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Archie Hunter

Archie Hunter

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I was christened in the courthouse of the prison because at that time the church was undergoing repairs and could not be used for the ceremony. Not far from Joppa my father had a farm, but he died while I was too young to remember him; and before I was many years older the family removed to Ayr, where I was sent to school. My three brothers - all dead now - were athletes, and I suppose the love of good, hearty games ran in our blood. The excellent country air, and the rural life we led, gave us plenty of strength and fitted us for out-door sports.

It wasn't long before I was playing football at school with the other lads; but football in those days was very different to what it is now or ever will be again. There were no particular rules and we played pretty much as we liked; but we thought we were playing the Rugby game, of course, because the Association hadn't started then. It didn't matter as long as we got goals; and besides, we only played with one another, picking sides among ourselves and having friendly matches in the playground. Such as it was though, I got to like the game immensely, and I spent as much time as I could kicking the leather. We were a merry lot, but by and by I had to leave school while I was still very young, and I was rather sorry, I can assure you.

I was sorry to go, but I wanted to continue playing, so I joined the Ayr Star Football Club, which was then a Rugby Union team and for a short time I played the strict Rugby game. After playing the season under the Rugby rules we held a meeting, not, as you might think, in some comfortable room, but under the blue canopy of heaven, and by lamp-light; and after considerable discussion we determined to alter the name of the club from the 'Star' to the 'Thistle'. But there was soon to be a great change. The Queen's Park, the leading club in Scotland, adopted the Association rules almost as soon as they were made and of course, most of the other clubs began to follow the example. The 'Thistle' Club was one of them. I had only played in two matches under the old code, officiating as full back... but now we began to practise dribbling...

And we went in for the new game with enthusiasm, I can tell you. Every other night saw us in hard training, and we learnt the art of working well together. In my opinion that is the secret of success. Good combination on the part of the players is greatly to be preferred to the muscular powers of one or two of them. Strength has got very little chance against science.

While I was in Scotland I had become acquainted with the Calthorpe Football Club, which used to come up and play the second team of Queen's Park. There were some very fair players in the Calthorpe and I made up my mind, on arriving in Birmingham, to join them. But one of my fellow-workmen, George Uzzell, mentioned Aston Villa to me as a club that had come rapidly to the fore and asked me to become a member of it. I hesitated for some time, but at last my friend told me that a "brother Scot," Mr. George Ramsay, was the Villa captain and that decided me. Mr. Ramsay was a Glasgow man and had exerted himself very considerably to bring the Villa team into the front rank. He was himself a good right-wing forward and was well supported by W. B. Mason. So to Mr. Ramsay I went and we at once became good friends and remain so to this day.

Mr. Ramsay was practically the founder of the Aston Villa Football Club. He had had good tuition in the game while in Scotland and as a member of the Oxford Club he had gained plenty of experience and taken part in several first-class matches. A short time before he left, his club had tied three times with the Glasgow Rangers for the Scotch Cup. He was keeping goal and he relates that on the last occasion he saved his goal at the expense of a broken nose.

Mr. Ramsay was a capital all-round player and could take any position and give a good account of himself. Coming to Birmingham he found football here in a very backward state. The four principal clubs were St. Mary's, Aston Unity, Calthorpe and the Birmingham. One day Mr. Ramsay saw a few lads playing together in the big public park facing Park Road, Aston and he watched them with some amount of curiosity and amusement. They were connected with the Villa Cross Wesleyan Chapel and only had the most primitive ideas of the game. Ramsay describes their play as "a dash at the man and a big kick at the ball;" they were entirely ignorant of dribbling and were evidently in the most rudimentary stage of knowledge - quite "juvenile," as Mr. Ramsay said.

Well, when he had watched the lads some time he spoke to a bystander and suggested that they two should join in the game. Then he called to one of the players, William Weiss by name and proposed that he should be allowed to play on one side and his chance acquaintance on the other. When his broad Scotch had, after much trouble, been understood, the proposal was agreed to and Mr. Ramsay began to play. He soon showed that science was superior to all their big kicks and easily dribbled the ball past the men who had never seen a display of the kind before. They were amazed when they saw how he played and when all was over they surrounded the player, who had footed the ball.

McGregor and Ramsay were a formidable partnership. Within three years of McGregor's arrival they had established the club as a force to be reckoned with in local football. A 22-0 win against Small Heath (the forerunners of Birmingham City) gives some indication of their strength at the time. The recruitment in 1878 of 19-year-old Archie Hunter, another Scot who had come to Birmingham in search of work, was a particularly inspired move. Hunter, whose impressive playing style and sense of sportsmanship made him a favourite with the fans, was considered to be the best centre-forward of his day and he was one of football's first superstars. His influence in the side was considerable and when Ramsay retired from playing in 1880 through injury, Hunter took over the captaincy.

I may mention one incident in our match with them which shows how players are sometimes carried away by excitement. While I shot for goal the ball skimmed the bar and the Aston Unity goalkeeper immediately caught me round the neck, held me fast and seemed about to deliver a tremendous blow at my face.

Everybody saw it; but my rival recovered himself in time and afterwards offered the fullest explanation of his action. I am quite convinced that he had no deliberate intention of doing me any personal injury; he simply lost his self-control for a moment and was unable to restrain himself. In football there are many temptations of this sort and it requires a great amount of good heartedness and coolness to refrain from taking advantage of the proximity of an opponent.

But the best players set their faces very sternly against roughness of all kinds, and some of the finest footballers I know are the most generous and good-natured of men on the field. I don't think much advantage is ever gained by bad temper or spiteful play. If one man is rough, another recriminates; and if one side shows bad blood, the other side is sure to have its bad blood stirred up also. You can play to win and play with perfect fairness; that is my experience.

Our encounter with the Blackburn team took place on their ground and we took over with us Albert Brown, whose first season it was with the Villa and he played a most serviceable game. He is, as you doubtless are aware, still playing for the Villa and is considered to be one of the cleverest members of the team. He came from the Aston Unity and was the brother of Arthur Brown, my old centre-forward comrade.

The match was fairly exciting, the tactics of the Rovers at the opening of the game being remarkably good. They scored a quarter of an hour from the start, Hugh McIntyre shooting the ball through goal. We equalised matters before half-time and directly after play was resumed Jimmy Brown, of the Rovers, lowered our flag again. But again we got level and in good time; and playing up in true form we began to press our opponents very hard. Then Albert Brown came to the front and sent the ball spinning through the posts for the third time. The Rovers felt called upon to make an effort and only by the cleverness of Mason, our goalkeeper, were we saved several times. Jimmy Brown, however, equalised matters again and now the intensist excitement prevailed, for we only had a few minutes to keep on playing. Fortunately, we were equal to the emergency and Olly Whateley kicked the winning goal just before the whistle blew.

I regard this as one of our best matches and our win by four to three advanced us another step in local popularity. Jimmy Brown, whom I have mentioned, was a good centre-forward and had won international honours. After McIntyre - who also distinguished himself by his good play that day - he captained the team. Brown was very fast, a splendid dribbler, and a sure shot. The two Hargreaves, though not playing that day, were noted members of the Blackburn team and the elder of them was for some time captain, but had to retire on account of an injury to his leg. Among our own men who deserve special mention for their play against the Rovers is Vaughton; and Mason also worked well at goal.

We lost the toss and had to play uphill with a stiff wind against us. I kicked off and we invaded the Queen's Park territory. A corner kick fell to the visitors, but Riddell cleared; a long kick by Miller, however, kept the ball hovering in our quarters. Some fine passing by Whateley and the two Browns made affairs look perilous for the Scotchmen, but McDougall got the ball back and a shot from another player sent the ball into Harvey's hands. He returned the ball into play and Albert Brown went away with a rush, but Harvey in brilliant style tackled him and the ball went out. Simmonds next had some hard work to do and saved some hard shots. Two corners fell to the visitors and the second one made the prospect look dark for us; but Harvey was equal to the occasion and punched the leather out of goal admirably. Whateley took the ball up field and passed to me, but McDougall was waiting and we were again repulsed. A few minutes later a splendid exhibition of passing by Albert Brown, Vaughton and Whateley carried the ball into the enemy's quarters and roused intense enthusiasm. The younger Brown then sent the ball flying into McCullum's hands, but the latter saved his goal and some scientific play which followed drew forth the acclamations of the crowd. Christie next put us on our defence and after some hot shots the visitors gained another corner kick. This was placed right in the mouth of our goal, but Freddy Dawson came to the rescue and the now baffled `Spiders' came down on us with renewed vigour and attempted to score. A scrimmage ensued and out of this Anderson put the leather through, scoring the first goal, five minutes before half-time.

The spectators greeted the success of the visitors with a loud round of applause as the excitement now reached fever heat. No further score was effected when ends were changed and having the wind in our favour we now played a more aggressive game than before. We were urged on by the shouts of our supporters, who expected us to make a bold bid for success. Davis and Vaughton took the ball down the field and a long and continuous attack on the Queen's Park timbers resulted. Obtaining possession on the right wing I put the ball into McCullum's hands and from his return the ball struck Arthur Brown's knee and rebounded through goal, the score thus being equalised.

The applause was uproarious and hats and sticks were thrown into the air by the enthusiastic crowd. Our hearts beat wildly when the ball was started again. Christie put in a magnificent run and centred which evoked cheers, but Riddell repulsed him. Nevertheless we were severely pressed, for the Queen's Park men were making strenuous exertions to score the winning point. Harvey was kept busy and did his work manfully and the critical nature of the game affected the onlookers considerably. Putting on an extra spurt we took the ball into the opposition territory and were several times within an ace of scoring. Darkness, however, was coming on rapidly and each side played a desperate game. Misjudged kicks were not uncommon, for it was hard to keep cool. At last we secured a corner, the first we had had that day and though it was unproductive, we kept the ball in the opposition territory. A final shot of mine caused the ball to strike the post and it rebounded into play. Vaughton kicked over in self-defence; Eli Davis took the corner grandly and a rush on our part resulted in the ball going through off Albert Brown. This was the winning point.

Only a few minutes remained and then Major Marindin sounded the whistle and the Villa had won at last - won by two goals to one. I cannot attempt to describe the scene that followed, the vociferous cheers that greeted us cannot be described in words. The people rushed over the field shouting as long as they had voices left; they shook us by the hand until our joints were in danger; they patted us on the backs until we were sore. I doubt whether many people went home that day with the same hats they brought out and lost property in the shape of walking-sticks and umbrellas would have made a good stock for a second-hand dealer. At night people went about singing a ballad, with a refrain, "The Villa have licked Oueen's Park" and I was followed home by a multitude roaring as if I had won the battle of Waterloo.

There was one old gentleman who was in the habit of rushing forward at the end of a game and holding my hand in a tight grip until I had walked off the field. Nothing could induce him to loose it. Then there were those who thought that the highest compliment they could pay us was to deliver thumps upon the back and their aim was not always true, but fell upon the neck or head, or anywhere. I have been carried shoulder-high, too, but how that came about belongs to another occasion.

We were drawn against the Albion in the tie for the Mayor of Birmingham's Charity Cup and great local interest centred in the match.

The match was played at the Oval, Wood Green, Wednesbury and it is said that more than 12,000 spectators were present. All the week the Villa team had gone into strict training, for we felt that the encounter would have to be decisive.

The game began evenly, but unfortunately, before many minutes had passed Horton, the captain of the Albion, was hurt and play had to be stopped for a time. On resuming, the Albion began to attack and a free kick to the West Bromwich then nearly proved disastrous. A good run by Eli Davis, Vaughton and myself then won a round of applause from the crowd and I finished with a shot into the opposing citadel which Roberts, the Albion goalkeeper, cleverly saved. The Albion then retaliated, but no score was gained.

Albert Brown next dashed off with the ball and passing it smartly to me gave me a chance of putting it through the posts, the registration of the first point for the Villa calling forth cheers from our supporters. The Albion now began to press us hard and in turn were encouraged by the plaudits of their followers. Vaughton, however, raised the siege and before half-time was called Whateley scored a second point for us. This thoroughly roused our opponents, who began to play a desperately hard game, but we still had several attempts at scoring and Roberts was deservedly applauded for the skilful and dexterous manner in which he repelled our charges.

Then came a lively incident. I sent the ball into the hands of Roberts and while he was in the act of stooping to pick it up Albert Brown rushed forward and sent him and the leather through the timbers. Poor Roberts received a kick which rendered him hors de combat for a time, though the occurrence was purely accidental.

With a score of three against our opponents' none we resumed play with a good heart, but the tide turned and Bayliss, one of the forwards, scored for the Albion. But now, if I may say it, came the sensation of the day by my executing one of those "famous runs" which people speak of to this day. I took the ball the whole length of the field, passed four men and eluding all opponents, kicked and scored. This achievement is added to the list of 'Archie's big runs' which it seems footballers are in the habit of recalling whenever they meet to talk of Villa victories.

Against such a team as the Albion the performance was considered almost phenomenal. Thus the game ended and at last we had had the satisfaction of defeating our tough opponents by four to one.

The history of the 1886-7 season is the history of much hard work, some exciting struggles and many victories. Our record I have already given you and you will have observed that we only lost four matches out of the fifty-six played, only one of those four was of any importance. The West Bromwich Albion knocked us out in the first round of the Birmingham Cup Tie and that, of course, was a reverse which we felt; but the remaining three defeats were not in connection with events of much consideration. Our teams this year had undergone some changes and it was just at this time that the professional element was being introduced. Some of the old members, myself among the number, who had been playing as amateurs, had a great reluctance to be paid for our services. Our diffidence may or may not have been reasonable, but it was sincere. When we finally ceased to be amateurs I may say that we left it entirely with the committee to arrange terms; and I never have much sympathy with players who put pecuniary conditions first and think of the sport afterwards. But professionalism is so strong and competition for good players so great that a "pro" may ask for a good round sum as a retaining fee in addition to a high salary and stand every chance of obtaining both.

A good member of our team whom we missed this season was Eli Davis, who had taken part in so many of our encounters and shared with us all our varying experiences. We had some difficulty at first in getting a successor to him. Our attention had been directed to a very promising young player named Loach, who had distinguished himself while a member of the West Bromwich Albion. He was considered one of their best forwards and was induced to join the Villa. In the first two matches in which he took part he played well and we had great hopes of' him, but afterwards he sprained his knee and fell off and had ultimately to be replaced. One of our new members, who is still playing well, was Freddy Dawson, a capital centre half-back. One or two more new names will be introduced as we get further into the season.

I may also mention that this year the leopards changed their spots - or rather, the Villa changed their colours, which is, perhaps, a simpler matter. In November we decided to put aside the piebald uniform, which was inartistic and never popular and we donned in its place the light blue and cardinal vertically-striped jerseys which afterwards became so well known. There was another advantage in the change of colours. The old uniform was associated with some notable reverses and we were determined, if possible, in this season to turn over a new leaf and alter everything for the better.

We met West Bromwich Albion in the first round for the Birmingham Cup and there was the usual excitement as to the result. The Albion were at this time remarkably strong and every member of the team was a picked player capable of excellent work. Starting with the goalkeeper, Bobby Roberts, I don't think there was a finer goalkeeper in the three kingdoms. He was, I am firmly convinced, the mainstay of the team. It was a marvellous shot that he could not stop and the man who got the better of Bobby was extraordinarily clever. The Albion would not have achieved the triumphs it did if Roberts had been missing.

I used to speak of him as their salvation, for when all the other players were equally matched, Roberts' superiority just turned the scale in the favour of his own team. He is still playing and last season joined Sunderland, but we are soon to see him again in his old position between the posts for West Bromwich Albion. May he do as well again for them as he did of old.

Then (here was Green, who played back, a faithful and hard worker, who was particularly sure in defence. James Bayliss, the captain, was a splendid centre forward and Charlie Perry was hard to beat as a centre half-back. But there:- you may as well mention the lot of them - Aldridge, Horton, Timmins, Woodhall, Holden, Paddock, Pearson and Wilson - for they were indeed a fine set of fellows and in combination almost irresistible. As you know they had defeated the Villa time after time, although once or twice we had shown ourselves more than a match for them. We had now to try conclusions with them once more and for the Birmingham Cup too! Well, you may take it for granted that nobody expected an easy or a one-sided game and in this expectation nobody was disappointed.

As we had to play the Albion on their own ground, it added to their chances and I may mention that we had never won on the Stoney Lane ground. Nor did we this time. The battle waged furiously; we put forth all our strength and did all we knew; we gave the Albion some hard work also. They rushed the leather through after five minutes' play, but they never had another chance all afternoon. Greek had met Greek and no mistake. The Albion combination was seen to great advantage. Wherever the ball was, there were two or three men ready for all emergencies. Whenever one of our team obtained possession of the ball he was pounced upon and fairly forced to leave it. Instructions had been given, I have been told, for the West Bromwich men to "keep an eye on Archie" and I had never a chance. Loach, who was playing against his old club, failed to show to advantage, though some excuse can be found for him. The gate, I may add, made a record for the district, for 20,000 spectators were on the ground. Imagine if you can the ear-splitting cheer they sent up when the Albion scored and when they left the field winners of the game. At one portion of the game the barriers gave way and one man was very seriously injured.

We travelled from Nottingham to Birmingham and obtained the necessary apparel for training and went on the same night to Droitwich. Outside the station a brake was waiting for us and on a pitch dark night a dozen of us rode through the quiet country lanes to a little unfrequented place on the river Severn called Holt Fleet.

Here we arrived at midnight and being tired with the day's exertions and drowsy with the ride, we tumbled off to bed. The hotel accommodation in those days at Holt Fleet was of a limited character and the host was not accustomed to such large parties asking for accommodation. He was not prepared for us and the first night we had to rough it. Six of us slept in a top attic in which three beds had been placed. I say we slept, but this is not quite correct. We were put there to sleep, but the pestilence that stalks by night was opposed to us.

All this, of course, was remedied later on by the obliging host, who did his utmost to make us comfortable. But you will wonder why we chose this place for our purpose. It was not our discovery, but was recommended to us by W. G. George, the champion mile-runner. It was his custom to walk, when training, from Bromsgrove to Droitwich and Holt Fleet lies between these two places. The district is very favourable for athletes. There is a fine stretch of open country and there is the river, which affords every facility for boating and swimming. Then the walks all around are delightful and the brine baths at Droitwich are, of course, very convenient.

Since we were there other football teams have experienced its advantages, the Wolverhampton Wanderers in particular. Well, here we stayed for a week with our trainer, Billy Gorman. He was a famous sprint runner and had won a special handicap; and when he ceased to take part in public contests himself he devoted himself to training athletes and a capital fellow he was.

We got up each morning at eight o'clock prompt and breakfasted. Afterwards we strolled about as we pleased for an hour or so. Then we put our uniform on and by permission, which was kindly granted by Lord Dudley's overseer, we were allowed the use of the ground behind the hotel for sprint running and long distance running. It was curious to observe the difference which practice speedily made in some or our physical abilities. There was Dennis Hodgetts, for example, who was called our slow man. Up to this time he was indeed lacking in that desirable quality of fastness which is so serviceable on the field. But after this training he wonderfully developed into one of the speediest of the set and was only excelled by Richard Davis (late of the Walsall Swifts) who had the reputation of being the fastest player for short distances. All the others were very quick: Albert Brown, Joey Simmonds, Jack Burton, Freddy Dawson, Howard Vaughton, Harry Yates and Albert Allen, but the sprint running improved their form tremendously.

As for me, I went in for long distance running, with Warner our goalkeeper, who had no particular need to go in for this training and Coulton, for my companions. Albert Allen, I should here explain, was our reserve man who was in readiness to take Dawson's place if necessary, for Freddy had seriously hurt his knee and we were very uncertain whether he would be able to play. However, when the right time came the question was put to all the team and they decided that he was fit, so Allen was not needed after all.

Well, so the morning went. Sometimes the team walked along the delightful lanes for eight or ten miles, in charge of one or two of the members of the committee and myself and then we returned to dinner.

After dinner we were allowed to lounge about again and then the team were called together for football practice, a gentleman on another side of the river having placed at our disposal a suitable patch of ground. Here we worked hard for an hour and a half, perfecting ourselves in all the science of the game and mastering every trick that could be thought of. It was sport, but we were very much in earnest and though we enjoyed ourselves we spared no pains to learn everything that was to be learnt.

Returning, we were rubbed down and examined by the trainer and then sat down to tea. After partaking of that meal we frequently took a mile and a half walk; and by ten each evening the Villa team were in bed. Such was our training day by day.

For breakfast we had ham and eggs, or fish and we drank tea or coffee. We had no lunch, except perhaps a glass of beer if we were accustomed to it. For dinner we had fish, mostly, salmon or lampreys. Not infrequently our host would bring us in a freshly-caught salmon and on one or two occasions we enjoyed ourselves by going on fishing expeditions also. Sometimes we had a little roast beef or mutton and occasionally fowl; but fish constituted dinner most frequently. Tea consisted of chops and steaks and we went to bed without supper.

Of course, every day was not alike and we had small adventures which formed an agreeable variation to the routine. It was our special delight to come across our fine old trainer seated by the riverside, rod in hand, waiting patiently for the fish that never came, while there was no lack of diversion at night. Pillow-fights were quite the order of the time and as most of us were used to the advantages of town life it was only natural that we should endeavour to find as much amusement as possible in that quiet out-of-the world spot. On some of the nights we were kept at the hotel entertained by the county hop-pickers out of work, who to earn an honest penny dressed themselves up like Red Indians, stuck feathers in their caps, blacked their faces and performed all sorts of wild antics, dancing and singing.

"On changing ends we had the wind in our favour and at once commenced a rattling game. Getting hold of the ball I ran down the field with it and passed to Richard Davis, who raced along with the leather at his toe, eluding the backs and the half-backs. I was close behind him and as he centred the ball beautifully across the mouth of goal I followed him up, met the leather as it came across and with a peculiar screw sent it spinning over my shoulder, completely out of the power of the goalkeeper to stop it. This caused a sensation, I can assure you and the applause which followed was simply deafening. Another goal followed and at the end we had won the fray by three goals to one. The victory was hailed with rapturous cheers and I shall never forget how elated we all were when the news reached us on the field that just at the same time the West Bromwich Albion had defeated Preston North End by the same number of goals. For now the National Cup was secured for the Midlands and whether we or the Albion actually won it was, for the moment, a very secondary matter. It was a red-letter day for us and everybody seemed to know it. We were cheered as we left the field, followed by a cheering multitude to the station and when we arrived in Birmingham we found an immense crowd assembled to welcome us.

The Rangers took their defeat rather badly and sore disappointment was felt by their followers. But I honestly think we overplayed them altogether. Although the game was equal in the first part we felt that we had them at an advantage and in the second part the facts proved that we were much their superiors. Richard Davis and Vaughton distinguished themselves on our side and I think I may claim that this was another of my `days out. But let me tell you what a critic remarked at the time: `There was little doubt,' he said, 'after the first half what the result of the struggle would be. The Rangers had not the combination that was such a conspicuous feature of the Villa play and it is scarcely surprising when the Rangers were virtually an eleven of the whole of Scotland. As a body of men they were, however, full of life and vigour and the forward division was essentially perfect. Their weakness lay in the contingent round the goal. The last half was all in favour of the Villa and fifteen minutes before the call of time it was evident that the Rangers were hopelessly beaten.

The victory of the Albion over Preston North End was unexpected. We had fully counted upon meeting the North End in the final and it has remained one of the most startling surprises recorded in the history of football how the Albion managed to beat them. The Albion scored the two winning goals just on the call of time and doubtless their victory was due to the famous trick of their forwards' breaking away' suddenly, pressing the other side hard and unexpectedly rushing the ball through goal. This was always a great feature in the Albion's matches and one that our previous experience had prepared us for. I ought to add before turning to the next match that on returning from Crewe we were received at every station with cheers in which even the railway officials joined and at one point a signalman was observed to be making a vigorous demonstration in his lofty box. As for the final reception, it was to be remembered.

The teams engaged to play in the match were as follows:

Aston Villa: James Warner, goal; F. Coulton and J. Simmonds, backs; H. Yates, F. Dawson and ,J. Burton, half-backs; Albert Brown and Richard Davis, right wing; Howard Vaughton and Dennis Hodgetts, left wing; Archie Hunter, centre (captain) forwards.

West Bromwich: R. Roberts, goal; H. Green and A. T. Aldridge, backs; E. Horton, G. Timmins and C. Perry, half-backs; G. Woodhall and T. Green, right wing; T. Pearson and W. Paddock, left wing; W. Bayliss, centre (captain), forwards.

We started for London on Friday and took up our quarters at Charterhouse Square. In the evening we had a short stroll and then retired at ten o'clock. We were up betimes in the morning, all in good spirits and happily all in good health. We met our committee and a few friends and proceeded to Kennington Oval, where presently we were joined by the members of the Albion, who were also in excellent form and very sanguine as to the result of the match. All the well-known supporters of both clubs were present in good force, including Mr. Hundly, our genial host at Holt Fleet and early in the morning heavily laden trains poured into the stations and discharged their living freight of football enthusiasts. Our chocolate-and-blue colours could be seen everywhere in the morning, especially along the Strand and all the principal thoroughfares. At half-past two there was a general stampede towards Kennington Oval and cabs, cars, carriages, traps and a thick line of pedestrians could be seen moving down the road. Arriving on the ground, it was at once manifest how great an interest the encounter had awakened. There was a dense multitude of from fifteen to twenty thousand, many familiar faces being among the number. At the last moment,5-to-4 on the Albion could be obtained and the betting in their favour was very brisk.

A few minutes before three we entered the field and were greeted with a hearty round of cheering. I had given the Villa team special instructions how to play this match; briefly they were these - every man was to stick to his position and look after the opponent he was facing. This, of course, does not give such opportunities of brilliant play, but it is a measure of safety which I strongly commend. Let every player single out his man and determine to beat him and if he is equal to the effort the game is won. This course demands an amount of unselfishness on the part of the players which is very hard to exercise, but I have so often seen brilliance and danger combined that on such an occasion as the one I speak of we could not afford to run any such risk. Consequently the match from beginning to end was less scientific than the match with the Rangers. In this respect it was doubtless disappointing. But as a hard, fierce struggle it is not to be surpassed.

Bayliss won the toss and I kicked off exactly at half-past three. As I did so a subdued hum of excitement could be heard and we knew that everybody's nerves were strung to the utmost. I don't know whether I am equal to describing all the details of the match. So far as play went I was coot enough, but so intent upon the game that when it was all over I could only remember a confused multitude of incidents in no particular order, but all warm, vigorous and exciting. I remember how we scampered up and down the field, what wild rushes were made, how the ball bounded here and there, the desperate charges that followed, the frenzied scrimmages, the impulsive shooting, the grand work of the goalkeepers, the attack and defence, the dangers and the relief, the terrific and prolonged struggle and yet, up to half-time, not a single goal! I recall with a thrill how we saw at one point that the Albion were getting the better of us and how we saw them with dismay closing round our citadel. Then how exhilarating it was to see the danger past, to know that the attack had been unavailing and to find ourselves racing away with the ball towards the opposite goal. How often Warner and Roberts saved I cannot tell. Time after time the shots went in scorching hot and always the men between the timbers were equal to the emergency and this was why when half the game was over there was no score.

Changing ends, the Albion cut out the work and Hodgetts and Vaughton on our side commenced putting in an immense amount of good work. A determined attack by them was repelled by Tom Green, who got away up the field and was stopped by Coulton, who returned. From this kick Davis with a long shot centred to Hodgetts, who was close in goal and he with consummate ease, put the ball through, completely baffling Roberts. Then what a cheer arose! The Villa had scored and the jubilation of our supporters was boundless. By the time they had settled down again we were in the midst of a fast and dashing game. It seemed, however, as if no further points would be gained. Both sides were playing desperately and every man was working as if his life depended upon the victory. We were constantly in front of goal and a foul being given to the Albion there, matters looked dangerous. But it was only at the end of the game that the finishing stroke was to be given to our victory. I got possession of the ball and eluding the backs got right in front; but the ball was going at such a furious pace that I perceived I could not reach it. Roberts saw reach the ball and give it the necessary push. If I had not adopted this expedient I could not possibly have scored. The cheers had scarcely subsided when the whistle blew and the Villa had won the Cup by two goals to none.

Major Marindin, President of the Football Association, who acted as referee, was good enough to say that the match was not won be science but "by Archie Hunter's captaincy." As soon as the whistle blew I was surrounded by the enthusiastic crowd and for a few moments I thought I should be torn in pieces. They nearly wrung my hand off and those who could not get near enough put all the heart they could into shouting "Bravo, Archie" and "Well done, Villa." Finally, I was lifted shoulder-high and amid the wildest demonstrations carried all round the field, nor would my zealous friends release me until the moment came when I was called upon to receive the Cup.

I did not know it then, my career as a footballer was rapidly coming to an end. I broke down while playing Everton the following season. The ground was in a fearful condition after heavy rain. Pools of water and masses of mud made play almost impossible and to add to our troubles a biting east wind was cutting us and seemed to pierce us like a knife. I was playing my hardest when I fell into a pool of water. Just before I had received a severe bruise and with the additional shock to the system I fainted away. On reaching home I was advised to relinquish play and that advice I have taken.

There are no more Triumphs of the Football Field for me. I have thrown in my lot with the Committee and shall do all I can to foster the game. But often, when acting as umpire for my old team, I have been almost carried away with the excitement of the game and would have given anything to rush to my old position, get the ball at my toe and race with it down the field. And whenever the leather comes bounding by me it is hard to resist passing it on to one of my old colleagues playing around me. I can't tell you how sorry I am to be out of the game henceforward; but I have had my day and must be satisfied."

The best thing a forward can do is to dribble the ball through all opposition and score. This I have done many times; in fact, "Archie's runs" were sufficiently frequent to obtain a sort of celebrity. I was particularly fortunate in my play when my brother Andy was my partner. He was so accurate and so reliable that I was able to put forth my best efforts and make certain of getting the ball through goal. A forward to be worth anything must be a complete master of the dribbling game, must have good judgement and be sufficiently strong to resist the charges and bumps of his opponents.

I am convinced that it (football) will maintain its position as the most popular game in this country and that it will remain at the head of scientific sports. There is one enthusiasm for cricket and another for football and the enthusiasm for the latter game appears to me to be excited by deeper and heartier feelings. At all events I have no fear that football will decline, though I am sorry that it is so largely maintained by the professional element. Speaking as a professional myself, I may say that I can only look upon professionalism as an unavoidable misfortune. While it is of immense assistance to the game in many respects, it appears to me that it lowers its character and I myself should have felt happier very often if I could have continued to play as an amateur and so regarded the game as a game and not as a business. However, this is a matter for the Association to deal with.

I should like, as one who has been credited with some success in dealing with a football team, to offer a little advice to captains - to those who are not accustomed to their duties yet, or who may be called upon at some future time to assume the position. First and foremost I would impress this upon them - treat the players as men and not as schoolboys. I have seen a great deal of mischief resulting from neglect to do this. When the players are only treated as boys they are apt to regard themselves as boys and act accordingly. They become selfish, obstinate and quarrelsome, turn sulky if they are displeased, or wrangle with one another on the field. Insubordination can never be provided against unless every player is made to feel that he will be called to account as a man and I am certain that this system works well.

Then let all prejudices be avoided. I have known Scotchmen or Welshmen disliked by Englishmen simply on account of their nationality and I have known Scotchmen and Welshmen act just in the same way towards Englishmen. Now these prejudices ought to be stamped out. The team, however it is composed, must play as a team and not as a gathering of different men out of harmony with each other. I always tried to foster good feeling in Aston Villa and I think we were one of the merriest and happiest teams in the country. For myself I never bothered my head about the country a man came from and as long as we had good players and good fellows among us, it mattered not whether they were English, Scotch or Welsh.

"As to guiding the players, I think a captain should make it one of the first rules that every man should get into the habit of defending his position. I greatly dislike to see men scampering wildly over the field, leaving their places unprotected, forgetting their own particular duty and doing another man's work. If a man is playing back let him remember that and single out his opponent and be prepared to tackle him whenever the opportunity arises. We won the match with the West Bromwich Albion through sticking to this plan and I think many more matches would be more evenly contested if the custom were more generally adopted.

The greatest mistake which players are in the habit of making and one which I most often cautioned my team about, is (his: when they think there is a foul, or that somebody has played off-side, they stop dead in their play and wait for the referee's decision. This has lost many a match that should have been won.

Young players especially cannot be told too often that it is not they who can stop the game and however sure they may be that an appeal will be supported, they must on no account relax their efforts until the whistle sounds. I have seen many times, at a doubtful point in the game, the ball rushed through goal simply because no opposition has been offered and then, perhaps, the referee has decided that the game ought to have been continued and allowed the goal. Most clubs have suffered in this way and I would earnestly impress upon footballers the necessity of playing their hardest until a definite order is given to them to cease.

Athletic career

Hunter learned to play football in his Scottish homeland at Third Lanark in Glasgow and at Ayr Thistle , a predecessor of today's Ayr United. From there he originally wanted to join the works team at FC Calthorpe in Wolverhampton , England , but was then persuaded by his compatriot George Ramsay to move to Aston Villa in Birmingham . Aston Villa was still in the development phase and was not the best address in young football, but Hunter, as the future team leader, was to lead the steadily strengthened team based on the Scottish model to the top of English football.

Hunter completed his first game for Aston Villa in October 1878 against Queen's Park FC , who came to Perry Barr with star players George Ker , Malcolm Fraser , James Richmond , Charles Campbell and John Kay , among others . Although he performed well with his new team and at the side of his brother Andy Hunter , he was clearly defeated by the Scottish team. In the following decade, Hunter was instrumental as a center forward in making Aston Villa a national fixture. In his career he scored a total of 33 goals in 41 cup games, with the FA Cup success in 1887 being particularly noteworthy. There he scored a goal in every round and his performance in the 2-0 final victory against West Bromwich Albion at The Oval Stadium on April 2, 1887 was classified in newspaper reports from this time as decisive for winning the title. With the second goal in the last minute, he himself made the decision in the final.

After ten years at Aston Villa, in which he had only played cup and friendly matches, the founding of the Football League in 1888 ensured that Hunter took part in a national championship round for the first time. In the first season he won the runner- up behind Preston North End . The following season started much weaker when Aston Villa settled in the lower half of the table. At the beginning of the year, the team had only won six of the 18 games and lost at Everton FC significantly with 7-0. Far more tragic than the result, however, was that Hunter collapsed with a heart attack shortly after half-time and had to end his career after only 32 championship games in the young Football League. The dream of an international match for the Scottish national team could no longer be fulfilled - during this time the Scottish Football Association had always refused to include Scots playing in England in the selection.


Monster Hunter games are action role-playing games that takes place in a shared low fantasy setting, where the human-like species have a pre-industrial level of technology such as steam power, but continue to study the ruins of a long-past advanced civilization. In the setting's less populated regions, monsters roam the landscape and threaten small villages or research bases that have been established to study the ruins and these monsters. Players take the role of a Hunter that serves to help protect the villages and bases from these monsters, typically aiding in researching these. This is generally presented through a series of quests to slay or trap a monster but can include numerous optional challenges.

The core feature of Monster Hunter is its compulsion loop. [3] Unlike traditional computer role-playing games, a player's Hunter does not grow and has no intrinsic statistics or attributes whatsoever. Rather, the Hunter's abilities are instead defined by the specific weapons and armor selected. The player can equip weapons, armor, and items most beneficial towards completing a given mission, and if successful, the Hunter is awarded in both in-game money ("zenny") and loot representing parts from the monster. These parts, along with other resources collected while on missions or through mission rewards, can be used to forge or upgrade new weapons and armor which then can be used in against more powerful monsters and tackle more difficult missions, completing the compulsion loop. Harder missions are typically restricted by a hunter's rank, which cumulatively increases as the player completes specific missions designated by the quest giver. Mission rewards are often generated randomly, often requiring the player to grind the same monster repeatedly to get the right parts. Weapons and armor have intrinsic bonuses or penalties towards certain types of elemental or physical damages, and may provide special skills which can be fine-tuned through the mix-and-matching of equipment pieces. [4]

The games feature a variety of different weapon classes, ranging from swords, hammers, and bows, with the most recent titles (Generations, World, and Rise) having a total of fourteen classes. [3] Each weapon class has a unique set of combat maneuvers and reflect a number of different play styles based on speed of attack, damage strength, and the application of buffs and debuffs to monsters and allies. Monster Hunter games use an "animation priority" combat, committing the player to a move until the animation is completed and leaving them potentially vulnerable to a monster's attack. [5] Further, players are encouraged to watch their Hunter's health and stamina. Losing all health will force a retreat to a base camp, and after three such retreats, the mission is deemed a failure. Performing most combat actions consumes stamina, which otherwise recovers outside of combat once exhausted of stamina, the Hunter becomes vulnerable as they pause to catch their breath. Monsters and other environmental hazards can also inflict blights and other negative status effects that impair combat abilities. Combat is centered around watching for a monster's tells prior to an attack to be able to dodge it and/or make a counterattack, and looking for openings to unleash strings of attack combos, depending on the Hunter's current weapon. [6] Unlike most other action games, Monster Hunter fights have been compared to a series of boss fights. [3]

Nearly all Monster Hunter games have a single-player mode in these, the Hunter is often accompanied by a Felyne or Palico, a sentient cat-like creature that provides support and limited offensive abilities in combat. Most Monster Hunter games released with support for four-player cooperative online modes, allowing the group to hunt down stronger versions of monsters, though this support has since been disabled in older games. The games typically have a main quest line, frequently called "Low Rank" or "Village Quests", which can take up to fifty hours to complete. Once completed, the game opens up with new "High Rank" or "Gathering Hall" quests, featuring stronger versions of monsters they have previously faced, as well as new monsters are yet seen and unique variants of these foes, all of which provide better components for more powerful weapons and armor sets, providing hundreds of hours of potential gameplay following the main quest. [7] [3] More recent titles add a third rank of difficulty, called "G Rank" or "Master Rank", adding further variant monsters with new attacks and attack patterns. [8] [3]

The first Monster Hunter game was one of three titles Capcom had developed to take advantage of the processing power and online capabilities of the PlayStation 2, which according to Ryozo Tsujimoto, who has been the series' producer since Monster Hunter Freedom 2, had begun to match arcade games in capabilities the other two such titles were Auto Modellista and Resident Evil Outbreak. [9] Tsujimoto considered Monster Hunter to be the culmination of the work of these other two titles once it was released. [9] He also felt that the game was intended for such cooperative play so that players of any skill level, working with others, could feel accomplished in taking down giant creatures. [10] Monster Hunter proved a success, selling over 1 million copies, principally in Japan. [10] Enhanced versions of the early games, adding more difficult monsters and end-game quests, were released with a "G" affixed to the end (such as Monster Hunter G for the first such game) for those titles that were released in Western regions, these were often, though not always, affixed with the Ultimate moniker. A second team worked to develop a series for the PlayStation Portable. These games often had a more lighthearted tone and expanded upon the palicoe system. In Japan, these games were released under the "Portable" title, while in the west they were released under the "Freedom" title. Even after these naming conventions were abandoned, this established the general tradition of one team releasing games for home consoles and a separate team releasing a portable game a few years later. [3]

The series took off explosively in Japan with Monster Hunter G and Monster Hunter Portable/Freedom on the PlayStation Portable and even more so once its sequels Monster Hunter Dos, Monster Hunter Portable Second/Freedom 2 and Monster Hunter Portable Second G/Freedom Unit were released which supported up to four players. [11] Handheld systems are generally more popular in Japan and due to the country's high population density, it was easy to find players to hunt cooperatively with, making it a phenomenon there. [12] James Miekle, writing for PC Gamer, had worked for Q Entertainment and lived in Japan during the release of Monster Hunter Portable 3rd, which was the best selling PlayStation Portable game of all time and described how even during work, impromptu Monster Hunter sessions would break out between employees and there was extensive marketing of Monster Hunter branded consumer goods. [11]

While Monster Hunter had been successful in Japan, its popularity in Western markets (primarily North America and Europe) languished. In contrast to the Japanese culture, Western markets favored home consoles and computers during the mid-2000s and because of a thinner population density, most players relied on Internet-based gaming rather than local ad hoc networking. [12] [11] The series also struggled with a difficult learning curve that had made the games off-putting in Western markets. [13]

The series had little popularity in the West until the release of Monster Hunter 3 Ultimate on the Nintendo 3DS, a console that had gained a sizable foothold in Western markets. While Monster Hunter ' s popularity in the West was still to a niche group, Capcom saw the potential for more growth there and took steps to better localize the next few titles to make the series more attractive Monster Hunter 4 was the first game in the series to break one million sales in Western markets. [12] Capcom recognized there was still room for further growth of the series there in an October 2016 interview, Capcom chairman Kenzo Tsujimoto said they were looking towards increasing the popularity of the games in the Western markets, recognizing that gaming consoles like the PlayStation 4 and Xbox One have dominance in these regions over handhelds. [14] Monster Hunter: World, the series's first major entry targeting home consoles and computers, was developed to be more alluring for Western markets without trying to make the game simpler. [13] A number of changes in gameplay were made that took advantage of the consoles' new technology notably, while the prior games had split each hunting area into different zones as necessitated by limits of the console hardware, World ' s used seamless zones and several changes to gameplay were made to account for this. [3] World became the series' best selling game, achieving more than 17 million units sold by 2021 and making the Monster Hunter series Capcom's best-selling series following Resident Evil. [15]

With the success of the changes to the formula defined by World, Capcom decided to continue this approach with the series' next major title, Monster Hunter Rise for the Nintendo Switch. [16]

Below is a list of games in the Monster Hunter main series. Each generation has a number of entries that are derivative of the original release. While the first four main titles were numbered, the subsequent installments, starting with World, use a keyword instead of a number to reflect a central concept for that game. [17]

Main series Edit

  • Released on PlayStation 2.
  • An enhanced version was released for PlayStation 2 titled Monster Hunter G. Initially, it was only released in Japan but was later released in North America and Europe for PlayStation Portable titled Monster Hunter Freedom. A Wii version was later released, but only in Japan.
  • Released on PlayStation 2.
  • An enhanced version was released for PlayStation Portable in North America and Europe titled Monster Hunter Freedom 2.
  • An expansion of the enhanced version was released for PlayStation Portable and iOS titled Monster Hunter Freedom Unite.
  • Released on Wii.
  • A different, substantially changed version was released for PlayStation Portable and PlayStation 3 only in Japan titled Monster Hunter Portable 3rd.
  • An enhanced version was released for Nintendo 3DS and Wii U in North America and Europe titled Monster Hunter 3 Ultimate.
  • Released on Nintendo 3DS.
  • An enhanced version was released for Nintendo 3DS in North America and Europe titled Monster Hunter 4 Ultimate.
  • Released on PlayStation 4 and Xbox One, and first in series to be released worldwide simultaneously. A Microsoft Windows version was released on August 9, 2018, and eventually through patches brought to parity with the console versions.
  • Multiple changes in standard gameplay enabled by home consoles and computers, such as elimination of loading screens between map zones, while designed to be more approachable by new players to the series.
  • Includes a major story-based expansion, Monster Hunter World: Iceborne released for PlayStation 4 and Xbox One in September 2019 and for Windows in January 2020. The expansion was also released as a standalone title.
  • Released worldwide on the Nintendo Switch.
  • A Microsoft Windows version is planned in early 2022. [20]
  • Cross-compatibility features with Monster Hunter Stories 2: Wings of Ruin.

Spinoffs, remasters, and expansions Edit

  • The first full-fledged MMORPG spin-off.
  • Released only in Japan.
  • Shut down on December 18, 2019. [21]

2011 – An expanded version called Monster Hunter Diary: Poka Poka Airou Village G was released on PlayStation Portable
2015 – An enhanced port called Monster Hunter Diary: Poka Poka Airou Village DX was released on Nintendo 3DS

  • A game based on the series' catlike "Felyne" creatures, known as the Airou ( アイルー , Airū) in the Japanese language games.
  • The subtitle of the game can be translated into English as "Warm Felyne Village".
  • The game has only been released in Japan.

2016 – An upgraded game called Monster Hunter Frontier Z was released on Wii U, PlayStation 4, PlayStation 3, PlayStation Vita and Xbox 360 [22]

  • Third Monster Hunter MMORPG game as a collaboration between Tencent and Capcom.
  • Uses Crytek's CryEngine 3. business model.
  • Beta in Cancini began on July 6, 2013.
  • Planned to be released only for Windows.
  • Shut down on December 31, 2019.
  • Though developed primarily for Chinese players, and solely uses the Chinese language, the game is not region locked, and only limited by the language limitations. Tencent has approved the distribution of an English-language patch created by a fan group in May 2016. [23]
  • Plays with more emphasis on action and customization.
  • Released in Japan as Monster Hunter X (cross-).
  • Announced in a Nintendo Direct presentation on May 31, 2015.
  • Added new "Hunting Styles" and "Hunter Arts" abilities to make Generations the most customizable and personalized Monster Hunter yet.
  • An enhanced version was released for Nintendo 3DS and Nintendo Switch this was titled as Monster Hunter XX in Japan and released August 2017, while the worldwide release is titled Monster Hunter Generations Ultimate and was released for the Nintendo Switch only on August 28, 2018. [26]
  • JP: October 8, 2016
  • NA: September 8, 2017
  • EU: September 8, 2017
  • AU: September 9, 2017
  • Plays more as a traditional role-playing game with less focus on action elements.
  • Has turn-based combat.
  • Much larger emphasis on story than mainline entries.
  • Has the player take control of various monsters from throughout the series and use them as pets/partners called Monsties.
  • Adds "Master" ranks to base game, functionality similar to G-Rank in previous games.
  • Adds new ice-covered biome and several returning and new monsters.
  • Additional quality-of-life improvements on the base World game, even for those that did not purchase Iceborne.
  • Certain gameplay features such as the clutch claw and new weapon moves are locked behind Iceborne expansion.
  • Plays more as a traditional role-playing game with less focus on action elements and turn-based combat.
  • Expands upon the previous game with new mechanics and a much larger roster of monsters much like Monster Hunter Rise, many returning monsters are from Monster Hunter World.
  • The player character can now be customized via a character creator, instead of having a pre-made character like the first game.
  • Has co-op multiplayer.
  • Cross-compatibility features with Monster Hunter Rise. [29][30][31]

Since the series debuted, Monster Hunter has sold more than 72 million units across all titles by December 2020 it is Capcom's second highest-selling series, following Resident Evil. [15]

In the three days after release, Monster Hunter: World shipped over five million units (including digital sales), according to Capcom, and bringing the total series' sales to over 45 million by the end of January 2018. [32] By early March 2018, World had reached a combined retail and digital 7.5 million units shipped, making it Capcom's best-selling game in its history. [33] By mid-August 2018, following World ' s release to personal computers, the title had shipped more than 10 million units, and bringing total sales in the series to over 50 million units. [34] More than 70% of World ' s sales were outside of Japan, a major milestone for Capcom and helping to lead its profitability during the 2018 fiscal year. [35] The release of World ' s major expansion Iceborne had more than five million sales by March 2020, alongside total World sales to 15.5 million. [36]

Monster Hunter Rise shipped over four million units in three days after release, comparable to World 's performance. [37] By the week after its release, total shipments for Rise reached five million, and brought the series' total units to over 70 million. [38] Rise reached six million units shipped by the end of April 2021. [39]

Total worldwide sales for Monster Hunter games exceeding 1 million units, through March 31, 2021, are listed below: [40]

Title Sales (millions of units)
As of March 31, 2021
Monster Hunter World 17.1
Monster Hunter World: Iceborne 7.7
Monster Hunter Portable 3rd/Freedom 3 4.9
Monster Hunter Rise 4.8
Monster Hunter X/Generations 4.3
Monster Hunter XX/Generations Ultimate 4.3
Monster Hunter 4G/4 Ultimate 4.2
Monster Hunter 4 4.1
Monster Hunter Portable 2ndG/Freedom Unite 3.8
Monster Hunter 3G/3 Ultimate 2.6
Monster Hunter Portable 2nd/Freedom 2 2.4
Monster Hunter 3/Tri 1.9
Monster Hunter Portable/Freedom 1.3

Video games Edit

A female Monster Hunter appeared as a playable character via downloadable content in Marvel vs. Capcom: Infinite. The game also features a stage called "Valkanda", which combines Val Habar from the fourth installment with Wakanda from the Marvel universe. Rathalos and Tigrex, two of the series' flagship monsters, make a cameo appearance in Metal Gear Solid: Peace Walker on hunting missions. [41] Rathalos appeared as a special event monster to fight in Final Fantasy XIV as part of a cross-promotional event with Monster Hunter: World, with the Behemoth appearing in World in return. [42] In 2018, Rathalos also appeared as a boss character and a summonable Assist Trophy in the crossover fighting game, Super Smash Bros. Ultimate, [43] while several Mii Fighter costumes based on Monster Hunter were added post-launch in March 2021 a few weeks ahead of Rise 's release. [44] In 2020, Rathalos made a limited appearance in Cygames' mobile title Dragalia Lost as part of an in-game event. [45]

The Monster Hunter games themselves have offered crossover events with other Capcom and third-party properties, allowing users during the event to earn armor and weapons inspired by the other property. For example, Monster Hunter World has had promotional events that include Resident Evil, [46] Mega Man, [47] Assassin's Creed, [48] and The Witcher series. [49]

Anime Edit

A series of anime shorts titled MonHun Nikki Girigiri Airū-mura Airū Kiki Ippatsu (ja:モンハン日記 ぎりぎりアイルー村) was broadcast beginning August 10, 2010. A sequel, MonHun Nikki Girigiri Airū-mura G, was produced. [50] An anime series based on the franchise premiered on October 2, 2016.

Manga and comics Edit

A manga titled Monster Hunter Orage was published jointly by Kodansha and Capcom in April 2008. The author of the manga is Hiro Mashima. There are four volumes total with the last volume published on May 4, 2009. An English release of Monster Hunter Orage first took place on June 28, 2011. Elements from Monster Hunter were later included in the Worlds Unite comic crossover from Archie Comics, which featured several other Capcom and Sega franchises making guest appearances in the previously running Sonic the Hedgehog and Mega Man comic lines. [51]

Card game Edit

A trading card game titled Monster Hunter Hunting Card was released in October 2008 with periodic updates planned. [52]

Film Edit

A film based on the series has been in conception since 2012 by director Paul W. S. Anderson. The film was formally announced by Capcom in October 2018, with production starting that month with Impact Pictures and Constantin Film and was released in the United Kingdom and China on December 4, 2020. The film is based on a United Nations task force falling into an alternate dimension where Hunters fight off monsters and the force joins the Hunters to prevent monsters from returning through the portal to Earth. The film starred Milla Jovovich, Ron Perlman, T.I. Harris, Diego Boneta and Tony Jaa. [53] [54] [55] [56] [57]

Animated special Edit

Capcom and Pure Imagination Studios announced that they are working on a 3D animated special Monster Hunter: Legends of the Guild, to be available in 2019. The special will be written by Joshua Fine, and feature a fledgling hunter taking down an Elder Dragon. [58]

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Aston Villa director William McGregor (who I'm sure we'll talk about in a future Holte History) is credited as the founder of the Football League. 12 teams played in that first league season in 1888 in which Aston Villa finished second. But there was football before the Football League, and in this edition of Holte History we'll look at one of the major players of those pre/early Football League teams.

Archibald "Archie" Hunter was born on September 23, 1859 in Joppa, Scotland. After playing in Scotland for Third Lanark and Ayr Thistle, Hunter made the trek south of the border and joined Aston Villa in 1878. It is said that he originally came to Birmingham to sign for Calthorpe FC, but adorably couldn't where locate they were. He would end up signing for Villa at the suggestion of a co-worker.

In his time at the club, Hunter helped Villa become one of the most successful clubs of that period. Hunter along with McGregor and another Villa legend, captain and future manager George Ramsay starting employing tactics vastly different that what was being played in England at the time. The three Scotsmen lead Villa in playing a passing game, which was more of a Scottish trait, compared to the dribbling game that most English teams employed.

Aston Villa entered the FA Cup for the first time in 1879-80, making it to the third round. The following season saw Villa win 21 of the 25 games they played, and won the Staffordshire Cup. After Ramsay retired from playing in 1882, Hunter became the captain and would lead them out at Perry Barr (Villa's home at the time) for years to come.

Under Hunter, Villa reached the FA Cup quarterfinals in 1883 and 84. But the 1886-87 FA Cup would be the high point in Hunter's time at Villa.

Hunter scored in every round in the FA Cup as Villa made it all the way down to the final. In the final, Villa had to play West Bromwich Albion. (Who if you recall from other Holte History's was also very good in this era.) What did Archie do in the final then? Oh just score again. The game finished 2-0 and Villa won the cup first of seven times. Hunter became the first player to ever score in every round of the FA Cup.

(I originally went into way more detail about this FA Cup campaign, but after reading about it, I'm probably gonna make it its own Holte History at some point, it sounds super interesting. So stay tuned for that.)

The following season saw the founding of the Football League. Aston Villa finished second, but Preston North End were way too strong and ran away with the league winning by 11 points.

On January 4th, 1890, in a game against Everton, Hunter collapsed and suffered a heart attack on the pitch. Following this he retired from football. Hunter finished his Villa career having scored 42 goals in 73 games, 33 of which came in the FA Cup.

"The Essential Aston Villa" says this about Hunter:

"Archie Hunter was a Victorian sporting celebrity. He was Aston Villa's first truly great footballer and was the idol of the Perry Barr supporters for more than a decade. Archie was a forward who played the game with a rare blend of power and skill, and his strength was a particularly useful quality at a time when barging and kicking were often considered legitimate defensive tactics."

Hunter died on November 29, 1894. And now for a story that I think will probably tug at your heart strings and make you proud to be a Villan. While on his deathbed, Hunter reportedly asked to be shown the crowds at Perry Barr one last time. Hunter's headstone reads:

"This monument is erected in loving memory of Archie Hunter, the famous captain of Aston Villa, by his football comrades and the club as a lasting tribute to his ability on the field and his sterling worth as a man."

Archie Hunter Net Worth

According to NETWORTHPEDIA, FORBES, Wikipedia & Business Insider, Archie Hunter's estimated Net Worth is growing significantly alongwith Covid-19 Pendamic. As you already know, celebrities are never share there actual net worth. But, you can sure that the actual figure is much more then our estimate. So,How Rich is Archie Hunter in 2021?

After analyzing Archie's recent activities, we predict that Archie Hunter's net worth $100,00-$250,000.

Archie Hunter - History

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For more information contact: Prof. Karen Kern, Director of Graduate Studies, by email at: kkern@hunter.cuny.edu



Department Chair: Mary Roldan: mrol@hunter.cuny.edu
Deputy Chair: Eduardo Contreras: econtre@hunter.cuny.edu
Administrative Assistant: Carol Adams: cadams@hunter.cuny.edu


We want to reiterate that there are many resources available to support our community during this difficult and uncertain time.

For our students, we want to remind you that we have developed a Coronavirus Emergency Assistance Fund through the support of our loyal donors and alums if you have lost wages, have unexpected medical costs, or have any other financial needs related to the coronavirus crisis, please contact Vice President and Dean of Students Eija Ayravainen for more information.

We have begun concerted fundraising efforts to provide students in need with technology , including laptops that students can take out on a long-term loan, to ensure all have access to remote learning. We have already been able to purchase new laptops for students to borrow, and we are committed to continuing these efforts. To learn more or request a technology loan, contact Director of Student Life Miesha Smith. Additionally, both our 68th Street campus and Brookdale campus food pantries remain open, and we are committed to keeping them stocked. The Counseling Center is open and here for you, both virtually and with some limited in-person and virtually sessions, to help you navigate this difficult time.


The History Department at Hunter College offers courses in the history of the United States, the ancient world, medieval and modern Europe, Russia, Jewish studies, the Middle East and Islamic world, Latin America, Africa, East Asia and South Asia, as well as many comparative topics in political, intellectual, and world history.

Inside Hunter Biden’s murky history of business dealings in China

An expose of Hunter Biden’s emails published by The Post on Wednesday showed the oft-troubled son leveraging access to his then-vice president father and introducing him to an executive of a Ukrainian gas company that was under scrutiny at the time.

The family’s dealings in Ukraine are the subject of several congressional probes and even led to the impeachment of President Trump who was eventually cleared in the Senate of the charge that he pressured Ukraine’s leader to dig up dirt on Joe Biden.

Hunter Biden’s dealings in China, however, have earned a lot less scrutiny — including over a $1 billion windfall for his business venture just days after visiting Beijing with his influential father.

In 2009, Hunter Biden and Christopher Heinz, the stepson of former secretary of state John Kerry, founded Rosemont Seneca Partners, a billion-dollar private equity firm.

Still at the helm of the firm, Hunter flew aboard Air Force Two to China in December 2013, accompanying his then-veep father on an official visit where Joe Biden reportedly met with Hunter’s Chinese partners.

A representative for BHR told The New Yorker in July 2019 that Hunter Biden introduced his father to Chinese private equity executive Jonathan Li during the trip. Li later became the CEO of BHR.

Hunter Biden was forced to step down from the BHR board in October 2019 following blistering call outs from President Trump.

A spokesman for Biden’s family denied any wrongdoing or that there was a connection between the vice president’s visit and BHR’s wild fundraising success.

However, Schweizer found what he described as “a troubling pattern” of Biden and Heinz both seeming to benefit from their fathers’ positions in the Obama administration.

“Over the next seven years, as both Joe Biden and John Kerry negotiated sensitive and high-stakes deals with foreign governments, Rosemont entities secured a series of exclusive deals often with those same foreign governments,” Schweizer wrote in his book.

In another May 2017 incident, Hunter met with Chinese tycoon Ye Jianming, the chairman of energy company CEFC, in a Miami hotel room and the pair discussed American infrastructure and energy deals, according to a 2018 report by the New York Times.

After the meeting, Ye sent Hunter a 2.8-carat diamond and a “thank you” note and the ex-veep’s son began negotiating a deal for CEFC to invest $40 million dollars in a natural gas project on Louisiana’s Monkey Island.

Six months later, a CEFC executive was arrested in New York on unrelated bribery charges, and his first call was to Hunter Biden’s uncle, James Biden. According to the Times report, James believed the call was for Hunter.

“There is nothing else I have to say,” James Biden told the publication. “I don’t want to be dragged into this anymore.”

Archie Hunter - History

Dǎ Kwǎndur Ghày Ghàkwadîndur: Our Story in Our Words is published by the Kwanlin Dün First Nation and has set a new standard in Yukon documentary excellence.

Over the past decades, I have seen a gradual transition from traditional ethnographic studies, to collaborative works between anthropologists and elders. The work of Julie Cruikshank with several elders is a good example of the latter. A quick scan of my bookshelf reveals more recent works published by various First Nations, notably the Tr&rsquoondëk Hwëch&rsquoin, the Vuntut Gwitchin, and the Na-Cho Nyak Dun, which tell about their history and culture in their own voice.

This book elevates storytelling to a new level. The Kwanlin Dün council makes it clear at the beginning of the book that it is intended for future generations: &ldquoMany of our people today never had the opportunity to hear our history first-hand from elders. Our children and grandchildren and many generations coming after us will be able to learn from this record of our stories.&rdquo And it is through the long tradition of storytelling that this book is presented to the reader.

The book was published by the same Figure 1 Publishing, Inc. in Vancouver, who also produced Whitehorse: An Illustrated History in 2013, and within its 312 pages this book has packed in 14 maps and 161 photos, both black and white and in colour. The colours are crisp and the images sharp. If I have any complaint about these images, it is that some of the photos are too small for my fading vision and I had to resort to a magnifying glass to enjoy the details. At the back, there are a couple hundred end notes, acknowledgments, an appendix (Chiefs and councils), a selected bibliography, photo credits and an index.

The book is the product of archival research, extensive community consultation, and the efforts of more than a hundred individuals, numerous community groups and organizations. It is an account of the history of Whitehorse and vicinity with a Kwanlin Dün voice. The narrative is chronological and the first four chapters reflect the content: spring (long ago), summer (10,000 years ago to the 1870s), fall (1880s to 1939), and winter (1940 to 1973). The first of these consists of stories by elders regarding how the world began, and how the Kwanlin Dün should conduct themselves in it. Each story is rendered in the teller&rsquos first language, with English translations.

The second chapter covers the archaeological record. Oral traditions, once dismissed as fanciful stories, have been reevaluated. Many of them hold the seeds of ancient history that are supported by the archaeological record. Major events have been perpetuated in these stories, which have been passed on through countless generations. Such stories tell about a time when glaciers and ancient lakes covered the landscape, about giant animals (Pleistocene megafauna) and their extinction.

The archaeological history of the region is described not as a straight-forward account, but interspersed with stories that feature people and important archaeological events: obsidian and trade, ancient tools (Swan Woman and Atlatl Man), geological events (Ashfall Woman, Lucky Hunting Man), and the coming of the &ldquoCloud People&rdquo (the first Europeans).

The third chapter details social change initiated primarily by the Klondike stampede, and all the consequent impacts: early encounters, misunderstandings (the Nantuck brothers), steamboats and wood camps, fox farming, trapping and trading with Taylor and Drury, and displacement to the margins of the fledgling community of Whitehorse.

Chapter four addresses the period of rapid change and consequent impacts that began with the construction of the Alaska Highway. First Nation members remember these events in first-hand accounts: residential schools, continual displacement and marginalization, and loss of self-determination. The chapter ends on an up-beat note with the drafting in 1973 of the landmark document, Together Today for our Children Tomorrow, which was presented to, and supported by, then Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau. The one thing that I missed in this chapter was a recognition of Kwanlin Dün citizens who may have served their country during World War II. Were there any who saw action overseas during the war, and if so, what was the motivation?

The fifth chapter, Adàką (Light dawning over the mountain), provides an account of the development of land claims over the following thirty years, marking important milestones along the way: Agreement in Principle, signing of the Umbrella Final Agreement, and culminating in the signing of the Kwanlin Dün Final Agreement in 2005.

The final chapter describes a time of healing and regaining control of their own heritage and significant parcels of land and resources, self-government and economic benefits. The construction of the Kwanlin Dün Cultural Centre in the old shipyard area affirms a traditional re-connection with the waterfront and the Yukon River. The cultural centre also provides a platform to celebrate cultural traditions and display cultural works of art and craft.

A key to cultural re-emergence is the healing of the wounds from the residential school system. The old residential hall in Riverdale was demolished in 2009, and land-based healing camps were set up at Jackson Lake. Then came the Truth and Reconciliation Commission and the public hearings of the inquiry into Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women and Girls.

What moved me most about this book were the voices of numerous First Nation citizens telling their stories. I could imagine sitting with them, listening to them talking. The connection with these narratives is enhanced by sidebars that profile the background of several of the storytellers. In addition to that, there were a dozen family profiles, each a couple of pages in length, positioned at the end of several of the chapters.

I was not part of the target audience for this book. But having read it once, I will be returning to it again and again as there is so much to learn from it. It will find a place on the shelf in my office along with several other books that I refer to on a regular basis. This is one book that I recommend with enthusiasm to my readers.

Michael Gates is the author of six books of Yukon history. His book, From the Klondike to Berlin, was shortlisted for a national book award. His latest book, &ldquoDublin Gulch: A History of the Eagle Mine,&rdquo is now available in Yukon Stores. Michael is the Yukon&rsquos Story Laureate.

Borinqueneers Day and the Korean War in Puerto Rican History and Memory

About the author
Dr. Harry Franqui-Rivera is an Associate Professor of History at Bloomfield College, N.J. He is a prolific published author, documentary producer, public intellectual, cultural critic, blogger, political analyst, and NBC, Latino Rebels, and HuffPost contributor. His work has been featured in national and international media outlets, Telemundo, the New York Times, and NPR. His latest book, Soldiers of the Nation: Military Service and Modern Puerto Rico, (2018) has been widely praised. His next book, Fighting on Two Fronts: The Ordeal of the Puerto Rican Soldier during the Korean War will be published by Centro Press. He served in the U.S. Army Reserve and National Guard for over a decade and currently serves in several academic, advocacy and policy boards such as the National Puerto Rican Agenda.

Borinqueneers Day and the Korean War in Puerto Rican History and Memory

June 25, 2020 marked the 70th anniversary of the beginning of the Korean War. No conflict has been as impactful and transformative for Puerto Rico and the Puerto Ricans as the Korean War. In slightly over three years of fighting (June 25, 1950 to July 27, 1953) some 61,000 Puerto Ricans served in the U.S. Army. They suffered 3,540 casualties of which 747 were killed in action (KIA) or died of their wounds. By comparison, during World War II, some 65,000 Puerto Ricans served, of which 368 lost their lives in combat, training, and accidents. Although WWII officially ended on September 2, 1945, this number includes those who served between November 20, 1940 to March 21, 1947. Thus, the number of Puerto Ricans serving in the biggest conflict in history and the longest war in American history to that point (WWII), is about the same of that of the Korean War where the fighting was limited to the Korean peninsula.

The numbers also tell us about the nature of Puerto Rican involvement in both wars. In a regional conflict (although of global repercussion) like the Korean War, the number of Puerto Rican fatal casualties was twice as much as in World War II. This is the case because the Korean War was the first instance in which large numbers of Puerto Ricans were sent into combat. This is a most relevant issue and part of what makes the Korean War so impactful in Puerto Rican history and society, both state and island-side.

The nature of Puerto Rican military service in Korea is also different than that of the Vietnam War. During that conflict, in which the United States had some kind of involvement from November 1, 1955 to April 30, 1975, official records show some 48,000to 60,000 Puerto Ricans serving, and 345 to 450 killed in action (KIA) or dying of their wounds or in captivity. The numbers’ discrepancy is rooted in the difficulty to estimate those Puerto Ricans who were drafted or volunteered while state-side. During the Vietnam War, Puerto Ricans fought as combat troops since the beginning of it. Yet, their participation numbers (when state-side estimates are included) hover around that of the Korean War, and the fatal casualty ratio still about half of the Korean War. The casualty rate was lower in Vietnam (compared to Korea) because the Puerto Ricans were spread throughout all the branches of the armed forces and performing all kinds of tasks or military occupational skill (MOS). That was not the case in Korea in which most of the Puerto Ricans who served did so as infantry men and as part of the 65th United States Infantry Regiment. The history of this regiment is another element making the Korean War so different from other conflicts in Puerto Rican history.

Borinqueneers boarding a transport ship to complete a voyage from San Juan to Pusan, Korea. 1950

The 65th U.S. Army Regiment of Infantry, the Borinqueneers

The 65th U.S. Infantry Regiment, also known as the “el sesenta y cinco” and its men as the “Borinqueneers,” was a distinctively Puerto Rican outfit. “Borinqueneers” is both a Spanish and English transliteration of Boriken- the Arawak or Taino- indigenous name for Puerto Rico- the three first syllables are meant to be read in Spanish and the last one in English. The unit’s nickname in itself tells you much about the role of this regiment in Puerto Rican history. They fought in Korea from 1950 to 1953 as part of the U.S. Army 3rd Infantry Division.

The 65th’s enlisted men, non-commissioned officers (NCOs), and some of its junior officers hailed from the Island, although the regiment also had many officers who were continental white Americans, particularly in senior positions. The 65th was part of the active United States Army. It was not a reserve component of a National Guard unit. The fact that it was a segregated regiment for Puerto Rican enlisted men and led mostly by non-Puerto Rican whites, made its rank-and-file colonial troops, and the only “Hispanic” segregated unit in the United States Armed Forces. For most of its history (which dates back to 1899), the 65th Infantry was a garrison unit. Intended for service on the island, regarded as unfit for combat and overseas deployment, and colloquially called a “Rum & Coke” outfit, the 65th was kept far from combat until the Korean War, when the U.S. Army decided to use the Borinqueneers as first-line combat troops.

The Korean War

The decision to send the Borinqueneers as combat troops was influenced by several factors. Chief among them was Executive Order 9981, signed in 1948 by President Harry Truman, which paved the way for the desegregation of the armed forces. Up to the Korean War, institutional racism had kept Puerto Rican units from the battlefield- just like most African-American units- they were simply not trusted in battle because of their race and culture- as many official documents form the war department evidence.

On October 12, 1950, Puerto Ricans learned that the 65th was fighting in Korea. The island’s newspapers were full of stories and pictures of the soldiers and the ceremonies held previous to their departure. Island-wide, the people of Puerto Rico joined to support the 65th throughout the war. Governor Luis Muñoz Marín often made reference to the men of the 65th in his speeches. The crest of the regiment was painted in public buses and train cars.

Plazas and avenues were named to honor the regiment. Returning soldiers, especially the wounded, were received as heroes and treated to public receptions by government officials. Governor Muñoz Marín himself, attended the burials of the fallen and sent his recorded speeches to the troops in Korea. In the early days of the war, a day did not pass in which the island’s press didn’t write about the Puerto Rican soldiers. Soldiers were paid to endorse local products, from non-alcoholic malt beverages to powder milk. Some of the soldiers’ exploits even found their way to comic strips. The 65th had become a national icon on the island and among the growing Puerto Rican communities in the mainland.

Most of the men of the 65th Infantry could not have been prouder to belong to a regiment with such strong ties to Puerto Rico, and the island’s civilian population shared that pride. What were the reasons for such sentiments? Most of the 65th’s enlisted men had entered the military to escape the island’s economic problems. Once they joined the regiment, however, they remained in uniform for something besides steady pay. Many Borinqueneers who served during World War II reenlisted during the Korean War. Furthermore, even after the Korean War had become a bloody stalemate and the Puerto Rican press began to publish long casualty lists, the recruiting stations in Puerto Rico never lacked for enthusiastic volunteers. The daily news in the local press- detailing the heroics of the Borinqueneers, led to many men enlisting hoping to be assigned to the 65th, the Puerto Rican regiment. Many Puerto Ricans did not serve with the 65th, even after volunteering. Of the 43,434 men who served with the 65th, 39,591 or roughly 91% were volunteers. The numbers of Puerto Ricans volunteering to fight in this war led to recruitment centers in Puerto Rico rarely having to use the draft.

The flag of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (Estado Libre Asociado) is presented to Colonel César Cordero, Commanding Officer, 65th Infantry, and Major Silvestre Ortiz, Adjutant, 65th. 1952. Image, U.S. Army Signal Corps. In the fall of 1952, Puerto Rican flags would be carried by leading elements of the 65th Infantry during attacks. The flag and appeals to national pride and unity helped the Puerto Rican soldiers overcome shortcomings such as inadequate training, a language and cultural barrier, and deficient leadership.

The Meaning of the Borinqueneers’ Sacrifice for Puerto Rico and the Growing Diaspora

The press and Puerto Rican politicians shared much of the responsibility for their people’s willingness to go to war. These opinion-makers heralded the Borinqueneers as heroes, even before they reached Korea. The press, the politicians, elected officials, and the private sector praised “our boys fighting alongside the United Nations to defend world freedom and democracy.” In addition, the press talked about the experience of the 65th as a possible catalyst for getting rid of the “old man, and for forging a modern Puerto Rican nationality.” These same articles also praised the role of the Borinqueneers in abolishing Puerto Ricans’ inferiority complex, “the byproduct of hundreds of years of colonial type regimes.” 2

The Puerto Rican press, elected officials, and politicians saw in the Korean War an opportunity to prove that Puerto Ricans were politically mature, and hence ready for self-determination. By doing so, political leaders and the news media placed a heavy burden on the Puerto Rican people, who came to see it as their duty either to volunteer for military service or support the war effort. The local press and leadership, especially the Popular Democratic Party under Luis Muñoz Marín, promoted the ideals of heroism, democracy, freedom, and the war as a sort of rite of passage from which a new Puerto Rican man ready to build a modern Puerto Rico would emerge. They crafted and repeated this message to secure a more autonomous government for the island. In many ways the PPD tied its political projects to participation in the war. In a very real sense, the battle Puerto Ricans fought in Korea was a battle for equality and for many, one of decolonization. At least, that is how many of the men perceived it and how the political elites imagined it.

Borinqueneers, Sargent First Class Gilberto Acevedo on the left (San Germán) and Private First Class Aponte Martinez Santos (Lajas) Puerto Rican read a segment of the constitution of the Estado Libre Asociado, 1952. The regiment’s newspaper, The Maltese Cross, published the document by instalments so that all Puerto Rican soldiers in Korea could have the opportunity to read the new constitution. Ines Mendoza de Muñoz sent the copy to the regiment. Mendoza de Muñoz wrote in her dedication: "All Puerto Ricans are proud of their regiment in Korea," she continued, "and we hope this constitution will "give further assurance of the freedoms you are defending so gallantly." Pacific Stars and Stripes, Spring 1952.

Donning the uniform during the Korean War, in particular that of the U.S. Army, also had political and social value for emerging Puerto Rican communities in the Eastern seaboard of the United States. The actions of the 65th were included in the acts and annals of Congress and published in the national press. The Puerto Rican state-side local communities and press also followed the war and the Borinqueneers. They kept an eye on the returning soldiers, and in particular on the wounded and repatriated former prisoner of war (POWs) as they completed a circuit that took them from Korea to Japan, to the U.S. west coast, often to Walter Reed Military Hospital in Maryland, New York, and for most, finally to Puerto Rico.

The Puerto Rican community and press followed in detail the return of their heroes and New York City officials gave several of them the keys of the city while parades were organized to honor them. This happened at a time in which some elected city officials sought answers to “the Puerto Rican problem.” This “problem” was nothing but the constant influx of Puerto Ricans to the Eastern Seaboard as Puerto Rico transitioned from an agrarian to an industrial-based economy and relied on the exodus of hundreds of thousands of Puerto Ricans to the mainland to alleviate unemployment. As Puerto Rican communities grew, they faced all kinds of discrimination. Highlighting the service and sacrifice of Puerto Ricans in the war became a form to engage in politics of respectability and staking a claim of belonging for sprawling Puerto Rican state-side communities. The 65th’s status as a national icon and source of pride went beyond the archipelago.

The call to arms, nevertheless, was ambiguous. The press and the governor of the island told Puerto Ricans that it was their duty- as Puerto Ricans- to defend the American nation, to which they belonged. The enthusiastic response to this call further complicated the essence of Puertoricaness. It was common for soldiers deployed in Korea to express they felt they were both Puerto Ricans and Americans. This phenomenon could be understood as a dual nationality paradigm, or as the fusing of political and cultural identities. This is one of the central issues I explore in my forthcoming book, Fighting on Two Fronts: The Experience of the Puerto Rican Soldier in the Korean War because this narrative regarding the Puerto Ricans’ identities became one of the ideological pillars for the creation of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico- the Estado Libre Asociado, which was established on July 25, 1952, and still defines the relations between the United States and the island.

“Ultimos en salir.” Last United Nations’ troops to leave the besieged port of Hugnam in North Korea after the battle of the Chosin Reservoir. Borinqueneers, Corporal Julio Guzmán and Master Sgt. Lupercio Ortíz December 24th 1950. Hugnan, Korea. When I interviewed him, Lupercio Ortíz still had a picture of himself and his assistant as they left the Hugnan beachhead. The picture was first published on Life Magazine and reprinted by the press in Puerto Rico. El Imparcial de Puerto Rico: Periódico Ilustrado, 27 December 1951.

The Borinqueneers knew they were in the spotlight and came to internalize their iconic status. On Christmas Eve of 1950, the men of the 65th, the last United Nations troops in Hungnam, were finally evacuated from the besieged port after covering the last stage of the 1st Marines division retreat from the Chosin Reservoir. Last year, an American graduate student studying in the Netherlands sent me an email in which she shared that her grandfather was one of those Marines who, when they reached American lines and safety, were met by men from Puerto Rico. She is forever grateful and so was his grandfather. (https://centropr.hunter.cuny.edu/centrovoices/chronicles/puerto-rican-soldiers-korean-war-battle-chosin-reservoir)

As the 65th’s commanding officer, Colonel William W. Harris, boarded the last transport out of Hugnam, someone handed him a copy of an article from the Pacific Stars & Stripes. The article quoted Corporal Ruiz of Puerto Rico s saying:

We are proud to be part of the United Nations Forces, and we are proud of our country. We feel that too many people do not know anything about Puerto Rico they think that we are all natives who climb trees… We are glad for the chance to fight the communists and also for the chance to put Puerto Rico on the map. It will be a great accomplishment if we can raise the prestige of our country in the eyes of the world.

Sergeant First Class, Modesto Cartagena of Cayey, home of the “Monument to the Puerto Rican Jíbaro”, earned a Distinguished Service Cross in Korea and became a national hero. Cartagena's citation credits him with "single-handedly" knocking out enemy machine-gun emplacements on hill 206 near Yonchon, Korea, in April 1951. He destroyed the enemy positions hurling back grenades the Chinese threw at him. His citation reads that "although knocked to the ground by exploding enemy grenades," he made three more assaults on enemy positions before being wounded by automatic weapons fire. His actions saved his whole squad. Periódico El Mundo, November 13, 1952.

The Debacle

During the first part of the Korean War Puerto Ricans soldiers were praised as heroes and champions of democracy abroad and at home. Things would change during the second half of the war and the record of the Borinqueneers would be temporarily stained. The replacement of combat-hardened troops with poorly trained—yet enthusiastic—recruits who spoke little English an acute dearth of bilingual NCOs and new Continental officers that did not speak Spanish (some who openly showed their disdain for Puerto Rican soldiers and officers) led to tragic events during the battles of Outpost Kelly and Jackson Heights in the autumn of 1952.

The back-to-back debacles were followed by a series of mass court martials in which eighty-seven enlisted men and one Puerto Rican officer received sentences ranging from six months to ten years imprisonment, total forfeiture of wages, and dishonorable discharges for charges varying from willful disobedience of a superior officer to cowardice before the enemy. https://centropr.hunter.cuny.edu/centrovoices/chronicles/honor-and-dignity-restoring-borinqueneers-historical-record

Such news was hard to swallow for the Puerto Rican public. An assembly of the soldiers’ parents drafted and sent a rather Spartan message to President Dwight Eisenhower: “PREFERIMOS VERLOS MUERTOS”. The parents’ resolution, published in the January 26, 1953 edition of the daily El Imparcial, stated “We prefer to receive the corpses of our sons, killed heroically on the battlefields of Korea, than to have them return stained with the stigma of cowardice.”

The parents asked for their sons to have the chance to prove their accusers wrong by returning to the battlefield. Many of the sentenced soldiers wrote similar letters which were then published in the local press. In a rare display of national unity, Puerto Ricans from all walks of life, and different political affiliations and ideologies, found common ground and rallied in defense of the Borinqueneers.

They were joined by Continental officers who had served with the regiment. General J. Lawton Collins, who had visited the training camps in Puerto Rico and was very familiar with the 65th, told the House Armed Services Committee: “The Puerto Ricans have proved that they are brave and can fight as well as any other soldier when properly trained and equipped.”

Under pressure, the military agreed to conduct a review of the sentences. Few of the soldiers from the 65th had their sentences reduced. The review board found the verdicts and sentences to be correct in law and fact. But, between June and July of 1953, however, the Secretary of the Army reviewed the cases and remitted the unexecuted portions of the sentences of all but four of the accused. The soldiers who had their sentences remitted were returned to duty.

The Puerto Rican public was still roiling from the effects of the mass trials when more bad news reached the island. On March 4, 1953, an Army spokesman announced that the 65th would be integrated with Continental troops, and the excess Puerto Rican soldiers would be sent to other units. The 65th would cease to exist as a Puerto Rican unit.

Unidentified Puerto Rican soldiers serving with the 65th Infantry in Korea hold the Puerto Rican. Fall 1952. Photo taken by Marcelino Cruz Rodríguez, by permission from Carlos Cruz and Mirta Cruz-Home reproduction by Noemi Fuigueroa-Soulet.

The vast majority of the Puerto Rican soldiers serving with the 65th Infantry promptly condemned the army’s decision. Pedro Martir, a member of the 65th for seventeen years, declared that he would rather lose his pension than continue to serve in an integrated 65th. Other soldiers objected to integration on the basis of unit pride and the fear of being laughed at by continental troops because of cultural differences and their difficulties with the English language. Corporal Felix Rodríguez insisted, “I think is better to fight with my own people, we understand each other.” Private First Class Antonio Martínez, a Borinqueneer from New York, commented that racial prejudice might make life hard for Puerto Ricans serving in other regiments. The regiment, however, was quickly integrated as planned.

Eventually, the Borinqueneers’ record would be restored. In 1954, the 65th Infantry returned to Puerto Rico and was reconstituted as an all-Puerto Rican formation. The island had its regiment back, but not for long. The 65th was de-activated in 1956. But the unit’s story did not end there.

A Rescue and Recovery Mission

Colonel César Cordero, who had led the 65th during the battle for Outpost Kelly, and who had advanced to brigadier general and adjutant general of Puerto Rico’s National Guard, led a campaign that culminated with the reactivation and transfer of the 65th from the regular army to the Puerto Rico National Guard in 1959. This is the first and only time in U.S. military history in which a federal unit, a unit of the regular United States Army is reconstituted as a National Guard outfit. Needless to say, this was a major concession to the Borinqueneers and the Puerto Ricans who insisted on saving their regiment, the Puerto Rican regiment.

Unlike its participation during the war, however, this event received scant publicity and soon el sesenta y cinco and its epic ordeal during the Korean War faded into a distant and distorted memory. The Puerto Ricans had rescued their beloved regiment, but its history had not been restored. The Borinqueneers’ record remained stained.

The rescue, recovery and restoration process culminated with the awarding of the Congressional Gold Medal to the regiment. Since the American Revolution, Congress has commissioned Gold Medals as its highest expression of national appreciation for distinguished achievements and contributions. Since George Washington received it, only 160 individuals and entities had been awarded the medal to date. Few combat units have earned this accolade. The 65th is the first unit to receive it for service during the Korean War and they join Roberto Clemente as the only Puerto Rican or Latino recipients.

Obtaining the award came from the efforts of many groups and organizations and, the Borinqueneers CGM Alliance (BCGMA). The effort to restore their record was led mostly from the diaspora, a diaspora the Borinqueneers helped to build.

The medal has been awarded to other famous minority units including the Tuskegee Airmen, the Navajo Code Talkers, the Nisei Soldiers, and the Montford Point Marines, and recently, the WWII Filipino Scouts. The Borinqueneers are the first unit from the Korean War to receive the award. The ethnicity and race of former recipients is no coincidence. All of them fought during times of crisis to defend a country that at the time treated them, at best, like second class citizens.

The medal recognizes the valor and sacrifice of units like the African-American marines and aviators whose bravery in combat, at a time when lynching was common and racial segregation the norm, disproved the myths of racial inferiority and unfitness for military service the courage of Navajo code talkers, who at a time when their language was prohibited in schools, used it for communications in the battlefield saving countless American lives or the pride of Japanese-American soldiers who volunteered to join the army and requested combat duty while their families were kept in internment camps.

The Borinqueneers made a similar contribution. The men of the 65th were willing to pay the ultimate price at a time when Puerto Ricans were openly labeled in the press, in academic circles, and by elected officials, “a problem” to be dealt with. The bill awarding the Congressional Gold Medal passed both houses of Congress unanimously. When President Barack Obama signed the bill On June 10, 2014, it recognized the honorable service of the 65th, which during the Korean War had to fight on two fronts. On both fronts the Borinqueneers conducted themselves with honor and dignity.

Dr. Frank Bonilla, the 65th, and the Center for Puerto Rican Studies are connected in many ways. Bonilla, a Puerto Rican born in New York, participated in the Battle of the Bulge in December 1944 during WWII. In the spring of 1945 he was reassigned as replacement to the 65th Infantry. His experience with the Borinqueneers m changed his life. He noticed the men of the 65th coming to attention when La Borinqueña played. Even the food was different- and he enjoyed the rice and beans the regiment’s cooks always seem to find. In the middle of a war that took him all the way to France, Belgium and Germany, Frank felt at home in the 65th. After the war ended, he went back to Puerto Rico with the Borinqueneeers. It was his first time in Puerto Rico. There were parades to receive the soldiers and thousands of Puerto Ricans lined up the streets of San Juan with Puerto Rican and American flags to receive their Puerto Rican soldiers. He spent eight months in Puerto Rico with the 65th before going back to the United State and went back to New York changed by his experience with the Borinqueneers. He eventually founded the Center for Puerto Rican Studies, at Hunter College in 1973.

For over a decade now, we have witnessed the restoration and celebration of the Borinqueneers’ sacrifices during the Korean War. As it happened in the Puerto Rican archipelago during the war, avenues, plazas, and monuments have been named or built on their honor across the United States. And on April 13, 2021, we will observe for the first time, National Borinqueneers Day. For some, this may look like too little and too late- for most Borinqueneers have passed. Other critics will say it is too much- they did their duty, move on. It is not too much. The generation of Puerto Ricans who participated in this conflict, dubbed the Forgotten War, is quickly shrinking. Let us make sure that their sacrifices and their ordeal, and what they accomplished for Puerto Rico as they fought both the enemy and racism, is never forgotten. Let us not forget the meaning of the monuments, roads and plazas erected and named after them- or why Puerto Rico has so many Barrios and sectors named: Barrio or sector Corea.
And let us remember that they represented the hopes of a people willing to sacrifice their youth for a better future, to pay a tribute of blood in search for acceptance, respectability, equality, a path towards decolonization, and a democracy that has proven elusive to them.

In a ceremony before the unveiling of the Congressional Gold Medal, surviving Borinqueneers placed a wreath with the 65th’s crest in front of the Korean War Memorial in memory of the fallen Borinqueneers. Washington D.C. April 13, 2016. Image captured by author.

© Center for Puerto Rican Studies. Published in Centro Voices 12 April 2021.

1 El Imparcial de Puerto Rico: Periódico Ilustrado, 12 October 1950.
2 Periódico El Mundo (San Juan), 12 October 1950.
3 THE PROBLEM OF PUERTO RICAN MIGRATIONS TO THE UNITED STATES, HENRY L. HUNKER. Department of Geography, The Ohio State University, Columbus 10, THE OHIO JOURNAL OF SCIENCE 51(6): 342, November, 1951. 342-346

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  1. Estevan

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  2. Aekerley

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  3. Conrado

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  4. Osmond

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