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4 March 1940

4 March 1940

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4 March 1940

Winter War

Viiprui still in Finnish hands despite a Soviet attack across the ice on Viipuri Bight

Soviet troops suffer defeats north east of Lake Ladoga and withdraw in the Petsamo sector

War at Sea

Two British and four neutral ships sunk

Why March 4 matters to QAnon extremists, leading to fears of another Capitol attack

What unfolded Jan. 20 in the nation’s capital was a day of reckoning for many followers of the QAnon extremist ideology — but not the one they were expecting.

They were expecting “the storm,” a violent showdown that would end with Donald Trump destroying powerful child abusers and Satan-worshiping Democrats.

Instead — two weeks after a mob attacked the Capitol to try to stop Congress from certifying the results of the 2020 election — Trump flew off to Mar-a-Lago and Joe Biden took the oath of office, becoming the 46th president of the United States.

But many QAnon crackpots hadn’t given up. Some believed Trump would return to power on Thursday, March 4, and according to U.S. Capitol Police, a militant group might have been plotting to breach the Capitol again that day.

This led to many jokes on Twitter about a Mar-a-Lago inauguration on March 4.

Why March 4? Because that was the country’s original Inauguration Day, of course.

The Constitution doesn’t actually set a date for the beginning of a president’s term, only saying it will last four years exactly. But after George Washington’s was scheduled for March 4, 1789, the date stuck.

Back in the tricorn-hat days, having such a long “lame duck” period after an election wasn’t that big of a deal. When news and people travel at the speed of a horse, so follows government business.

But by 1860, it proved to be a real problem. Between Abraham Lincoln’s election in early November 1860 and his inauguration on March 4, 1861, seven states seceded from the Union — without the president-elect being able coordinate a response, giving Confederate states a huge tactical advantage (that they soon squandered).

During the Great Depression, the long interregnum proved so unwieldy that it was finally shortened. Franklin D. Roosevelt had been overwhelmingly elected in November 1932, based in large part on his plans for bold intervention on the economy. Then the suffering nation just had to sit around and wait four months for him to finally take office.

In that time, disaster nearly struck. On Feb. 15, 1933, three weeks before he was set to take office, Roosevelt was nearly killed by an assassin’s bullet while speaking in Miami. The shooter missed the president-elect but shot five others, including the mayor of Chicago, who later died of his injuries.

The 20th Amendment forever moved up Inauguration Day to Jan. 20. Roosevelt’s first term was thus shortened by two months, though that ended up not mattering since he was reelected.

According to QAnon lore, all presidents since Ulysses S. Grant have been illegitimate, so it follows that the day Trump returns to power to set things right would be the original Inauguration Day.

There are a couple of problems with this theory.

First, it’s unclear if the 19th Amendment, giving women the right to vote, is still valid in the Q universe, since that also came after Grant.

Second, March 4 didn’t actually end up being the first Inauguration Day anyhow. That’s when it was scheduled for in 1789, but bad weather — an actual storm! — kept so many members of Congress from getting to the temporary capital of New York City that they failed to have the quorum needed for Washington to take the oath. The first inauguration didn’t take place until April 30, 1789.

Also, this is not the first day QAnon followers have predicted Trump will reveal himself as an American savior. Other dates include but are not limited to: Dec. 8, 2020 Dec. 14, 2020 Jan. 6, 2021 (attempt by followers to make this prophecy come true notwithstanding) Jan. 20, 2021.


The All India Muslim League played a vital role in the creation of Pakistan in the year 1940. Muslim league had become a stronger political party for the Muslims of Indo-Pak Subcontinent, under which the Muslims were struggling for a separate homeland for them. The great leader of the Muslims, Mohammad Ali Jinnah by the time had become the lining symbol of Muslim unity and Muslim politics and the Muslims had so completely centred on him that he had become almost an institution in himself.

23rd March 1940, Minto Park – #FlashBack

Papers - Ingram, James Maurice, 1905-1976

Architectural drawings of alterations and additions for Bowling Green Business University, Bowling Green, Kentucky. Plans show foundation plan, first floor plan with several classrooms, offices, and a reception room, and a second floor library space. Details of new doors and cross sections also appear. The first sheet shows panels detail for the office of Mr. Hill. Exterior elevation drawings show a castle-like, four-story building with large, two-story dependencies, all with pierced parapets, and rounded-off entrances the building was known locally as "The Towers."

4 March 1940 - History

On 5 March 1940, Argentina beat Brazil 6-1 in Buenos Aires. It remains the largest margin of victory in the rivalry between the two countries.

The match was part of the Roca Cup, an irregular tournament played between Argentina and Brazil that dated back to 1913 when it was founded by General Julio Roca (pictured). Roca was a football enthusiast who also happened to be a former president of Argentina and, in 1913, was their ambassador to Brazil. He proposed the tournament to help develop the sport and also donated the trophy.

The 1940 edition was the fifth tournament, with Brazil and Argentina evenly splitting the previous four--Brazil won in 1914 and 1922, while Argentina won in 1923 and in 1939 (the 1939 tournament actually extended into February 1940). The 1940 tournament kicked off on 5 March with a table format. Three matches were scheduled, with the winners receiving two points for a win and one point for a draw.

Argentina opened the tournament (and defended their recently-won title) with a dominant 6-1 smackdown--the most lopsided victory by either side in the rivalry and Brazil's worst loss since their record 6-0 defeat to Uruguay in 1920. Brazil won the second match, 2-3, but Argentina again rolled in the final match, winning 5-1 to top the final table with four points to Brazil's two.

Despite the crushing losses, Brazil came back in the next tournament, played in 1945, and reeled off four straight Roca Cups (1945, 1957, 1960, 1963). The two teams shared the title in 1971 before Brazil won the last tournament in 1976, finishing with eight Cups to Argentina's four.

4 March 1940 - History

The Depression Arrives — Growing International Crisis —

The Private Life of Sherlock Holmes — GM in Nazi Germany

Sherlock Holmes must have been a great consolation for Edgar during these difficult days at work. He enjoyed his correspondence with Starrett. He began amassing an important collection through Starrett’s friend and fellow bookman David Randall in New York, and other bookdealers. 1 He wrote several scholarly papers of his own, beginning with “The Long Road to Maiwand” about Holmes’s and Watson’s first meeting, and started compiling Appointment in Baker Street , an ambitious reference work on the Canon’s characters, in draft in time for Starrett to enthuse over it in February 1938. After a year of correspondence with Starrett, Edgar finally wrote to Christopher Morley on August 9, 1938, telling him about Appointment and enclosing copies of “The Long Road to Maiwand,” “Up From the Needle,” and “The Curious Incident of the Tour de Force ,” his maiden efforts at canonical scholarship. And he closed by asking Morley: “Starrett also told me something of the Baker Street Irregulars. Is this band still operating, and is membership in it beyond the realm of my aspirations?”

Morley replied on August 12th, and one bit of his news thrilled Edgar: Morley had not only read Edgar’s enclosures, he’d sent “The Curious Incident of the Tour de Force ” to press, in the August 20th Saturday Review of Literature . For the first time, Edgar was a published Sherlockian. 2 Morley let him know, though, that the BSI was inactive: “The B.S.I. lead a vague and sporadic existence. They haven’t met now for a couple of years, but some time next winter there will be a dinner and surely you must be handsomely inducted.” And Morley raised the idea of lunch together, but sine die .

In fact there would not be a BSI dinner that winter not until 1940, after Edgar himself started pushing in earnest later on for one. It was a long time before lunch, too, though their correspondence became more kinspritlich in the interim. On December 27, 1938, Edgar was still addressing the BSI’s founder as “Mr. Morley,” but by January 7, 1939, perhaps after an exchange of Christmas cards (in time Edgar would design his own on Sherlockian themes) and New Year’s greetings, Edgar was on “Dear Porky” terms with him. Yet still saying: “I still hope we can get together sometime for lunch.”

Edgar signed himself “Thorney” in that letter. He had recently adopted Thorneycroft Huxtable as a nom de canon in a different Sherlock Holmes club, a consolation during the discouraging autumn of Britain’s Munich Agreement with Hitler. Sometime that year Edgar met a New York stockbroker, Richard W. Clarke, who with four other men had founded a Sherlock Holmes club in 1935 that they called The Five Orange Pips. Clarke and his friends had been unaware of the BSI, and when they later learned of it were unimpressed, and made no move to connect. But Edgar and Richard Clarke had discovered that they were both Holmes devotees, and Edgar was invited to the Pips’ annual dinner that October, foregathering at the Plaza Hotel. In a 1961 BSJ article Clarke recounted the event:

It was in [1938] that Edgar W. Smith joined our society. We spent a number of weeks studying his dossiers, and later we ascertained that he was doing the same research regarding ourselves.

At seven o’clock on an eventful October evening in 1938 the five original Pips gathered in the Oak Room at the Plaza Hotel in New York City. A few minutes later a page boy appeared calling loudly for “Mr. Rucastle.” The page then handed us a very impressive card on which was printed “Dr. Thorneycroft Huxtable, M.A., Ph.D.” 3 After welcoming Edgar, our new member, we proceeded to the 59th Street entrance of the Plaza, where we climbed into two carriages and were driven by horse to the residence of Gordon Knox Bell on East 66th Street. His house had considerable resemblance to London town houses at the turn of the century. The same could be said of the well-laden table and groaning sideboard. Much jollification ensued, including various and serious literary contributions. Among other courses was a fine roast goose in which was embedded a fine sparking blue stone. Annual dinner meetings have been held every year with the exception of the years 1941 to 1945, during the recent unpleasantness. 4

So Edgar, though increasingly hungry for lunch with Chris Morley, had a new set of friends with a mutual interest.

Edgar Rises Higher at Work

There were consolations at work also. In August the Export Company

had been turned into General Motors Overseas Operations with the nifty new logo shown above. This meant promotion and greater responsibility for Edgar. Previously he had been a v.p. of GM Export Co., and chairman of its economic staff committee, while serving on three other committees. In the new organization, he became vice president and director of Institutional Relations, both internally in terms of personnel, and externally in terms of trade associations, government, and the like. GM might be a company of machinery producing other machines in the form of automobiles, trucks, locomotives, etc., but: “In turning these physical assets of the business to account, another group of assets is called inevitably into play. These assets, less tangible but equally important with the others, take the form, specifically, of the human resources the organization possesses and the part played by the organization itself in the economic, social, and political world in which it moves.” 5

With these words (not fluid enough for Edgar to have been their author), Institutional Relations became one of Overseas Operations’ four major staff functions. “All of the elements of the business which bear upon the proper discharge of this function — the organization’s ‘inside’ relations with its employees and its ‘outside’ relations with the world at large — have been grouped together for staff coordination and control under the guidance of Edgar W. Smith.” One division under Edgar was Public Relations, directed by his old school chum James Morris. The increasingly vital and sensitive Governmental Relations Division and its work were directed by Edgar himself, in addition to his overall duties: “This responsibility, with the resulting interpretation of politico-economic trends, is carried personally by Mr. Smith, who has, for several years, maintained the frequent contacts in Washington necessitated by increased government activity.” (Including State Department and U.S. Embassy Berlin support to Graeme Howard’s efforts to hang onto Opel.)

In an increasingly menaced world, this was serious responsibility indeed. By the time that this description of the Institutional Relations Department appeared, Europe had had a serious war-scare over Germany’s demand for Czechoslovakia’s Sudentenland. During the past five years Hitler had discarded the Versailles Treaty and rebuilt Germany’s war machine, remilitarized the Rhineland, and annexed Austria. Those things had been explained away, by Europeans and Americans unwilling to confront Hitler, as simply internal matters. Czechoslovakia wasn’t, but Britain’s Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain’s appeasement policy consented to the dismemberment of the democratic state created in 1919 at Versailles. He called September’s Munich Agreement with Hitler “peace in our time.” It did not seem so to critics of appeasement like Winston Churchill, nor to some Americans concerned about foreign affairs, and Edgar was likely one of those. The National Foreign Trade Association opened its convention on October 31st with presentations, including one by Edgar, gloomy enough for the following day’s New York Times to report them as U.S. Warned to Gird for Economic War. 6

The following week, the civilized world, which definitely included Edgar and his family, watched aghast as the Nazi regime launched anti-Jewish pogroms across all Germany the night of November 9-10 ( Kristallnacht ), using as pretext the assassination of a German diplomat in Paris by a distraught seventeen-year-old boy whose family had been wrenched from their home in Hanover and ejected into stateless refugee status on the Polish border.

A Baker Street Irregular at last

For Edgar’s peace of mind, it surely helped to produce Appointment in Baker Street at the end of that year, in a Pamphlet House edition of 250 copies. (Enormous for the BSI market of the day, or for today’s for that matter.) That led finally to lunch with Christopher Morley at Christ Cella’s speakeasy on East 45th Street in early 1939. Also present was Morley’s close friend William S. Hall, a fellow founder of the BSI. In 1961 Hall provided an account of that lunch. “Chris Morley phoned one morning and instructed me to meet him at Cella’s for a ‘bowl of soup,’” he said. “He added that he had been invited to lunch by a man from General Motors and that I might as well get in on it.”

And that was when I first met Edgar Smith. He lost no time in launching into the reason for the meeting: for some time he had been reading about the doings of The Baker Street Irregulars in the Saturday Review of Literature and, having immersed himself in the exploits of Sherlock Holmes and Dr. Watson for most of his career, he wondered if he might be permitted to become a member.

Morley, always delighted with a quiz program of any sort, tossed several questions at Edgar, some of them really tough, but Edgar came through with flying colors. He was accordingly dubbed, with the help of an additional whiskey-and-soda, a full-fledged member on the spot. Since then I have always rated the meeting of Morley and Smith second in importance only to that of Stanley and Livingstone.

The rest we all know about. Almost from that moment on, Edgar was The Baker Street Irregulars, and that includes most of the Scion Societies as well. I had the pleasure on several occasions of calling on him in his sumptuous quarters at General Motors, not, God help me, to talk about automobiles, but to discuss some point or other about the B.S.I. or the Journal. And I never failed to notice that the contents of one half of his enormous desk was Sherlock Holmes. 7

Edgar was finally a full-fledged member — of a club that hadn’t met for three years.

The Approach of War in Europe

In mid-March, GM’s Policy Committee met at Overseas Operations offices, now at 1776 Broadway in New York, under Alfred Sloan’s chairmanship to consider “current political conditions in Germany, and the status of our own operations in that country.” Adding to their

urgency was stepped-up Nazi harassment of German members of Opel’s American-led board of directors. 8 These issues directly involved Edgar’s responsibilities, and one imagines he was pleased by the decision to make no further investments in Germany, and forbid any Opel role in producing aircraft engines, something the Luftwaffe and Hermann Goering were pressing for. Existing work continued but “faced with the issue of whether to allow Opel to embark upon production of a clearly military nature for the government of the Third Reich, GM’s top leadership firmly ruled out that possibility.”

It was lucky timing: two days later, Hitler seized the rest of demo-cratic Czechoslovakia.

The following month saw considerable contrast with the grand opening of the 1939-40 New York World’s Fair in Flushing Meadows. It was an important event for General Motors, long in the planning, and for Edgar personally. The Fair’s theme was “Building the World of Tomorrow,” and its most popular and longest-remembered feature was GM’s 36,000 sq. ft. Futurama exhibition designed by Norman Bel Geddes, in which visitors gazed down upon automated roads and high-

ways running through the future’s cities, suburbs, and countryside. Another feature of the Fair was its World Trade Center, with “world peace through world trade” as its motto: “The executive committee, headed by Edgar W. Smith, has planned the exhibit to help the man in the street to visualize the many phases of world trade through animated charts, graphs and dioramas. Motion pictures depicting the interdependence of all nations will be shown afternoons and nights.” 9

(On left, GM’s Graeme Howard.)

It sounds much like the naive 1910 sentiment of The Great Illusion by British Labour Party M.P. Norman Angell, that economic inter-dependence had made militaries obsolete, and would end war. Four years later the World War was underway. 10 This time, World War II followed the World Fair’s opening by less than five months.

That it proved fruitless probably did not surprise Edgar by now, for all his upbeat words at the time. That April he had spoken to New York University’s Foreign Trade Club, and what he said there is worth considering as a reflection of his mind and outlook as war clouds gathered in Europe — feeling as he did that trade barriers set nations against each other, and believing with Henrik Van Loon that “a world divided is a world lost.”

His comments were business-oriented, and in hindsight erred: the foreign situation, he said, was not a political one at base, but economic, with “the world behaving in a most unbusinesslike manner.” Economic determination did not explain Adolf Hitler. But it was an unselfish viewpoint nonetheless:

In speaking as a businessman, and as an individual, I am trying not to speak as one who happens to be engaged in the business of exporting automobiles I am trying rather to see the foreign situation through the eyes of the inland manufacturer, and the small shopkeeper, and the farmer, and the men and women in all walks of life who look to the world at large, as they must, for their well-being, their jobs and their very sustenance.

There is not one true isolationist, there is not one philosophical caveman, among all the millions who toil to produce and distribute the material wealth that mankind needs. Nor can there ever be — for they are a part of the business world, and the business world is inextricably interwoven with what we call the foreign situation — and the foreign situation itself, in all its most frightening implications, is simply the result of good business practices gone wrong. What the businessman asks is no more than a restoration of the right for all to buy in the best market and to sell on a basis of equal opportunity.

The situation is no longer in the hands of the businessman today it lies instead in the hands of the rulers of governments. We must hope that those rulers will sit down together in an earnest endeavor to undo the harm that many of their kind have done, and that they will find a way to turn this problem of supplying the world with the goods it needs back at last into the hands of the businessman where it belongs. 11

That summer, though, GM, and Edgar, could hardly not have realized that Germany was preparing to attack Poland, the latest target of its vituperation. Large numbers of reservists in the Opel workforce were being called up, and orders for the Blitz truck were accelerated. Then on August 22nd the entire world learned what was coming when the Nazi-Soviet Pact was revealed: it made allies out of bitter racial and ideological foes, eliminated a two-front war for Germany, and secretly divided Eastern Europe between the totalitarian powers. Nine days later Germany invaded Poland. Three more days later, a reluctant Britain and France declared war on Germany, though without doing anything to save Poland. Stalin invaded Poland from the east, started secret preparations to attack Finland in November, and subsequently to invade the independent Baltic Republics.

“Mr. Mooney Tries to Stop the Second World War”

In mid-October 1939, as Poland was crushed, a phone call to James Mooney, at that time in Rüsselsheim for contract negotiations, began a new and bizarre chapter for GM Overseas Operations, and for Edgar himself. Hermann Goering, Hitler’s second in command, was suggesting that a neutral American businessman like Mooney could play an historic role bringing about peace between Germany and the Allies. Within a day or two Mooney was in Berlin meeting with Goering and his aide Helmuth Wohlthat. Peace was proposed on the basis of Germany dominating Europe and leaving Britain in mastery of its overseas empire if Hitler was an obstruction to British agreement, it was suggested, then perhaps he could be promoted upstairs to some-thing like chairman of the board, instead of continuing as the Third Reich’s CEO. The following day, Mooney headed for Paris.

Professor Turner’s previously-cited book calls the year-long farce “Mr. Mooney Tries to Stop the Second World War.” It was his own decision to pursue Goering’s feeler, and neither Detroit nor Mooney’s staff in New York, including Edgar, always knew where Mooney was and what he was doing in the weeks and months that followed. 12 That he was not reined in may surprise present-day observers, but as Turner remarks:

Ruggedly handsome, dapper, and affable, the outspoken head of GM’s overseas operations was something of a celebrity in the United States. Because of the striking successes of the overseas division despite the Depression, he was portrayed in newspapers and popular magazines as the ideal pragmatic, problem-solving American businessman. His flamboyant style made him a popular after-dinner speaker, and his views on world affairs were headline news. 13

He was not an economic isolationist, but did support armed neutrality for America, and felt that U.S. foreign policy should support its commercial interests. The war in Europe, though so far involving no British or French military operations against Germany, was in the way of business, and Mooney had scant confidence in the government handling U.S. interests responsibly. “The ideologies then rampant in Europe seemed to him nothing more than smoke screens ‘used principally as a means of grasping and consolidating power,’” says Turner and “injustices committed by fanatical regimes were of no interest to him so long as they did not interfere with the transaction of business. . . . These views led Mooney into the ranks of the economic appeasers of the 1930s.” 14

In Paris Mooney met with Ambassador William C. Bullitt, Elmer Davis’s friend from Henry Ford Peace Ship days in 1915. 15 Bullitt was instantly opposed to the scheme, and refused to facilitate Mooney’s effort. Mooney continued on to London, where defeatist-minded Ambassador Joseph P. Kennedy gave Goering’s proposal a warm reception instead, and helped Mooney to meet with Lord Halifax, the Foreign Secretary. The reaction was mixed. Prime Minister Chamberlain was not interested in actually fighting Germany, in the war Britain had reluctantly declared, but it wasn’t easy to see how to return to peace, having finally lost confidence in Adolf Hitler as a negotiating partner. And British diplomats saw Goering’s proposal as aimed at dividing Britain and France. But a Third Reich under new leadership could be a different story, and in November Mooney was back in Berlin with an informal Whitehall message to that effect.

Mooney wanted to sound out Helmuth Wohlthat before Goering himself, but heard that Wohlthat had left for Rome. Mooney proceeded there, and spent two weeks waiting for Wohlthat to show up. When he did, he told Mooney that what Goering had hinted at in October was now impossible. By now it was December, and Mooney returned to the United States. He had not abandoned hope of ending the war, though, and in order to enlist the President of the United States in his efforts, he sought a meeting with Franklin Roosevelt through a mutual acquaintance named Basil O’Connor. 16 Mooney was a Democrat in “good personal standing with the President,” 17 and so FDR gave him an hour and a half of his time at the White House a few days before Christmas.

FDR, highly skilled at encouraging others without committing himself, let Mooney depart thinking he had the President’s interest and support for further unofficial talks in Europe. When Mooney after vacationing in Florida saw FDR again in January, the President encouraged him further by giving him a short typed note with his signature as “a kind of informal credential.” It read: “Dear Jim, I enjoyed our little chat this morning very much. Just a line to wish you good luck and I shall expect you to drop in to see me when you return to America.” 18 Mooney would display it to quite a few U.S. and foreign dignitaries over the next few months before discovering how little it really meant as far as FDR himself was concerned.

Meanwhile the State Department gave Mooney the cold shoulder in Washington, and again in Europe when Mooney returned there. In Berlin, in early March, Mooney went to the length of crashing a U.S. Embassy reception for visiting Under Secretary Sumner Welles, in hopes of gaining his support, but Welles would not discuss it. Mooney did succeed in meeting with not only Goering again, but Adolf Hitler himself. Hitler reportedly talked an encouraging blue streak to Mooney in their meeting, without divulging that he had just approved plans to attack Denmark and Norway. Mooney left for Rome where he wrote detailed reports of his conversations with Goering and Hitler and sent them back to the President through Naval Intelligence channels at the U.S. Embassy. 19

Mooney settled back to await a reply. It was a long time coming, and when it did, it was what disinterested observers would have recognized as dismissive. Then on April 9, Germany invaded Denmark and Norway. Mooney sailed for New York, occupying his time aboard ship by writing a speech he would deliver in Cleveland on June 1st. Once home he wrote to the President once more — posting his letter the day that Hitler attacked France and the Low Countries as well, leaving the British Army scrambling to be evacuated at Dunkirk. The war was on in earnest now, and so was a fierce struggle in America between isolationists and supporters of aid to Britain, where Winston Churchill now replaced Chamberlain as prime minister.

Buttons-cum-Commissionaire — America Remains Neutral — Baker

Street Irregulars in a Different Sense? — Getting to Know the Irregulars

1 Randall headed the rare books department at Scribner’s bookstore on Fifth Avenue, and would come into the BSI at its 1940 dinner. Edgar’s earliest known acquisition of importance, by January 1939, was the manuscript of S. C. Roberts’ cornerstone work Doctor Watson , a splendid start at a scintillating collection. ( Irregular Memories of the ’Thirties , p. 184.)

2 “The Curious Incident of the Tour de Force ” was Edgar’s first foray in an area that interested him greatly, the Canon’s textual purity. See Irregular Memories of the ’Thirties , pp. 193-94, for a lengthy letter on the subject to Christopher Morley. A subsequent letter to the editor of the Saturday Review of Literature , headed “Transplanting Holmes” in the April 29, 1939, issue, addressed the subject as well. His interest would grow and develop until it culminated in his editing the text for the Limited Editions Club edition of the Canon in the late 1940s and early 1950s.

3 All the Pips (the others were Owen Frisbie, Frank Waters, Norman Ward and Gordon Knox Bell) had adopted noms de canon , and Clarke’s was Jephro Rucastle. Edgar became the Sixth Pip as Thorneycroft Huxtable, and in 1944 applied the concept to the BSI for its investitures membership system. Clarke’s memory of the card was not exact: several survive today, one of them in the Pips archives at the New York Public Library, reading “Thorneycroft Huxtable, M.A., Ph.D. etc.” The card is reproduced in pt. 5 of this work.

4 Richard W. Clarke, “The Five Orange Pips,” Baker Street Journal , June 1961 also in Irregular Memories of the ’Thirties , pp. 134-37.

5 “The Institutional Relations Department,” General Motors World , Novem-ber 1938.

6 New York Times , November 1, 1938. Though not so-warned by all involved: Winthrop Aldrich, chairman of the board of Chase National Bank, addressed the convention by telephone from Berlin to say that “we should take full advantage of the opportunity for peace given by the Munich accord. It is of paramount importance that the efforts of diplomats and the heads of governments should be reinforced by efforts for economic appeasement.”

7 W. S. Hall, “How I First Met Edgar W. Smith,” Baker Street Journal , June 1961. Edgar may have observed the requirements of such club life from his father, who’d been an officer of Brooklyn’s chapter of the Improved Order of Heptasophs when Edgar was a teenager: Brooklyn Daily Eagle , February 4, 1910.

8 Henry Ashby Turner, Jr., General Motors and the Nazis: The Struggle for Control of Opel, Europe’s Biggest Carmaker (Yale University Press, 2005), pp. 82, 86-87.

9 “Center to Advise on World Trade,” New York Times , May 14, 1939. See also “Sayre Urges End of Trade Barriers,” New York Times , May 22, 1939, about the Center’s opening.

10 Angell was nonetheless awarded the Nobel Peace Prize — in 1933, the year Adolf Hitler took power in Germany.

11 General Motors Documents Relating to World War II Corporate Activities in Europe, Box 7, Folder 7317-7321, Sterling Memorial Library, Yale University. (Address by Edgar W. Smith, Vice President of GM Overseas Operations, to New York University’s Foreign Trade Club, Hotel Shelton, April 20, 1939.)

12 Alfred Sloan in March 1940 told Mooney’s aide James Wachtler who’d accompanied him to Berlin: “I didn’t have the heart to tell [Mooney] he was wasting his time dealing with that crowd.” Sloan added that peace could not be restored until “about twenty-five of the ringleaders over there in Germany had been lined up against a wall and shot.” Turner, op. cit. , p. 126.

13 Ibid. , pp. 104-05. An example of his prominence is his above-the-fold guest article in the March 3rd, 1929, New York Times , “The Automobile Remodeling Life: As a Factor in the Age of Communication, Motor Transportation Is Spreading Civilization Throughout the World.”

14 Turner, op. cit. , pp. 106, 107-08.

15 See ch. 4, “The Friendly Sons of St. Vitus,” in “Certain Rites, and Also Cer-tain Duties” (2009).

16 O’Connor was a former law colleague of FDR’s, and president of the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis, from which FDR suffered.

March 26th, 1944 is a Sunday. It is the 86th day of the year, and in the 12th week of the year (assuming each week starts on a Monday), or the 1st quarter of the year. There are 31 days in this month. 1944 is a leap year, so there are 366 days in this year. The short form for this date used in the United States is 3/26/1944, and almost everywhere else in the world it's 26/3/1944.

This site provides an online date calculator to help you find the difference in the number of days between any two calendar dates. Simply enter the start and end date to calculate the duration of any event. You can also use this tool to determine how many days have passed since your birthday, or measure the amount of time until your baby's due date. The calculations use the Gregorian calendar, which was created in 1582 and later adopted in 1752 by Britain and the eastern part of what is now the United States. For best results, use dates after 1752 or verify any data if you are doing genealogy research. Historical calendars have many variations, including the ancient Roman calendar and the Julian calendar. Leap years are used to match the calendar year with the astronomical year. If you're trying to figure out the date that occurs in X days from today, switch to the Days From Now calculator instead.


Some suggest that 14 million people were imprisoned in the Gulag labor camps from 1929 to 1953 (the estimates for the period 1918–1929 are more difficult to calculate). [25] Other calculations, by historian Orlando Figes, refer to 25 million prisoners of the Gulag in 1928–1953. [26] A further 6–7 million were deported and exiled to remote areas of the USSR, and 4–5 million passed through labor colonies, plus 3.5 million who were already in, or who had been sent to, labor settlements. [25] According to some estimates, the total population of the camps varied from 510,307 in 1934 to 1,727,970 in 1953. [5] According to other estimates, at the beginning of 1953 the total number of prisoners in prison camps was more than 2.4 million of which more than 465,000 were political prisoners. [27]


The institutional analysis of the Soviet concentration system is complicated by the formal distinction between GULAG and GUPVI.

GUPVI (ГУПВИ) was the Main Administration for Affairs of Prisoners of War and Internees (Russian: Главное управление по делам военнопленных и интернированных , Glavnoje Upravlenyije po dyelam Vojennoplennih i Internyirovannih), a department of NKVD (later MVD) in charge of handling of foreign civilian internees and POWs (prisoners of war) in the Soviet Union during and in the aftermath of World War II (1939–1953). In many ways the GUPVI system was similar to GULAG. [28] Its major function was the organization of foreign forced labor in the Soviet Union. The top management of GUPVI came from the GULAG system. The major noted distinction from GULAG was the absence of convicted criminals in the GUPVI camps. Otherwise the conditions in both camp systems were similar: hard labor, poor nutrition and living conditions, and high mortality rate. [29]

For the Soviet political prisoners, like Solzhenitsyn, all foreign civilian detainees and foreign POWs were imprisoned in the GULAG the surviving foreign civilians and POWs considered themselves prisoners in the GULAG. According to with the estimates, in total, during the whole period of the existence of GUPVI there were over 500 POW camps (within the Soviet Union and abroad), which imprisoned over 4,000,000 POW. [30] Most Gulag inmates were not political prisoners, although significant numbers of political prisoners could be found in the camps at any one time. [31]

Petty crimes and jokes about the Soviet government and officials were punishable by imprisonment. [32] [33] About half of political prisoners in the Gulag camps were imprisoned without trial official data suggest that there were over 2.6 million sentences to imprisonment on cases investigated by the secret police throughout 1921–53. [34] The GULAG was reduced in size following Stalin's death in 1953, in a period known as the Khrushchev Thaw.

In 1960, the Ministerstvo Vnutrennikh Del (MVD) ceased to function as the Soviet-wide administration of the camps in favour of individual republic MVD branches. The centralised detention facilities temporarily ceased functioning. [35] [36]

Although the term Gulag originally referred to a government agency, in English and many other languages the acronym acquired the qualities of a common noun, denoting the Soviet system of prison-based, unfree labor. [37]

Even more broadly, "Gulag" has come to mean the Soviet repressive system itself, the set of procedures that prisoners once called the "meat-grinder": the arrests, the interrogations, the transport in unheated cattle cars, the forced labor, the destruction of families, the years spent in exile, the early and unnecessary deaths.

Western authors use the term Gulag to denote all the prisons and internment camps in the Soviet Union. The term's contemporary usage is at times notably not directly related to the USSR, such as in the expression "North Korea's Gulag" [38] for camps operational today. [39]

The word Gulag was not often used in Russian, either officially or colloquially the predominant terms were the camps (лагеря, lagerya) and the zone (зона, zona), usually singular, for the labor camp system and for the individual camps. The official term, "corrective labor camp", was suggested for official use by the politburo of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in the session of July 27, 1929.

Background Edit

The Tsar and the Russian Empire used both forced exile and forced labor as forms of judicial punishment. Katorga, a category of punishment reserved for those convicted of the most serious crimes, had many of the features associated with labor-camp imprisonment: confinement, simplified facilities (as opposed to prisons), and forced labor, usually involving hard, unskilled or semi-skilled work. According to historian Anne Applebaum, katorga was not a common sentence approximately 6,000 katorga convicts were serving sentences in 1906 and 28,600 in 1916. [40] Under the Imperial Russian penal system, those convicted of less serious crimes were sent to corrective prisons and also made to work. [41] Forced exile to Siberia had been in use since the seventeenth century for a wide range of offenses and was a common punishment for political dissidents and revolutionaries. In the nineteenth century, the members of the failed Decembrist revolt, Polish nobles who resisted Russian rule, and members of various socialist revolutionary groups, including Bolsheviks such as Sergo Ordzhonikidze, Leon Trotsky, and Joseph Stalin were all sent into exile. [42] Convicts serving labor sentences and exiles were sent to the underpopulated areas of Siberia and the Russian Far East – regions that had few towns or food sources and lacked any organized transportation systems. Despite the isolated conditions, there were prisoners who successfully escaped to populated areas. Stalin himself escaped three of the four times he was sent into exile. [43] From these times, Siberia gained its fearful connotation of punishment, which was further enhanced by the Soviet GULAG system. The Bolsheviks' own experiences with exile and forced labor provided them with a model on which to base their system, including the importance of strict enforcement.

During 1920–50, the leaders of the Communist Party and the Soviet state considered repression to be a tool that was to be used for securing the normal functioning of the Soviet state system, as well as for preserving and strengthening the positions within their social base, the working class (when the Bolsheviks took power, peasants represented 80% of the population). [44]

In the midst of the Russian Civil War, Lenin and the Bolsheviks established a "special" prison camp system, separate from its traditional prison system and under the control of the Cheka. [45] These camps, as Lenin envisioned them, had a distinctly political purpose. [46] These early camps of the GULAG system were introduced in order to isolate and eliminate class-alien, socially dangerous, disruptive, suspicious, and other disloyal elements, whose deeds and thoughts were not contributing to the strengthening of the dictatorship of the proletariat. [44] Forced labor as a "method of reeducation" was applied in the Solovki prison camp as early as the 1920s, [47] based on Trotsky's experiments with forced labor camps for Czech war prisoners from 1918 and his proposals to introduce "compulsory labor service" voiced in Terrorism and Communism. [47] [48] Various categories of prisoners were defined: petty criminals, POWs of the Russian Civil War, officials accused of corruption, sabotage and embezzlement, political enemies, dissidents and other people deemed dangerous for the state. In the first decade of Soviet rule, the judicial and penal systems were neither unified nor coordinated, and there was a distinction between criminal prisoners and political or "special" prisoners.

The "traditional" judicial and prison system, which dealt with criminal prisoners, were first overseen by The People's Commissariat of Justice until 1922, after which they were overseen by the People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs, also known as the NKVD. [49] The Cheka and its successor organizations, the GPU or State Political Directorate and the OGPU, oversaw political prisoners and the "special" camps to which they were sent. [50] In April 1929, the judicial distinctions between criminal and political prisoners were eliminated, and control of the entire Soviet penal system turned over to the OGPU. [51] In 1928 there were 30,000 individuals interned the authorities were opposed to compelled labor. In 1927 the official in charge of prison administration wrote:

The exploitation of prison labour, the system of squeezing "golden sweat" from them, the organisation of production in places of confinement, which while profitable from a commercial point of view is fundamentally lacking in corrective significance – these are entirely inadmissible in Soviet places of confinement. [52]

The legal base and the guidance for the creation of the system of "corrective labor camps" (Russian: исправи́тельно-трудовые лагеря , Ispravitel'no-trudovye lagerya), the backbone of what is commonly referred to as the "Gulag", was a secret decree from the Sovnarkom of July 11, 1929, about the use of penal labor that duplicated the corresponding appendix to the minutes of the Politburo meeting of June 27, 1929. [ citation needed ]

One of the Gulag system founders was Naftaly Frenkel. In 1923 he was arrested for illegally crossing borders and smuggling. He was sentenced to 10 years' hard labor at Solovki, which later came to be known as the "first camp of the Gulag". While serving his sentence he wrote a letter to the camp administration detailing a number of "productivity improvement" proposals including the infamous system of labor exploitation whereas the inmates' food rations were to be linked to their rate of production, a proposal known as nourishment scale (шкала питания). This notorious you-eat-as-you-work system would often kill weaker prisoners in weeks and caused countless casualties. The letter caught the attention of a number of high communist officials including Genrikh Yagoda and Frenkel soon went from being an inmate to becoming a camp commander and an important Gulag official. His proposals soon saw widespread adoption in the Gulag system. [53]

After having appeared as an instrument and place for isolating counter-revolutionary and criminal elements, the Gulag, because of its principle of "correction by forced labor", it quickly became, in fact, an independent branch of the national economy secured on the cheap labor force presented by prisoners. Hence it is followed by one more important reason for the constancy of the repressive policy, namely, the state's interest in unremitting rates of receiving a cheap labor force that was forcibly used, mainly in the extreme conditions of the east and north. [44] The Gulag possessed both punitive and economic functions. [54]

Formation and expansion under Stalin Edit

The Gulag was an administration body that watched over the camps eventually its name would be used for these camps retrospectively. After Lenin's death in 1924, Stalin was able to take control of the government, and began to form the gulag system. On June 27, 1929 the Politburo created a system of self-supporting camps that would eventually replace the existing prisons around the country. [55] These prisons were meant to receive inmates that received a prison sentence that exceeded three years. Prisoners that had a shorter prison sentence than three years were to remain in the prison system that was still under the purview of the NKVD. The purpose of these new camps was to colonise the remote and inhospitable environments throughout the Soviet Union. These changes took place around the same time that Stalin started to institute collectivisation and rapid industrial development. Collectivisation resulted in a large scale purge of peasants and so-called Kulaks. The Kulaks were supposedly wealthy (comparatively to other Soviet peasants) and were considered to be capitalists by the state, and by extension enemies of socialism. The term would also become associated with anyone who opposed or even seemed unsatisfied with the Soviet government.

By late 1929 Stalin began a program known as dekulakization. Stalin demanded that the kulak class be completely wiped out, resulting in the imprisonment and execution of Soviet peasants. In a mere four months, 60,000 people being sent to the camps and another 154,000 exiled. This was only the beginning of the dekulakisation process, however. In 1931 alone 1,803,392 people were exiled. [56]

Although these massive relocation processes were successful in getting a large potential free forced labor work force where they needed to be, that is about all it was successful at doing. The "special settlers", as the Soviet government referred to them, all lived on starvation level rations, and many people starved to death in the camps, and anyone who was healthy enough to escape tried to do just that. This resulted in the government having to give rations to a group of people they were getting hardly any use out of, and was just costing the Soviet government money. The Unified State Political Administration (OGPU) quickly realised the problem, and began to reform the dekulakisation process. To help prevent the mass escapes the OGPU started to recruit people within the colony to help stop people who attempted to leave, and set up ambushes around known popular escape routes. The OGPU also attempted to raise the living conditions in these camps that would not encourage people to actively try and escape, and Kulaks were promised that they would regain their rights after five years. Even these revisions ultimately failed to resolve the problem, and the dekulakisation process was a failure in providing the government with a steady forced labor force. These prisoners were also lucky to be in the gulag in the early 1930s. Prisoners were relatively well off compared to what the prisoners would have to go through in the final years of the gulag. [57] The Gulag was officially established on April 25, 1930, as the GULAG by the OGPU order 130/63 in accordance with the Sovnarkom order 22 p. 248 dated April 7, 1930. It was renamed as the GULAG in November of that year. [1]

The hypothesis that economic considerations were responsible for mass arrests during the period of Stalinism has been refuted on the grounds of former Soviet archives that have become accessible since the 1990s, although some archival sources also tend to support an economic hypothesis. [58] [59] In any case, the development of the camp system followed economic lines. The growth of the camp system coincided with the peak of the Soviet industrialisation campaign. Most of the camps established to accommodate the masses of incoming prisoners were assigned distinct economic tasks. [ citation needed ] These included the exploitation of natural resources and the colonization of remote areas, as well as the realisation of enormous infrastructural facilities and industrial construction projects. The plan to achieve these goals with "special settlements" instead of labor camps was dropped after the revealing of the Nazino affair in 1933 subsequently the Gulag system was expanded. [ citation needed ]

The 1931–32 archives indicate the Gulag had approximately 200,000 prisoners in the camps while in 1935, approximately 800,000 were in camps and 300,000 in colonies (annual averages). [60]

In the early 1930s, a tightening of the Soviet penal policy caused a significant growth of the prison camp population. [61]

During the Great Purge of 1937–38, mass arrests caused another increase in inmate numbers. Hundreds of thousands of persons were arrested and sentenced to long prison terms on the grounds of one of the multiple passages of the notorious Article 58 of the Criminal Codes of the Union republics, which defined punishment for various forms of "counterrevolutionary activities". Under NKVD Order No. 00447, tens of thousands of Gulag inmates were executed in 1937–38 for "continuing counterrevolutionary activities".

Between 1934 and 1941, the number of prisoners with higher education increased more than eight times, and the number of prisoners with high education increased five times. [44] It resulted in their increased share in the overall composition of the camp prisoners. [44] Among the camp prisoners, the number and share of the intelligentsia was growing at the quickest pace. [44] Distrust, hostility, and even hatred for the intelligentsia was a common characteristic of the Soviet leaders. [44] Information regarding the imprisonment trends and consequences for the intelligentsia derive from the extrapolations of Viktor Zemskov from a collection of prison camp population movements data. [44] [62]

During World War II Edit

Political role Edit

On the eve of World War II, Soviet archives indicate a combined camp and colony population upwards of 1.6 million in 1939, according to V. P. Kozlov. [60] Anne Applebaum and Steven Rosefielde estimate that 1.2 to 1.5 million people were in Gulag system's prison camps and colonies when the war started. [63] [64]

After the German invasion of Poland that marked the start of World War II in Europe, the Soviet Union invaded and annexed eastern parts of the Second Polish Republic. In 1940 the Soviet Union occupied Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Bessarabia (now the Republic of Moldova) and Bukovina. According to some estimates, hundreds of thousands of Polish citizens [65] [66] and inhabitants of the other annexed lands, regardless of their ethnic origin, were arrested and sent to the Gulag camps. However, according to the official data, the total number of sentences for political and anti-state (espionage, terrorism) crimes in the USSR in 1939–41 was 211,106. [34]

Approximately 300,000 Polish prisoners of war were captured by the USSR during and after the "Polish Defensive War". [67] Almost all of the captured officers and a large number of ordinary soldiers were then murdered (see Katyn massacre) or sent to Gulag. [68] Of the 10,000–12,000 Poles sent to Kolyma in 1940–41, most prisoners of war, only 583 men survived, released in 1942 to join the Polish Armed Forces in the East. [69] Out of General Anders' 80,000 evacuees from Soviet Union gathered in Great Britain only 310 volunteered to return to Soviet-controlled Poland in 1947. [70]

During the Great Patriotic War, Gulag populations declined sharply due to a steep rise in mortality in 1942–43. In the winter of 1941 a quarter of the Gulag's population died of starvation. [71] 516,841 prisoners died in prison camps in 1941–43, [72] [73] from a combination of their harsh working conditions and the famine caused by the German invasion. This period accounts for about half of all gulag deaths, according to Russian statistics.

In 1943, the term katorga works ( каторжные работы ) was reintroduced. They were initially intended for Nazi collaborators, but then other categories of political prisoners (for example, members of deported peoples who fled from exile) were also sentenced to "katorga works". Prisoners sentenced to "katorga works" were sent to Gulag prison camps with the most harsh regime and many of them perished. [73]

Economic role Edit

Up until World War II, the Gulag system expanded dramatically to create a Soviet "camp economy". Right before the war, forced labor provided 46.5% of the nation's nickel, 76% of its tin, 40% of its cobalt, 40.5% of its chrome-iron ore, 60% of its gold, and 25.3% of its timber. [74] And in preparation for war, the NKVD put up many more factories and built highways and railroads.

The Gulag quickly switched to the production of arms and supplies for the army after fighting began. At first, transportation remained a priority. In 1940 the NKVD focused most of its energy on railroad construction. [75] This would prove extremely important when the German advance into the Soviet Union started in 1941. In addition, factories converted to produce ammunition, uniforms, and other supplies. Moreover, the NKVD gathered skilled workers and specialists from throughout the Gulag into 380 special colonies which produced tanks, aircraft, armaments, and ammunition. [74]

Despite its low capital costs, the camp economy suffered from serious flaws. For one, actual productivity almost never matched estimates: the estimates proved far too optimistic. In addition, scarcity of machinery and tools plagued the camps and the tools that the camps did have quickly broke. The Eastern Siberian Trust of the Chief Administration of Camps for Highway Construction destroyed ninety-four trucks in just three years. [74] But the greatest problem was simple – forced labor was less efficient than free labor. In fact, prisoners in the Gulag were, on average, half as productive as free laborers in the USSR at the time, [74] which may be partially explained by malnutrition.

To make up for this disparity, the NKVD worked prisoners harder than ever. To meet rising demand, prisoners worked longer and longer hours, and on lower food-rations than ever before. A camp administrator said in a meeting: "There are cases when a prisoner is given only four or five hours out of twenty-four for rest, which significantly lowers his productivity." In the words of a former Gulag prisoner: "By the spring of 1942, the camp ceased to function. It was difficult to find people who were even able to gather firewood or bury the dead." [74] The scarcity of food stemmed in part from the general strain on the entire Soviet Union, but also the lack of central aid to the Gulag during the war. The central government focused all its attention on the military and left the camps to their own devices. In 1942 the Gulag set up the Supply Administration to find their own food and industrial goods. During this time, not only did food become scarce, but the NKVD limited rations in an attempt to motivate the prisoners to work harder for more food, a policy that lasted until 1948. [76]

In addition to food shortages, the Gulag suffered from labor scarcity at the beginning of the war. The Great Terror of 1936–1938 had provided a large supply of free labor, but by the start of World War II the purges had slowed down. In order to complete all of their projects, camp administrators moved prisoners from project to project. [75] To improve the situation, laws were implemented in mid-1940 that allowed giving short camp sentences (4 months or a year) to those convicted of petty theft, hooliganism, or labor-discipline infractions. By January 1941 the Gulag workforce had increased by approximately 300,000 prisoners. [75] But in 1942 serious food shortages began, and camp populations dropped again. The camps lost still more prisoners to the war effort. (The Soviet Union went into total war footing in June 1941.) Many laborers received early releases so that they could be drafted and sent to the front. [76]

Even as the pool of workers shrank, demand for outputs continued to grow rapidly. As a result, the Soviet government pushed the Gulag to "do more with less". With fewer able-bodied workers and few supplies from outside the camp system, camp administrators had to find a way to maintain production. The solution they found was to push the remaining prisoners still harder. The NKVD employed a system of setting unrealistically high production goals, straining resources in an attempt to encourage higher productivity. As the Axis armies pushed into Soviet territory from June 1941 on, labor resources became further strained, and many of the camps had to evacuate out of Western Russia. From the beginning of the war to halfway through 1944, 40 camps were set up, and 69 were disbanded. During evacuations, machinery received priority, leaving prisoners to reach safety on foot. The speed of Operation Barbarossa's advance prevented the evacuation of all laborers in good time, and the NKVD massacred many to prevent them from falling into German hands. While this practice denied the Germans a source of free labor, it also further restricted the Gulag's capacity to keep up with the Red Army's demands. When the tide of the war turned, however, and the Soviets started pushing the Axis invaders back, fresh batches of laborers replenished the camps. As the Red Army recaptured territories from the Germans, an influx of Soviet ex-POWs greatly increased the Gulag population. [76]

After World War II Edit

After World War II the number of inmates in prison camps and colonies, again, rose sharply, reaching approximately 2.5 million people by the early 1950s (about 1.7 million of whom were in camps).

When the war in Europe ended in May 1945, as many as two million former Russian citizens were forcefully repatriated into the USSR. [77] On February 11, 1945, at the conclusion of the Yalta Conference, the United States and United Kingdom signed a Repatriation Agreement with the Soviet Union. [78] One interpretation of this agreement resulted in the forcible repatriation of all Soviets. British and U.S. civilian authorities ordered their military forces in Europe to deport to the Soviet Union up to two million former residents of the Soviet Union, including persons who had left the Russian Empire and established different citizenship years before. The forced repatriation operations took place from 1945–47. [79]

Multiple sources state that Soviet POWs, on their return to the Soviet Union, were treated as traitors (see Order No. 270). [80] [81] [82] According to some sources, over 1.5 million surviving Red Army soldiers imprisoned by the Germans were sent to the Gulag. [83] [84] [85] However, that is a confusion with two other types of camps. During and after World War II, freed POWs went to special "filtration" camps. Of these, by 1944, more than 90 percent were cleared, and about 8 percent were arrested or condemned to penal battalions. In 1944, they were sent directly to reserve military formations to be cleared by the NKVD.

Furthermore, in 1945, about 100 filtration camps were set for repatriated Ostarbeiter, POWs, and other displaced persons, which processed more than 4,000,000 people. By 1946, the major part of the population of these camps were cleared by NKVD and either sent home or conscripted (see table for details). [86] 226,127 out of 1,539,475 POWs were transferred to the NKVD, i.e. the Gulag. [86] [87]

Results of the checks and the filtration of the repatriants (by March 1, 1946) [86]
Category Total % Civilian % POWs %
Released and sent home [e] 2,427,906 57.81 2,146,126 80.68 281,780 18.31
Conscripted 801,152 19.08 141,962 5.34 659,190 42.82
Sent to labor battalions of the Ministry of Defence 608,095 14.48 263,647 9.91 344,448 22.37
Sent to NKVD as spetskontingent [f] (i.e. sent to GULAG) 272,867 6.50 46,740 1.76 226,127 14.69
Were waiting for transportation and worked for Soviet military units abroad 89,468 2.13 61,538 2.31 27,930 1.81
Total 4,199,488 100 2,660,013 100 1,539,475 100

After Nazi Germany's defeat, ten NKVD-run "special camps" subordinate to the Gulag were set up in the Soviet Occupation Zone of post-war Germany. These "special camps" were former Stalags, prisons, or Nazi concentration camps such as Sachsenhausen (special camp number 7) and Buchenwald (special camp number 2). According to German government estimates "65,000 people died in those Soviet-run camps or in transportation to them." [88] According to German researchers, Sachsenhausen, where 12,500 Soviet era victims have been uncovered, should be seen as an integral part of the Gulag system. [89]

Yet the major reason for the post-war increase in the number of prisoners was the tightening of legislation on property offences in summer 1947 (at this time there was a famine in some parts of the Soviet Union, claiming about 1 million lives), which resulted in hundreds of thousands of convictions to lengthy prison terms, sometimes on the basis of cases of petty theft or embezzlement. At the beginning of 1953, the total number of prisoners in prison camps was more than 2.4 million of which more than 465,000 were political prisoners. [73]

The state continued to maintain the extensive camp system for a while after Stalin's death in March 1953, although the period saw the grip of the camp authorities weaken, and a number of conflicts and uprisings occur (see Bitch Wars Kengir uprising Vorkuta uprising).

The amnesty in March 1953 was limited to non-political prisoners and for political prisoners sentenced to not more than 5 years, therefore mostly those convicted for common crimes were then freed. The release of political prisoners started in 1954 and became widespread, and also coupled with mass rehabilitations, after Nikita Khrushchev's denunciation of Stalinism in his Secret Speech at the 20th Congress of the CPSU in February 1956.

The Gulag institution was closed by the MVD order No 020 of January 25, 1960 [1] but forced labor colonies for political and criminal prisoners continued to exist. Political prisoners continued to be kept in one of the most famous camps Perm-36 [90] until 1987 when it was closed. [91]

The Russian penal system, despite reforms and a reduction in prison population, informally or formally continues many practices endemic to the Gulag system, including forced labor, inmates policing inmates, and prisoner intimidation. [22]

In the late 2000s, some human rights activists accused authorities of gradual removal of Gulag remembrance from places such as Perm-36 and Solovki prison camp. [92]

"At its height the Gulag consisted of many hundreds of camps, with the average camp holding 2,000–10,000 prisoners. Most of these camps were “corrective labour colonies” in which prisoners felled timber, laboured on general construction projects (such as the building of canals and railroads), or worked in mines. Most prisoners laboured under the threat of starvation or execution if they refused. It is estimated that the combination of very long working hours, harsh climatic and other working conditions, inadequate food, and summary executions killed tens of thousands of prisoners each year. Western scholarly estimates of the total number of deaths in the Gulag in the period from 1918 to 1956 ranged from 1.2 to 1.7 million". [93]

Prior to the dissolution of the Soviet Union, estimates of Gulag victims ranged from 2.3 to 17.6 million (see History of Gulag population estimates). Mortality in Gulag camps in 1934–40 was 4–6 times higher than average in the Soviet Union. Post-1991 research by historians accessing archival materials brought this range down considerably. [94] [95] According to a 1993 study of archival Soviet data, a total of 1,053,829 people died in the Gulag from 1934 to 1953. [5] : 1024 However, taking into account the fact that it was common practice to release prisoners who were either suffering from incurable diseases or near death, [19] [20] a combined statistics on mortality in the camps and mortality caused by the camps gives a probable figure around 1.6 million. [3] [4] In contrast Anatoly Vishnevsky estimated total number of those who died in imprisonment in 1930–53 is at least 1.76 million, about half of which occurred between 1941–43 following the German invasion. [96] [97] If prisoner deaths from labor colonies and special settlements are included, the death toll according to J. Otto Pohl rises to 2,749,163, although the historian who compiled this estimate (J. Otto Pohl) stresses that it is incomplete, and doesn't cover all prisoner categories for every year. [20] [6] Anne Applebaum estimates 3 million perished due to the Gulag camps. [98]

In her recent study, Golfo Alexopoulos attempted to challenge this consensus figure by encompassing those whose life was shortened due to GULAG conditions. [2] Alexopoulos concluded from her research that a systematic practice of the Gulag was to release sick prisoners on the verge of death and that all prisoners who received the health classification "invalid," "light physical labor," "light individualised labor," or "physically defective" that together according to Alexopoulos encompassed at least one third of all inmates who passed through the Gulag died or had their lives shortened due to detention in the Gulag in captivity or shortly after release. [99] The GULAG mortality estimated in this way yields the figure of 6 million deaths. [7] Historian Orlando Figes and Russian writer Vadim Erlikman have posited similar estimates. [8] [9] The estimate of Alexopoulos however has obvious methodological difficulties [2] and is supported by misinterpreted evidence such as presuming that hundreds of thousands of prisoners “directed to other places of detention” in 1948 was a euphemism for releasing prisoners on the verge of death into labor colonies when it was really referring to internal transport in the Gulag rather than release. [100]

The tentative historical consensus among archival researchers and historians who have access to such data is that, of the 18 million people who passed through the gulag from 1930 to 1953, at least [100] between 1.5 and 1.7 million perished as a result of their detention [2] though some historians believe the actual death toll is "somewhat higher." [100]

In a University of Oxford doctoral dissertation, in 2020, the problem of medical release (‘aktirovka’) and of mortality among ‘certified invalids’ (‘aktirovannye’) was considered in detail by Mikhail Nakonechnyi. He concluded that the number of terminally ill people discharged early on medical grounds from the Gulag was about 1 million. Mikhail added 800,000 - 850,000 excess deaths to the death toll directly caused by the results of GULAG incarceration, which brings the death toll to 2.5 million people. [101]

Mortality rate Edit

In 2009 Steven Rosefielde stated more complete archival data increases camp deaths by 19.4 percent to 1,258,537, "the best archivally-based estimate of Gulag excess deaths at present is 1.6 million from 1929 to 1953." [4] Certificates of death in the Gulag system for the period from 1930 to 1956 [18] Dan Healey in 2018 also stated the same thing "New studies using declassified Gulag archives have provisionally established a consensus on mortality and "inhumanity." The tentative consensus says that once secret records of the Gulag administration in Moscow show a lower death toll than expected from memoir sources, generally between 1.5 and 1.7 million (out of 18 million who passed through) for the years from 1930 to 1953." [102]

Certificates of death in the Gulag system for the period from 1930 to 1956 [18]

Year Deaths Mortality rate %
1930 7,980 4.2
1931 7,283 2.9
1932 13,197 4.8
1933 67,297 15.3
1934 25,187 4.28
1935 31,636 2.75
1936 24,993 2.11
1937 31,056 2.42
1938 108,654 5.35
1939 44,750 3.1
1940 41,275 2.72
1941 115,484 6.1
1942 352,560 24.9
1943 267,826 22.4
1944 114,481 9.2
1945 81,917 5.95
1946 30,715 2.2
1947 66,830 3.59
1948 50,659 2.28
1949 29,350 1.21
1950 24,511 0.95
1951 22,466 0.92
1952 20,643 0.84
1953 9,628 0.67
1954 8,358 0.69
1955 4,842 0.53
1956 3,164 0.4
Total 1,606,748 8.88

Name Years [103] [104] [105]
Feodor (Teodors) Ivanovich Eihmans April 25, 1930 – June 16, 1930
Lazar Iosifovich Kogan June 16, 1930 – June 9, 1932
Matvei Davidovich Berman June 9, 1932 – August 16, 1937
Israel Israelevich Pliner August 16, 1937 – November 16, 1938
Gleb Vasilievich Filaretov November 16, 1938 – February 18, 1939
Vasili Vasilievich Chernyshev February 18, 1939 – February 26, 1941
Victor Grigorievich Nasedkin February 26, 1941 – September 2, 1947
Georgy Prokopievich Dobrynin September 2, 1947 – January 31, 1951
Ivan Ilyich Dolgich January 31, 1951 – October 5, 1954
Sergei Yegorovich Yegorov October 5, 1954 – April 4, 1956

Living and working conditions in the camps varied significantly across time and place, depending, among other things, on the impact of broader events (World War II, countrywide famines and shortages, waves of terror, sudden influx or release of large numbers of prisoners) and the type of crime committed. However, to one degree or another, the large majority of prisoners at most times faced meagre food rations, inadequate clothing, overcrowding, poorly insulated housing, poor hygiene, and inadequate health care. Most prisoners were compelled to perform harsh physical labor. [106] [107] In some camps prisoners were only permitted to send one letter a year and were not allowed to have photos of loved ones. [108] In most periods and economic branches, the degree of mechanisation of work processes was significantly lower than in the civilian industry: tools were often primitive and machinery, if existent, short in supply. Officially established work hours were in most periods longer and days off were fewer than for civilian workers.

Andrei Vyshinsky, chief procurator of the Soviet Union, wrote a memorandum to NKVD chief Nikolai Yezhov in 1938 which stated: [109]

Among the prisoners there are some so ragged and lice-ridden that they pose a sanitary danger to the rest. These prisoners have deteriorated to the point of losing any resemblance to human beings. Lacking food…they collect orts [refuse] and, according to some prisoners, eat rats and dogs.

In general, the central administrative bodies showed a discernible interest in maintaining the labor force of prisoners in a condition allowing the fulfilment of construction and production plans handed down from above. Besides a wide array of punishments for prisoners refusing to work (which, in practice, were sometimes applied to prisoners that were too enfeebled to meet production quota), they instituted a number of positive incentives intended to boost productivity. These included monetary bonuses (since the early 1930s) and wage payments (from 1950 onward), cuts of individual sentences, general early-release schemes for norm fulfilment and overfulfilment (until 1939, again in selected camps from 1946 onward), preferential treatment, sentence reduction and privileges for the most productive workers (shock workers or Stakhanovites in Soviet parlance). [110] [107]

Inmates were used as camp guards and could purchase camp newspapers as well as bonds. Robert W. Thurston writes that this was "at least an indication that they were still regarded as participants in society to some degree." [107] Sports team, particularly soccer teams were set up by the prison authorities. [111]

A distinctive incentive scheme that included both coercive and motivational elements and was applied universally in all camps consisted in standardised "nourishment scales": the size of the inmates' ration depended on the percentage of the work quota delivered. Naftaly Frenkel is credited for the introduction of this policy. While it was effective in compelling many prisoners to work harder, for many a prisoner it had the adverse effect, accelerating the exhaustion and sometimes causing the death of persons unable to fulfil high production quota. [ citation needed ]

Immediately after the German attack on the Soviet Union in June 1941 the conditions in camps worsened drastically: quotas were increased, rations cut, and medical supplies came close to none, all of which led to a sharp increase in mortality. The situation slowly improved in the final period and after the end of the war.

Considering the overall conditions and their influence on inmates, it is important to distinguish three major strata of Gulag inmates:

    , osadniks, ukazniks (people sentenced for violation of various ukases, e.g. Law of Spikelets, decree about work discipline, etc.), occasional violators of criminal law
  • Dedicated criminals: "thieves in law"
  • People sentenced for various political and religious reasons.

Gulag and famine (1932–33) Edit

A severe famine of 1931–1933 swept across many different regions in the Soviet Union. During this time, it is estimated that around six to seven million people starved to death. [112] On 7 August 1932, a new edict drafted by Stalin specified a minimum sentence of ten years or execution for theft from collective farms or of cooperative property. Over the next few months, prosecutions rose fourfold. A large share of cases prosecuted under the law were for the theft of small quantities of grain worth less than fifty rubles. The law was later relaxed on 8 May 1933. [113] Overall, during the first half of 1933, prisons saw more new incoming inmates than the three previous years combined.

Prisoners in the camps faced harsh working conditions. One Soviet report stated that, in early 1933, up to 15% of the prison population in Soviet Uzbekistan died monthly. During this time, prisoners were getting around 300 calories (1,300 kJ) worth of food a day. Many inmates attempted to flee, causing an upsurge in coercive and violent measures. Camps were directed "not to spare bullets". [114] The bodies of inmates who tried to escape were commonly displayed in the courtyards of the camps, and the administrators would forcibly escort the inmates around the dead bodies as a message [ citation needed ] . Until 1934, lack of food and the outbreak of diseases started to destabilise the Gulag system. It wasn't until the famine ended that the system started to stabilize.

Social conditions Edit

The convicts in such camps were actively involved in all kinds of labor with one of them being logging (lesopoval). The working territory of logging presented by itself a square and was surrounded by forest clearing. Thus, all attempts to exit or escape from it were well observed from the four towers set at each of its corners.

Locals who captured a runaway were given rewards. [115] It is also said that camps in colder areas were less concerned with finding escaped prisoners as they would die anyhow from the severely cold winters. In such cases prisoners who did escape without getting shot were often found dead kilometres away from the camp.

In the early days of Gulag, the locations for the camps were chosen primarily for the isolated conditions involved. Remote monasteries in particular were frequently reused as sites for new camps. The site on the Solovetsky Islands in the White Sea is one of the earliest and also most noteworthy, taking root soon after the Revolution in 1918. [23] The colloquial name for the islands, "Solovki", entered the vernacular as a synonym for the labor camp in general. It was presented to the world as an example of the new Soviet method for "re-education of class enemies" and reintegrating them through labor into Soviet society. Initially the inmates, largely Russian intelligentsia, enjoyed relative freedom (within the natural confinement of the islands). Local newspapers and magazines were published and even some scientific research was carried out (e.g., a local botanical garden was maintained but unfortunately later lost completely). Eventually Solovki turned into an ordinary Gulag camp in fact some historians maintain that it was a pilot camp of this type. In 1929 Maxim Gorky visited the camp and published an apology for it. The report of Gorky's trip to Solovki was included in the cycle of impressions titled "Po Soiuzu Sovetov," Part V, subtitled "Solovki." In the report, Gorky wrote that "camps such as 'Solovki' were absolutely necessary." [116]

With the new emphasis on Gulag as the means of concentrating cheap labor, new camps were then constructed throughout the Soviet sphere of influence, wherever the economic task at hand dictated their existence (or was designed specifically to avail itself of them, such as the White Sea-Baltic Canal or the Baikal Amur Mainline), including facilities in big cities — parts of the famous Moscow Metro and the Moscow State University new campus were built by forced labor. Many more projects during the rapid industrialisation of the 1930s, war-time and post-war periods were fulfilled on the backs of convicts. The activity of Gulag camps spanned a wide cross-section of Soviet industry. Gorky organized in 1933 a trip of 120 writers and artists to the White Sea–Baltic Canal, 36 of them wrote a propaganda book about the construction published in 1934 and destroyed in 1937.

The majority of Gulag camps were positioned in extremely remote areas of northeastern Siberia (the best known clusters are Sevvostlag (The North-East Camps) along Kolyma river and Norillag near Norilsk) and in the southeastern parts of the Soviet Union, mainly in the steppes of Kazakhstan (Luglag, Steplag, Peschanlag). A very precise map was made by the Memorial Foundation. [117] These were vast and sparsely inhabited regions with no roads (in fact, the construction of the roads themselves was assigned to the inmates of specialised railway camps) or sources of food, but rich in minerals and other natural resources (such as timber). However, camps were generally spread throughout the entire Soviet Union, including the European parts of Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine. There were several camps outside the Soviet Union, in Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, and Mongolia, which were under the direct control of the Gulag.

Not all camps were fortified some in Siberia were marked only by posts. Escape was deterred by the harsh elements, as well as tracking dogs that were assigned to each camp. While during the 1920s and 1930s native tribes often aided escapees, many of the tribes were also victimised by escaped thieves. Tantalised by large rewards as well, they began aiding authorities in the capture of Gulag inmates. Camp guards were given stern incentives to keep their inmates in line at all costs if a prisoner escaped under a guard's watch, the guard would often be stripped of his uniform and become a Gulag inmate himself. [ citation needed ] Further, if an escaping prisoner was shot, guards could be fined amounts that were often equivalent to one or two weeks wages. [ citation needed ]

In some cases, teams of inmates were dropped off in new territory with a limited supply of resources and left to set up a new camp or die. Sometimes it took several waves of colonists before any one group survived to establish the camp. [ citation needed ]

The area along the Indigirka river was known as the Gulag inside the Gulag. In 1926, the Oimiakon (Оймякон) village in this region registered the record low temperature of −71.2 °C (−96 °F).

Under the supervision of Lavrenty Beria who headed both NKVD and the Soviet atom bomb program until his demise in 1953, thousands of zeks (Gulag inmates) were used to mine uranium ore and prepare test facilities on Novaya Zemlya, Vaygach Island, Semipalatinsk, among other sites.

Throughout the history of the Soviet Union, there were at least 476 separate camp administrations. [118] [119] The Russian researcher Galina Ivanova stated that, [119]

to date, Russian historians have discovered and described 476 camps that existed at different times on the territory of the USSR. It is well known that practically every one of them had several branches, many of which were quite large. In addition to the large numbers of camps, there were no less than 2,000 colonies. It would be virtually impossible to reflect the entire mass of Gulag facilities on a map that would also account for the various times of their existence.

Since many of these existed only for short periods, the number of camp administrations at any given point was lower. It peaked in the early 1950s when there were more than 100 camp administrations across the Soviet Union. Most camp administrations oversaw several single camp units, some as many as dozens or even hundreds. [120] The infamous complexes were those at Kolyma, Norilsk, and Vorkuta, all in arctic or subarctic regions. However, prisoner mortality in Norilsk in most periods was actually lower than across the camp system as a whole. [121]

  • There were separate camps or zones within camps for juveniles ( малолетки , maloletki), the disabled (in Spassk), and mothers ( мамки , mamki) with babies. ( ЧСИР, член семьи изменника Родины , ChSIR, Chlyen sem'i izmennika Rodini) were placed under a special category of repression.
  • Secret research laboratories known as Sharashka ( шарашка ) held arrested and convicted scientists, some of them prominent, where they anonymously developed new technologies and also conducted basic research.

Origins and functions of the Gulag Edit

According to historian Stephen Barnes, there exist four major ways of looking at the origins and functions of the Gulag: [122]

  • The first approach was championed by Alexander Solzhenitsyn, and is what Barnes terms the moral explanation. According to this view, Soviet ideology eliminated the moral checks on the darker side of human nature – providing convenient justifications for violence and evil-doing on all levels: from political decision-making to personal relations.
  • Another approach is the political explanation, according to which the Gulag (along with executions) was primarily a means for eliminating the regime's perceived political enemies (this understanding is favoured by historian Robert Conquest, amongst others).
  • The economic explanation, in turn as set out by historian Anne Applebaum, argues that the Soviet regime instrumentalised the Gulag for its economic development projects. Although never economically profitable, it was perceived as such right up to Stalin's death in 1953.
  • Finally, Barnes advances his own, fourth explanation, which situates the Gulag in the context of modern projects of 'cleansing' the social body of hostile elements, through spatial isolation and physical elimination of individuals defined as harmful.

Hannah Arendt argues that as part of a totalitarian system of government, the camps of the Gulag system were experiments in "total domination." In her view, the goal of a totalitarian system was not merely to establish limits on liberty, but rather to abolish liberty entirely in service of its ideology. She argues that the Gulag system was not merely political repression because the system survived and grew long after Stalin had wiped out all serious political resistance. Although the various camps were initially filled with criminals and political prisoners, eventually they were filled with prisoners who were arrested irrespective of anything relating to them as individuals, but rather only on the basis of their membership in some ever shifting category of imagined threats to the state. [123] : 437–59

She also argues that the function of the Gulag system was not truly economic. Although the Soviet government deemed them all "forced labor" camps, this in fact highlighted that the work in the camps was deliberately pointless, since all Russian workers could be subject to forced labor. [123] : 444–5 The only real economic purpose they typically served was financing the cost of their own supervision. Otherwise the work performed was generally useless, either by design or made that way through extremely poor planning and execution some workers even preferred more difficult work if it was actually productive. She differentiated between "authentic" forced-labor camps, concentration camps, and "annihilation camps". In authentic labor camps, inmates worked in "relative freedom and are sentenced for limited periods." Concentration camps had extremely high mortality rates and but were still "essentially organized for labor purposes." Annihilation camps were those where the inmates were "systematically wiped out through starvation and neglect." She criticizes other commentators' conclusion that the purpose of the camps was a supply of cheap labor. According to her, the Soviets were able to liquidate the camp system without serious economic consequences, showing that the camps were not an important source of labor and were overall economically irrelevant. [123] : 444–5

Arendt argues that together with the systematized, arbitrary cruelty inside the camps, this served the purpose of total domination by eliminating the idea that the arrestees had any political or legal rights. Morality was destroyed by maximizing cruelty and by organizing the camps internally to make the inmates and guards complicit. The terror resulting from the operation of the Gulag system caused people outside of the camps to cut all ties with anyone who was arrested or purged and to avoid forming ties with others for fear of being associated with anyone who was targeted. As a result, the camps were essential as the nucleus of a system that destroyed individuality and dissolved all social bonds. Thereby, the system attempted to eliminate any capacity for resistance or self-directed action in the greater population. [123] : 437–59

Archival documents Edit

Statistical reports made by the OGPU-NKVD-MGB-MVD between the 1930s and 1950s are kept in the State Archive of the Russian Federation formerly called Central State Archive of the October Revolution (CSAOR). These documents were highly classified and inaccessible. Amid glasnost and democratization in the late 1980s, Viktor Zemskov and other Russian researchers managed to gain access to the documents and published the highly classified statistical data collected by the OGPU-NKVD-MGB-MVD and related to the number of the Gulag prisoners, special settlers, etc. In 1995, Zemskov wrote that foreign scientists have begun to be admitted to the restricted-access collection of these documents in the State Archive of the Russian Federation since 1992. [124] However, only one historian, namely Zemskov, was admitted to these archives, and later the archives were again "closed", according to Leonid Lopatnikov. [125] Pressure from the Putin administration has exacerbated the difficulties of Gulag researchers. [126]

While considering the issue of reliability of the primary data provided by corrective labor institutions, it is necessary to take into account the following two circumstances. On the one hand, their administration was not interested to understate the number of prisoners in its reports, because it would have automatically led to a decrease in the food supply plan for camps, prisons, and corrective labor colonies. The decrement in food would have been accompanied by an increase in mortality that would have led to wrecking of the vast production program of the Gulag. On the other hand, overstatement of data of the number of prisoners also did not comply with departmental interests, because it was fraught with the same (i.e., impossible) increase in production tasks set by planning bodies. In those days, people were highly responsible for non-fulfilment of plan. It seems that a resultant of these objective departmental interests was a sufficient degree of reliability of the reports. [127]

Between 1990 and 1992, the first precise statistical data on the Gulag based on the Gulag archives were published by Viktor Zemskov. [128] These had been generally accepted by leading Western scholars, [25] [19] despite the fact that a number of inconsistencies were found in this statistics. [129] It is also necessary to note that not all the conclusions drawn by Zemskov based on his data have been generally accepted. Thus, Sergei Maksudov alleged that although literary sources, for example the books of Lev Razgon or Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, did not envisage the total number of the camps very well and markedly exaggerated their size, on the other hand, Viktor Zemskov, who published many documents by the NKVD and KGB, was far from understanding of the Gulag essence and the nature of socio-political processes in the country. He added that without distinguishing the degree of accuracy and reliability of certain figures, without making a critical analysis of sources, without comparing new data with already known information, Zemskov absolutizes the published materials by presenting them as the ultimate truth. As a result, Maksudov charges that Zemskov attempts to make generalized statements with reference to a particular document, as a rule, do not hold water. [130]

In response, Zemskov wrote that the charge that Zemskov allegedly did not compare new data with already known information could not be called fair. In his words, the trouble with most western writers is that they do not benefit from such comparisons. Zemskov added that when he tried not to overuse the juxtaposition of new information with "old" one, it was only because of a sense of delicacy, not to once again psychologically traumatize the researchers whose works used incorrect figures, as it turned out after the publication of the statistics by the OGPU-NKVD-MGB-MVD. [124]

According to French historian Nicolas Werth, the mountains of the materials of the Gulag archives, which are stored in funds of the State Archive of the Russian Federation and are being constantly exposed during the last fifteen years, represent only a very small part of bureaucratic prose of immense size left over the decades of "creativity" by the "dull and reptile" organization managing the Gulag. In many cases, local camp archives, which had been stored in sheds, barracks, or other rapidly disintegrating buildings, simply disappeared in the same way as most of the camp buildings did. [131]

In 2004 and 2005, some archival documents were published in the edition Istoriya Stalinskogo Gulaga. Konets 1920-kh — Pervaya Polovina 1950-kh Godov. Sobranie Dokumentov v 7 Tomakh (The History of Stalin's Gulag. From the Late 1920s to the First Half of the 1950s. Collection of Documents in Seven Volumes), wherein each of its seven volumes covered a particular issue indicated in the title of the volume:

  1. Mass Repression in the USSR (Massovye Repressii v SSSR) [132]
  2. Punitive System. Structure and Cadres (Karatelnaya Sistema. Struktura i Kadry) [133]
  3. Economy of the Gulag (Ekonomika Gulaga) [134]
  4. The Population of the Gulag. The Number and Conditions of Confinement (Naselenie Gulaga. Chislennost i Usloviya Soderzhaniya) [135]
  5. Specsettlers in the USSR (Specpereselentsy v SSSR) [136]
  6. Uprisings, Riots, and Strikes of Prisoners (Vosstaniya, Bunty i Zabastovki Zaklyuchyonnykh) [137] and
  7. Soviet Repressive and Punitive Policy. Annotated Index of Cases of the SA RF (Sovetskaya Pepressivno-karatelnaya Politika i Penitentsiarnaya Sistema. Annotirovanniy Ukazatel Del GA RF). [138]

The edition contains the brief introductions by the two "patriarchs of the Gulag science", Robert Conquest and Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, and 1431 documents, the overwhelming majority of which were obtained from funds of the State Archive of the Russian Federation. [139]

History of Gulag population estimates Edit

During the decades before the dissolution of the USSR, the debates about the population size of GULAG failed to arrive at generally accepted figures wide-ranging estimates have been offered, [140] and the bias toward higher or lower side was sometimes ascribed to political views of the particular author. [140] Some of those earlier estimates (both high and low) are shown in the table below.

Historical estimates of the GULAG population size (in chronological order)
GULAG population Year the estimate was made for Source Methodology
15 million 1940–42 Mora & Zwiernag (1945) [141]
2.3 million December 1937 Timasheff (1948) [142] Calculation of disenfranchised population
Up to 3.5 million 1941 Jasny (1951) [143] Analysis of the output of the Soviet enterprises run by NKVD
50 million total number of persons
passed through GULAG
Solzhenitsyn (1975) [144] Analysis of various indirect data,
including own experience and testimonies of numerous witnesses
17.6 million 1942 Anton Antonov-Ovseenko (1999) [145] NKVD documents [146]
4–5 million 1939 Wheatcroft (1981) [147] Analysis of demographic data. a
10.6 million 1941 Rosefielde (1981) [148] Based on data of Mora & Zwiernak and annual mortality. a
5.5–9.5 million late 1938 Conquest (1991) [149] 1937 Census figures, arrest and deaths
estimates, variety of personal and literary sources. a
4–5 million every single year Volkogonov (1990s) [150]
a. ^ Note: Later numbers from Rosefielde, Wheatcroft and Conquest were revised down by the authors themselves. [25] [63]

The glasnost political reforms in the late 1980s and the subsequent dissolution of the USSR led to the release of a large amount of formerly classified archival documents, [151] including new demographic and NKVD data. [19] Analysis of the official GULAG statistics by Western scholars immediately demonstrated that, despite their inconsistency, they do not support previously published higher estimates. [140] Importantly, the released documents made possible to clarify terminology used to describe different categories of forced labor population, because the use of the terms "forced labor", "GULAG", "camps" interchangeably by early researchers led to significant confusion and resulted in significant inconsistencies in the earlier estimates. [140] Archival studies revealed several components of the NKVD penal system in the Stalinist USSR: prisons, labor camps, labor colonies, as well as various "settlements" (exile) and of non-custodial forced labor. [5] Although most of them fit the definition of forced labor, only labor camps, and labor colonies were associated with punitive forced labor in detention. [5] Forced labor camps ("GULAG camps") were hard regime camps, whose inmates were serving more than three-year terms. As a rule, they were situated in remote parts of the USSR, and labor conditions were extremely hard there. They formed a core of the GULAG system. The inmates of "corrective labor colonies" served shorter terms these colonies were located in less remote parts of the USSR, and they were run by local NKVD administration. [5] Preliminary analysis of the GULAG camps and colonies statistics (see the chart on the right) demonstrated that the population reached the maximum before the World War II, then dropped sharply, partially due to massive releases, partially due to wartime high mortality, and then was gradually increasing until the end of Stalin era, reaching the global maximum in 1953, when the combined population of GULAG camps and labor colonies amounted to 2,625,000. [152]

The results of these archival studies convinced many scholars, including Robert Conquest [25] or Stephen Wheatcroft to reconsider their earlier estimates of the size of the GULAG population, although the 'high numbers' of arrested and deaths are not radically different from earlier estimates. [25] Although such scholars as Rosefielde or Vishnevsky point at several inconsistencies in archival data with Rosefielde pointing out the archival figure of 1,196,369 for the population of the Gulag and labor colonies combined on December 31, 1936 is less than half the 2.75 million labor camp population given to the Census Board by the NKVD for the 1937 census, [153] [129] it is generally believed that these data provide more reliable and detailed information that the indirect data and literary sources available for the scholars during the Cold War era. [19] Although Conquest cited Beria's report to the Politburo of the labor camp numbers at the end of 1938 stating there were almost 7 million prisoners in the labor camps, more than three times the archival figure for 1938 and an official report to Stalin by the Soviet minister of State Security in 1952 stating there were 12 million prisoners in the labor camps. [154]

These data allowed scholars to conclude that during the period of 1928–53, about 14 million prisoners passed through the system of GULAG labor camps and 4–5 million passed through the labor colonies. [25] Thus, these figures reflect the number of convicted persons, and do not take into account the fact that a significant part of Gulag inmates had been convicted more than one time, so the actual number of convicted is somewhat overstated by these statistics. [19] From other hand, during some periods of Gulag history the official figures of GULAG population reflected the camps' capacity, not the actual number of inmates, so the actual figures were 15% higher in, e.g. 1946. [25]

Culture Edit

The Gulag spanned nearly four decades of Soviet and East European history and affected millions of individuals. Its cultural impact was enormous.

The Gulag has become a major influence on contemporary Russian thinking, and an important part of modern Russian folklore. Many songs by the authors-performers known as the bards, most notably Vladimir Vysotsky and Alexander Galich, neither of whom ever served time in the camps, describe life inside the Gulag and glorified the life of "Zeks". Words and phrases which originated in the labor camps became part of the Russian/Soviet vernacular in the 1960s and 1970s. The memoirs of Alexander Dolgun, Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, Varlam Shalamov and Yevgenia Ginzburg, among others, became a symbol of defiance in Soviet society. These writings harshly chastised the Soviet people for their tolerance and apathy regarding the Gulag, but at the same time provided a testament to the courage and resolve of those who were imprisoned.

Another cultural phenomenon in the Soviet Union linked with the Gulag was the forced migration of many artists and other people of culture to Siberia. This resulted in a Renaissance of sorts in places like Magadan, where, for example, the quality of theatre production was comparable to Moscow's and Eddie Rosner played jazz.

Literature Edit

Many eyewitness accounts of Gulag prisoners have been published:

    's Kolyma Tales is a short-story collection, cited by most major works on the Gulag, and widely considered one of the main Soviet accounts. wrote I Chose Freedom after defecting to the United States in 1944. As a leader of industrial plants he had encountered forced labor camps in across the Soviet Union from 1935 to 1941. He describes a visit to one camp at Kemerovo on the Tom River in Siberia. Factories paid a fixed sum to the KGB for every convict they employed. wrote I Was an NKVD Agent after defecting to Sweden in 1946 and included his experiences seeing gulag prisoners as a young boy, as well as his experiences as a prisoner himself in 1939. Granovsky's father was sent to the gulag in 1937. 's book A Travel to the Land Ze-Ka was finished in 1947, but it was impossible to publish such a book about the Soviet Union at the time, immediately after World War II. wrote A World Apart, which was translated into English by Andrzej Ciolkosz and published with an introduction by Bertrand Russell in 1951. By describing life in the gulag in a harrowing personal account, it provides an in-depth, original analysis of the nature of the Soviet communist system. 's book Coming out of the Ice: An Unexpected Life. Herman experienced firsthand many places, prisons, and experiences that Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn was able to reference in only passing or through brief second hand accounts. 's book The Gulag Archipelago was not the first literary work about labor camps. His previous book on the subject, "One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich", about a typical day in the life of a Gulag inmate, was originally published in the most prestigious Soviet monthly, Novy Mir (New World), in November 1962, but was soon banned and withdrawn from all libraries. It was the first work to demonstrate the Gulag as an instrument of governmental repression against its own citizens on a massive scale. The First Circle, an account of three days in the lives of prisoners in the Marfinosharashka or special prison was submitted for publication to the Soviet authorities shortly after One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich but was rejected and later published abroad in 1968. 's book "The Long Walk: The True Story of a Trek to Freedom": In 1941, the author and six other fellow prisoners escaped a Soviet labor camp in Yakutsk—a camp where enduring hunger, cold, untended wounds, untreated illnesses, and avoiding daily executions were everyday horrors. , a Hungarian writer, often referred to as the Hungarian Solzhenitsyn, [155] wrote many books and articles on the issue of the Gulag. , a Hungarian documentary filmmaker, made several films about gulag camps. , a Croatian communist who was active in the former Kingdom of Yugoslavia and the manager of the Comintern Publishing House in Moscow 1932–39, was arrested one night and taken from his Moscow home after being accused of anti-revolutionary activities. He spent the next 20 years in camps from Solovki to Norilsk. After USSR–Yugoslavian political normalization he was re-tried and quickly found innocent. He left the Soviet Union with his wife, who had been waiting for him for 20 years, in 1956 and spent the rest of his life in Zagreb, Croatia. He wrote an impressive book titled 7000 days in Siberia.
  • Dancing Under the Red Star by Karl Tobien (ISBN1-4000-7078-3) tells the story of Margaret Werner, an athletic girl who moves to Russia right before the start of Stalin's terror. She faces many hardships, as her father is taken away from her and imprisoned. Werner is the only American woman who survived the Gulag to tell about it.
  • Alexander Dolgun's Story: An American in the Gulag ( 0-394-49497-0), by a member of the US Embassy, and I Was a Slave in Russia ( 0-8159-5800-5), an American factory owner's son, were two more American citizens interned who wrote of their ordeal. They were interned due to their American citizenship for about eight years c. 1946–55. wrote two famous books about her remembrances, Journey Into the Whirlwind and Within the Whirlwind. , a pro-Croatian Montenegrin ideologist. Caught in Austria by the Red Army in 1945, he was sent to the USSR and spent ten years in the Gulag. After his release, Marković wrote his autobiographical account in two volumes titled Ten years in Gulag (Deset godina u Gulagu, Matica crnogorska, Podgorica, Montenegro 2004). 's book, 20 Years in Siberia [20 de ani în Siberia] is the own life's account written by a Romanian peasant woman from Bucovina (Mahala village near Cernăuți) who managed to survive the harsh, forced labor system together with her three sons. Together with her husband and her three underage children, she was deported from Mahala village to the Soviet Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug, at the Polar Circle, without a trial or even a communicated accusation. The same night of June 12 to 13, 1941, (that is before the breakout of the Second World War), overall 602 fellow villagers were arrested and deported, without any prior notice. Her mother received the same sentence but was spared from deportation after the fact that she was a paraplegic was acknowledged by the authorities. It was later discovered that the reason for her deportation and forced labor was the fake and nonsensical claim that, allegedly, her husband had been a mayor in the Romanian administration, a politician and a rich peasant, none of the latter of which was true. Separated from her husband, she brought up the three boys, overcame typhus, scorbutus, malnutrition, extreme cold and harsh toils, to later return to Bucovina after rehabilitation. Her manuscript was written toward the end of her life, in the simple and direct language of a peasant with three years of public school education, and was secretly brought to Romania before the fall of Romanian communism, in 1982. Her manuscript was first published in 1991. Her deportation was shared mainly with Romanians from Bucovina and Basarabia, Finnish and Polish prisoners, as token proof to show that Gulag labor camps had also been used for the shattering/ extermination of the natives in the newly occupied territories of the Soviet Union. – Solovki prisoner , a Bulgarian communist and a defendant in the Leipzig trial, along with Georgi Dimitrov and Vasil Tanev, was arrested in 1937 during the Stalinist purges and spent seventeen years in Norillag. Popov was released in 1954, after the death of Stalin, and returned to Bulgaria. [156] He wrote his autobiographical account in the book From the Leipzig trial to the Siberia camps (От Лайпцигския процес в Сибирските лагери, Изток-Запад, София, България, 2012 978-619-152-025-1). , an Armenian writer who was imprisoned in 1937 and rehabilitated in 1945, published a collection of his memories under the title "They Ordered to Give You" in 1964. , an Armenian writer and poet, who was arrested in 1936, released in 1947, arrested again in 1948 and sent into Siberian exile as an "unreliable type" until 1954, wrote "Barbed Wires in Blossom", a novella based largely on his personal experiences in a Soviet gulag. is a 2011 memoir by Fyodor Vasilevich Mochulsky (1918–1999), a Soviet Engineer and eventual head of numerous Gulag camps in the northern Russian region of Pechorlag, Pechora, from 1940 to 1946.

In popular culture Edit

Gulags appear in various modern media such as movies and video games as a popular setting or background. The Call of Duty series has many references to the gulag. A new and very notable appearance of the gulag is the 2020 video game Call of Duty: Warzone, which has a mechanic where killed players are sent to the Gulag, where they can engage in a 1v1 Gunfight to redeem a chance to go back into the battlefield.

Colonization Edit

Soviet state documents show that the goals of the gulag included colonization of sparsely populated remote areas. To this end, the notion of "free settlement" was introduced.

When well-behaved persons had served the majority of their terms, they could be released for "free settlement" (вольное поселение, volnoye poseleniye) outside the confinement of the camp. They were known as "free settlers" ( вольнопоселенцы , volnoposelentsy not to be confused with the term ссыльнопоселенцы , ssyl'noposelentsy, "exile settlers"). In addition, for persons who served full term, but who were denied the free choice of place of residence, it was recommended to assign them for "free settlement" and give them land in the general vicinity of the place of confinement.

The gulag inherited this approach from the katorga system.

It is estimated that of the 40,000 people collecting state pensions in Vorkuta, 32,000 are trapped former gulag inmates, or their descendants. [157]

Life after a term was served Edit

Persons who served a term in a camp or prison were restricted from taking a wide range of jobs. Concealment of a previous imprisonment was a triable offence. Persons who served terms as "politicals" were nuisances for "First Departments" ( Первый Отдел , Pervyj Otdel), outlets of the secret police at all enterprises and institutions), because former "politicals" had to be monitored.

Many people who were released from camps were restricted from settling in larger cities.

Income Taxes

The Civil War led to the creation of the country's first income tax and the first version of the Office of the Commissioner of Internal Revenue—the earlier version of what we now call the Internal Revenue Service (IRS). This office took over the responsibility of collecting taxes from individual states. Excise taxes were also added to almost every commodity possible—alcohol, tobacco, gunpowder, tea.

The federal income tax as we know it was officially enacted in 1913, while corporate income taxes were enacted slightly earlier in 1909.  

Other Taxes

The first estate tax was enacted in 1797 in order to fund the U.S. Navy. It was repealed but reinstituted over the years, often in response to the need to finance wars. The modern estate tax as we know it was implemented in 1916.

Multiple taxes were created in the 1920s and 1930s:

  • The gift tax came about in 1924.   were first enacted in West Virginia in 1921. Eleven other states followed suit in 1933. By 1940, 18 more states had a sales tax in place.   Alaska, Delaware, Montana, New Hampshire, and Oregon are the only states without a sales tax.  
  • President Franklin Roosevelt signed the Social Security Act in 1935. The government first collected Social Security taxes in January 1937, although no benefits were paid until January 1940.  

The alternative minimum tax (AMT), a type of federal income tax, wasn't enacted until 1978.   This parallel system uses a separate set of rules to calculate taxable income after allowed deductions. It was designed to prevent taxpayers from avoiding their fair share of taxes.  

4 March 1940 - History

Khaksar Tragedy (1940)

Khaksar Tragedy (1940)

The British Government in Punjab decided to ban all the paramilitary organizations in the Punjab and stopped them from parading in public and also from wearing a military uniform. Khaksars refused to obey the directives and decided to hold their military parade in the area of Bhati Gate, Lahore on March 19. When police tried to disperse the rebels, they resisted and clashed with the police. This resulted in the killing of around 50 Khaksars and many others were injured. The atmosphere of Lahore became tense. Sir Sikandar Hayat, a Unionist leader and the then Chief Minister of Punjab, tried to persuade Quaid-i-Azam to postpone the Lahore session of the Muslim League but failed to convince the latter. Quaid-i-Azam, when he reached Lahore on March 21, went straight from the railway station to Mayo Hospital to enquire about the health of the wounded Khaksars. By doing so Quaid-i-Azam handled the controversial issue well and without annoying the Khaksars managed to hold the Muslim League session on the planned dates and time. The Punjab Police Intelligence had also appreciated Jinnah’s tactics and farsightedness.