre of the course, giving the water surface a corrugated profile.

His description of the water conditions in his commentary left none of his listeners in any doubt that he was having one hell of a rough ride.Donald maintained full power as Bluebird accelerated rapidly towards the measured distance. … Full nose up . Pitching a bit down here . coming through our own wash . er getting straightened up now on track . rather closer to Peel Island . and we’re tramping like mad . and er . FULL POWER . er tramping like hell OVER. I can’t see much and the water’s very bad indeed .Ten seconds after passing Peel Island, Bluebird was travelling at over 280 mph, still accelerating. About 700 metres from the southern kilometre marker, travelling by now at over 300 mph, Bluebird appeared to break free of the water for a moment. I'm galloping (I can't get) over the top … I'm getting hell of a bloody row in here.The starboard sponson bounced free of the water, twice in quick succession, each bounce lasting 0.5 and 0.3 seconds respectively. Still accelerating, Bluebird reached a point 450 metres south of the entry to the measured kilometre, where her speed peaked (later calculated at 328 mph). Her starboard sponson became airborne for the third time, by as much as 0.5m and for 0.6 seconds. When the sponson impacted with the water again, Bluebird began to decelerate quite rapidly. . I can't see anything.Donald and Bluebird were in terrible trouble. Less than half a second later, Bluebird’s starboard sponson bounced free of the water a fourth time and remained airborne for nearly half a second, before striking the water again. Passing the southern kilometre marker at a speed subsequently estimated to be 305 mph, the starboard sponson bounced clear of the water for a fifth time.

K7 approaching the measured Kilo on the second run. © Authors Collection

About 200 metres into the measured distance, both forward planing surfaces broke free of the water for the last time. Bluebird exceeded her safe pitching angle of 5.5 degreesand slowly took to the air. I’ve got the bows out …Some 250 metres further down the course, at about 290 mph, she stood on her tail. There was no jet thrust to disturb the water beneath the jet pipe . I'm going . U-hh …Bluebird's engine had, for whatever reason, ceased to produce any meaningful thrust. She climbed about 10 metres above the water and performed a near 360-degree flip before plunging back into the lake at an angle of around 45 degrees. The boat began to break up on impact and a massive cloud of spray briefly hid the worst of her gyrations from view. The impact broke Bluebird in half just behind the cockpit the sponsons were torn from their spars. The rear section of the hull barrel rolled along the lake for approximately 80 metres before coming to rest momentarily facing almost the direction she had just come from. As the spray settled, Bluebird slipped from sight and sank into the depths of Coniston Water. For a few moments, the eyewitnesses stood in stunned silence, unable to believe what they had just seen. It wasn't yet 8.50.

The end. K7 takes to the air. © Authors Collection

Courage is not the act of going quickly it is the act of knowing what could happen and then carrying on anyway. Campbell never forgot the Utah crash that had almost killed him in 1960. He was not without imagination. Campbell talked about death because he lived with it, not because he wanted to die. He knew there was no safety net when he walked out onto the tightrope. Everything depended on him, and him alone, he had to perform. That brought with it pressure – it meant that he would eventually have to take what he once described as‘a thoroughly unjustified risk’.

On that cold Wednesday morning, in the eyes of the uninformed he did just that, and he paid the ultimate price. But at the same time the legend of Donald Campbell was born…


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