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Rethinking Homo sapiens? The story of our origins gets dizzyingly complicated

Rethinking Homo sapiens? The story of our origins gets dizzyingly complicated

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By Darren Curnoe / The Conversation

You might say it’s the ultimate prize of science, to discover when, where and why humans evolved.

For a long time, the evidence has been overwhelming that Homo sapiens evolved in Africa and later spilled out of the continent to settle the rest of the planet.

But is the story of our origins really as simple as it seems? Published today, a new commentary written by UK and German scientists suggests not.

Too easy, but then…

A few years ago, it seemed all too easy. The matter was settled. Homo sapiens had evolved in the East African rift valley roughly 200,000 years ago and exited the mother continent to settle the remaining planet around 60,000 years ago.

But after decades of thinking we’d made major inroads into solving this ultimate riddle, the story of our origins is starting to get a long overdue overhaul.

A string of recent discoveries has pushed our origins in Africa back to more than 315,000 years ago – and suggested sapiens first exited Africa close to 194,000 years ago making it to southern China soon after, perhaps by 139,000 years ago.

And to add further complexity, this initial “Out-of-Africa” seems to have been followed by one or more later movements, by different sapiens populations, that settled far flung places such as Australia by around 65,000 years ago.

Map of sites and postulated migratory pathways associated with modern humans dispersing across Asia during the Late Pleistocene. (Image by: Katerina Douka and Michelle O'Reilly )

We’ve also begun to find humans whose physical traits don’t fit with our preconceived notions of what sapiens should look like, such as the Iwo Eleru , Nazlet Khater and Red Deer Cave people surviving quite late in various parts of Africa and in Asia.

Could they be hybrids we’ve wondered? Because after decades of scientists locking horns over the issue, geneticists have finally proven that our ancestors mated with the Neanderthals, Denisovans and other archaic humans even in Africa .

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Change in the wind

Sure, it’s normal for science to be regularly brought up to date, with new discoveries shifting what we think we know and sometimes even extending knowledge into new places.

But as someone who’s kept a keen eye on developments in, and indeed actively researching, our evolution, it’s clear to me that there’s something’s going on here. Change is in the wind!

So profound is the shift underway in human origins science that it’s seen the unusual step of a team of 23 researchers (led by Eleanor Scerri of the University of Oxford) publish today’s new synthesis of the evidence – and in doing so embrace the emerging picture of complexity and ditch the old simplistic ideas. Among their ranks are archaeologists, anthropologists, geneticists and climate specialists.

It reads like a manifesto, and outlines the major new research directions archaeology should follow to solve our puzzling origins. A key message is that none of these disciplines on their own is capable of doing it and going it alone. That approach only leads to us grasping for simple answers to complex questions.

Big issues on the line

There are number of big issues being wrestled with here. Among the major ones is acknowledgement of the fact that the physical variation that characterizes our species around the planet today seems to have emerged only within the period 100,000-40,000 years ago. This has made identifying our ancestors and tracing their evolutionary history exceedingly difficult.

The cranium from Herto in Ethiopia is a great example of a very ancient person who was undoubtedly a member of our species, but who doesn’t really fit neatly into the variation characterizing any living group.

Two adults and a child dating from 160,000 years ago, the oldest known fossils of modern humans discovered in Herto, Ethiopia. (Image: Bradshaw Foundation )

How would this occur? It seems that for the first couple of hundred thousand years of our history, our African forebears lived in very small and geographically isolated populations which evolved more or less independently of each other.

At some point, one or more of them gave rise to one or more populations of living people, some of whom exited Africa, and with no clear evidence for how this all came about.

This leads us onto another, and perhaps the most important issue of all. How do we define Homo sapiens in the first place? How will this process provide useful criteria for recognizing our kind in the African fossil record 200,000, 300,000 or even 400,000 years ago?

  • Ancient DNA Data Fills in Thousands of Years of Human Movement and Genetic Adaptation in Africa
  • Did Mankind First Exit Africa 100,000 Years Ago?
  • Updates on Out of Africa – Revising the Story of the Dispersal of Modern Humans Across Eurasia

Defining Homo sapiens

The Smithsonian Institution has provided a summary of the major features we use to define our species but sadly many can’t easily be found on the skulls of our early African ancestors.

Does this mean they aren’t our forebears? Not necessarily, just that our current approach is pretty limited and we need to keep in mind that our earliest ancestors would have looked, well, ancestral!

Finally, the complicated links between Ice Age climate change and environmental shifts in Africa acting as key drivers through natural selection and genetic drift are becoming better understood. These forces have shaped how we look and behave and continue to exert their influence over our biology today.

Despite all the progress we’ve made over the last decade in teasing apart our origins, the manifesto of Scerri and her team has more than a hint of “back to the future” about it.

As bold and ambitious as it is, it leaves me with far more questions than answers, and a lingering feeling that the issues are far more complicated than we’ve been prepared to admit until now.

Top image: Eritrean Grand Canyon, East African rift valley. Source: CC BY-SA 2.0

‘ Rethinking Homo sapiens? The story of our origins gets dizzyingly complicated by Darren Curnoe was originally published on The Conversation and has been republished under a Creative Commons license.

Ponovno promišljanje Homo sapiensa? Priča o našem podrijetlu postaje vrtoglavo komplicirana

Moglo bi se reći da je to vrhunska nagrada znanosti, da otkrije kada, gdje i zašto su ljudi evoluirali.

Dugo vremena, dokazi su nadvladali da je Homo sapiens evoluirao u Africi, a kasnije se izlio iz kontinenta kako bi naselio ostatak planeta.

No je li priča o našim korijenima zaista tako jednostavna kao što se čini? Objavljen danas, novi komentar koji su napisali britanski i njemački znanstvenici sugerira ne.

Opširnije: Znatiželjna djeca: Odakle je došla prva osoba?

Demasiado fácil, pero luego


Hace unos años, parecía demasiado fácil. El asunto fue resuelto. El Homo sapiens había evolucionado en el valle del este de África hace aproximadamente 200, 000 años y salió del continente madre para asentarse en el planeta restante hace unos 60, 000 años.

Pero después de décadas de pensar que habíamos hecho grandes avances en la solución de este enigma definitivo, la historia de nuestros orígenes está comenzando a tener una revisión pendiente desde hace mucho tiempo.

Una serie de descubrimientos recientes ha hecho que nuestros orígenes en África se remonten a más de 315, 000 años atrás, y sugirieron que los Sapiens salieron de África por primera vez hace casi 194, 000 años y llegaron al sur de China poco después, quizás hace 139, 000 años.

Y para agregar mayor complejidad, este "Out-of-Africa" ​​inicial parece haber sido seguido por uno o más movimientos posteriores, por diferentes poblaciones de sapiens, que se asentaron en lugares tan lejanos como Australia hace unos 65, 000 años.

También hemos empezado a encontrar seres humanos cuyos rasgos físicos no encajan con nuestras nociones preconcebidas de cómo deberían ser los sapiens, como los Iwo Eleru, Nazlet Khater y Red Deer Cave que sobrevivieron bastante tarde en varias partes de África y Asia. .

¿Podrían ser híbridos nos hemos preguntado? Debido a que después de décadas de científicos tratando de resolver el problema, los genetistas finalmente han demostrado que nuestros antepasados ​​se aparearon con los neandertales, los denisovanos y otros humanos arcaicos incluso en África.

Leer más: los neandertales no nos dieron el pelo rojo, pero ciertamente cambiaron la forma en que dormimos

More Confusion in Human Ev-Illusion

They can no longer say “everything you know is wrong” when nothing they thought they knew was right in the first place.

We joke about paleoanthropologists upending their previous beliefs every few months when we suggest that their headlines announce, ‘everything you know is wrong.’ That phrase, of course, is self-refuting, because it would be wrong itself, and you couldn’t know it was wrong if everything you know is wrong. Outsiders, though, can say it about paleoanthropologists, by excluding themselves from the word “you” and claiming “everything they know is wrong.” Is that an apt criticism, given recent news?

Another Big Upset: Out of Time, Out of Place

An early hominin arrival in Asia (Nature). Evolutionary anthropologists used to have a coherent story when they could claim that humans arose in one area, Africa, and spread out from there. Maybe some mutation in the brain of an ‘anthropoid’ (human-like) ape turned it into the first ‘hominin’ (anything on the way to Homo sapiens). The belief set many contented anthropologists looking for stone tools and skulls in southern Africa. But then those things started turning up in the wrong places.

Skulls in a cave in Dmanisi, Georgia, overturned beliefs by showing human-like skulls in southern Russia dated 1.78 million Darwin Years ago. Now, a cache of stone tools has turned up farther east in central China, dated 2.1 million Darwin Years ago. If these tool-makers came from Africa, they had significant smarts to migrate long distances and live in successful populations. John Kappelman tries to put a good spin on this find, but for someone accustomed to think in terms of millions of years, how does a few thousand years sound? We add some questions in brackets:

The roughly 14,000-kilometre trek from eastern Africa to eastern Asia represents a range expansion of dramatic proportions. The dispersal of hominins was probably facilitated by population increases [where are the bones?] as they moved into new territories and filled empty niches, and could also have been driven by the phenomenon of resource depletion that underlies the high mobility of today’s hunter-gatherers [all over the world?] . Yet even with a dispersal rate of only 5–15 kilometres per year, a value well inside the daily foraging range of modern hunter-gatherers, the distance between Africa and Asia could have been covered in just 1,000–3,000 years. The present record of hominin sites and the dating techniques that are currently available to researchers are not sufficient to resolve a dispersal event of such potential speed, or to determine its exact form, but we can surely look forward to more finds that will help to solve this migration mystery. [If you’ve been this wrong so far, why should anyone trust you?]

Hominin occupation of the Chinese Loess Plateau since about 2.1 million years ago (Nature). This is the paper that details the find mentioned above. “This discovery implies that hominins left Africa earlier than indicated by the evidence from Dmanisi,” they say.

Tools from China are oldest hint of human lineage outside Africa (Nature). 𔄚.1-million-year-old stone tools suggest hominins reached East Asia much earlier than thought.” Than thought by who? Not by creationists, who say people were created on Day 6 a few thousand years ago and migrated quickly around the world after the Flood. To secular scientists, such talk is pure folly, worthy of mockery and dismissive shunning. Collin Barras has this to say about the Asia tools found earlier than expected (watch for the ‘everything you know is wrong’ admission):

Other scientists are convinced that the tools were made by hominins and are confident that they are as old as claimed. And although the tools’ makers are unknown, the discovery could force researchers to reconsider which hominin species first left Africa — and when. “This is a whole new palaeo ball game,” says William Jungers, a palaeoanthropologist at Stony Brook University, New York.

A map in this article shows various finds scattered around Europe and Asia up to 1.85 million Darwin Years ago. This new one puts tool-making human ‘ancestors’ in China 250,000 years earlier. Two hundred fifty thousand years! That’s a long time to be in China with nobody else to trade with. If they could make tools, don’t you think they also built cities and invented things? Was it really going to take another two million years to figure out agriculture? Doesn’t it seem more reasonable that the toolmakers were not alone out there, but were indeed contemporaneous with other intelligent beings over a far shorter, more recent time period? Which view seems more ripe for mockery?

Earliest evidence of humans outside Africa (BBC News). What does secular reporter Paul Rincon think of this? He just accepts every yarn the evolutionists tell him about hobbitses and Chinese toolmakers and variable rates of evolution, never questioning the high perhapsimaybecouldness index in the stories or the expertise of the storytellers.

Clueless experts rearrange facts any way they want. Here were two versions in a 2003 book. Everything has changed several times since then.

Earlier Chapters of the Human Evolution Story Unravel

The competitive edge: Dietary competition played a key role in the evolution of early primates (Phys.org). Lest anybody think Darwin has no place left in modern biology, look at this storyteller praise Charlie as he or she pictures a squirrel-like lemur deciding to eat a nut, thereby entering a long path that would lead to the reporter:

Since Darwin first laid out the basic principles of evolution by means of natural selection, the role of competition for food as a driving force in shaping and shifting a species’ biology to outcompete its adversaries has played center stage. So important is the notion of competition between species, that it is viewed as a key selective force that resulted in the split of the lineage leading to modern humans from that of our early ape ancestors.

If that’s all it was—a change of diet—why do we still have lemurs? There were apparently enough nuts to go around. There are today, too. File this story in your brain uncritically and you’ll have it in a nutshell. Just don’t take the idea of competition too far, or you might start World War III. Whatever happened to cooperation, game theory and all the nice politically-correct views?

Human evolution: back to the trees? (Phys.org). A flurry of yarn-spinning tales last month revolved around a foot bone said to be evidence that our long-lost grandmother Lucy came down out of the trees only to return out of nostalgia. This won’t be on the quiz, because it is probably going to be swept into the bin during the next round of ‘everything you know is wrong.’ The authors apparently didn’t hear about the hominin tools in China dated at 2.1 million Darwin Years.

Fossils from east Africa dated to around 3.5 million years ago belonging to Australopithecus afarensis (Lucy’s species) and from Homo erectus between 1.8 and 1.5 million years ago are a match for those of modern-day humans, suggesting that these extinct hominins had already evolved our dedication to terrestrial locomotion.

A nearly complete foot from Dikika, Ethiopia and its implications for the ontogeny and function of Australopithecus afarensis (Science Magazine). To get the gist of this claim about the foot of Lucy’s baby (actually, according to the storytellers, 200,000 Darwin Years before mommy), see what Science Daily says about it: “Our human ancestors walked on two feet but their children still had a backup plan: Most complete foot of ancient human child ever.” Did they use intelligent design in their backup plan? Did the children intentionally keep their bones retarded to stay in the trees? The storytellers have to get Lucy’s adult relatives in time to walk like people, so that they can leave human-like footprints in Laetoli, but the kids, according to the new yarn, still had a longing to climb trees. Or maybe they needed to sleep in the trees for safety (don’t snakes climb trees?). Whatever it’s a fun tale, especially when told by an expert shaman using big words.

Placed at a critical time and the cusp of being human, Australopithecus afarensis was more derived [ evolved ] than Ardipithecus (a facultative biped) but not yet an obligate strider like Homo erectus. The Dikika foot adds to the wealth of knowledge on the mosaic [i.e., mixed-up] nature of hominin skeletal evolution” explained Alemseged.

If this tale were credible, their kids would have kids and kids and kids for 200,000 years until they got their feet right for following Mama Lucy on the ground. Two hundred thousand years. That’s twenty times the history of civilization. Why didn’t she tell them, “Evolve or perish!”

Later Chapters of the Human Evolution Story Unravel

Early Humans Probably Didn’t Evolve from a Single Population in Africa (Live Science). The mainstream media runs along with the story, never asking hard questions or critiquing how anybody could know such things when the story keeps changing. Reporter Yasemin Saplakoglu would probably never consider the Bible’s eyewitness account of what happened as humans spread, but he is perfectly willing to hear evolutionists spin yarns about things they never saw. The new yarn is that “mounting evidence suggests the first humans were even more different from one another than we are today.” He listens with rapt attention as storyteller Eleanor Scerri spins the natural selection variable speed dial:

“Which means, of course, that evolution probably progressed at a different speed and tempo in different regions of Africa as different groups came into contact with each other at different times,” Scerri said. Though it’s not clear when most humans on the planet had these modern features, by about 12,000 years ago, when hunting and gathering gradually shifted to agriculture, archaic features such as an elongated head and large robust faces had all but disappeared in humans, Scerri said. (In any case, these archaic features, it should be noted, don’t correspond to how “culturally backward” a culture was, Scerri added.)

In other words, human beings show less diversity than before, but it doesn’t mean they were stupid. Is that what Darwin predicted? No, in fact, he did not: and they admit it. Look at how one anthropologist joins in chopping down Darwin’s tree of life (see 8/06/18): Jon Marks is not surprised that everything he thought he knew was wrong!

“Who was arguing the contrary?” said Jon Marks, a professor of anthropology at University of North Carolina, Charlotte, who was also not part of the study. Though the findings didn’t come as a shock to Marks, he thinks they point to an important problem in the field — we might be using the wrong metaphors to describe evolution, namely, Darwin’s branching tree.

“What we’re seeing is a tree is not necessarily the most appropriate metaphor to apply to recent human ancestry,” Marks told Live Science. The more appropriate metaphors would be something that branches and then comes back together, rather than branches on a tree, he said.

These could include the roots of a tree, braided streams or capillary systems, he said.

Rethinking Homo sapiens? The story of our origins gets dizzyingly complicated (The Conversation). Darren Curnoe is all mixed up. He doesn’t know what to believe any more, after so many rounds of ‘everything you know is wrong.’ An ill wind blows no good.

But as someone who’s kept a keen eye on developments in, and indeed actively researching, our evolution, it’s clear to me that there’s something’s going on here. Change is in the wind!

So profound is the shift underway in human origins science that it’s seen the unusual step of a team of 23 researchers (led by Eleanor Scerri of the University of Oxford) publish today’s new synthesis of the evidence – and in doing so embrace the emerging picture of complexity and ditch the old simplistic ideas. Among their ranks are archaeologists, anthropologists, geneticists and climate specialists.

After he puzzles over what this means, he throws up his hands:

Despite all the progress we’ve made [Tontology: who’s “we, Paleface?”] over the last decade in teasing apart our origins, the manifesto of Scerri and her team has more than a hint of “back to the future” about it.

As bold and ambitious as it is, it leaves me with far more questions than answers, and a lingering feeling that the issues are far more complicated than we’ve been prepared to admit until now.

Always Wrong but Never Ashamed

Neuroscience: Brain Mechanisms of Blushing (Current Biology). This story calls on Charlie D. again to add to his speculation about why humans blush:

How many times have we experienced the sensation of heat rising to our face, accompanied by the hallmark reddening of our cheeks, when we are embarrassed or ashamed, in response to emotional situations or when we are angry? Darwin called blushing the “most peculiar and most human of all expressions”. Its purpose remains unclear, but likely reflects the social transmission of a physiological cue that indicates discomfort…. Little is known about the brain mechanisms of blushing….

So here is a well-known, observable phenomenon with which all humans (including paleoanthropologists) are familiar, and science cannot explain it after 158 years since Darwin turned biologists into storytellers. How much less can they explain things that happened millions of mythical Darwin Years ago? As Mark Twain quipped, “Man is the only animal that blushes. Or needs to.”

There’s only one thing that evolutionists know for certain: Creationism is stupid! Creationists must be punished!

But wait if everything they know is wrong, then that is wrong, too.

Let’s review what the Bible says about human history. Doesn’t this have the ring of truth? Doesn’t it portray human beings the way they really act? From Genesis 10: notice the details, and names that can be corroborated against historical sources.

10 These are the generations of the sons of Noah, Shem, Ham, and Japheth. Sons were born to them after the flood.

2 The sons of Japheth: Gomer, Magog, Madai, Javan, Tubal, Meshech, and Tiras. 3 The sons of Gomer: Ashkenaz, Riphath, and Togarmah. 4 The sons of Javan: Elishah, Tarshish, Kittim, and Dodanim. 5 From these the coastland peoples spread in their lands, each with his own language, by their clans, in their nations.

6 The sons of Ham: Cush, Egypt, Put, and Canaan. 7 The sons of Cush: Seba, Havilah, Sabtah, Raamah, and Sabteca. The sons of Raamah: Sheba and Dedan. 8 Cush fathered Nimrod he was the first on earth to be a mighty man. [a] 9 He was a mighty hunter before the Lord . Therefore it is said, “Like Nimrod a mighty hunter before the Lord .” 10 The beginning of his kingdom was Babel, Erech, Accad, and Calneh, in the land of Shinar. 11 From that land he went into Assyria and built Nineveh, Rehoboth-Ir, Calah, and 12 Resen between Nineveh and Calah that is the great city. 13 Egypt fathered Ludim, Anamim, Lehabim, Naphtuhim, 14 Pathrusim, Casluhim (from whom [b] the Philistines came), and Caphtorim.

15 Canaan fathered Sidon his firstborn and Heth, 16 and the Jebusites, the Amorites, the Girgashites, 17 the Hivites, the Arkites, the Sinites, 18 the Arvadites, the Zemarites, and the Hamathites. Afterward the clans of the Canaanites dispersed. 19 And the territory of the Canaanites extended from Sidon in the direction of Gerar as far as Gaza, and in the direction of Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah, and Zeboiim, as far as Lasha. 20 These are the sons of Ham, by their clans, their languages, their lands, and their nations.

21 To Shem also, the father of all the children of Eber, the elder brother of Japheth, children were born. 22 The sons of Shem: Elam, Asshur, Arpachshad, Lud, and Aram. 23 The sons of Aram: Uz, Hul, Gether, and Mash. 24 Arpachshad fathered Shelah and Shelah fathered Eber. 25 To Eber were born two sons: the name of the one was Peleg, [c] for in his days the earth was divided, and his brother’s name was Joktan. 26 Joktan fathered Almodad, Sheleph, Hazarmaveth, Jerah, 27 Hadoram, Uzal, Diklah, 28 Obal, Abimael, Sheba, 29 Ophir, Havilah, and Jobab all these were the sons of Joktan. 30 The territory in which they lived extended from Mesha in the direction of Sephar to the hill country of the east. 31 These are the sons of Shem, by their clans, their languages, their lands, and their nations.

32 These are the clans of the sons of Noah, according to their genealogies, in their nations, and from these the nations spread abroad on the earth after the flood.

History and Biology

History – the changing developments of cultures – became independent of biology when the Cognitive Revolution happened. So now, understanding our development requires considering our ideas – not just our biology.

The smaller the size of our grouping, the more our behavior resembles that of our less evolved family members – the chimpanzees and Neanderthals. However, in large numbers, we are gods compared to chimpanzees and Neanderthals. Myth is our god-like power that is activated when believed by large numbers of individuals. Large-scale cooperation is the result of its activation.

A Homo sapiens meghatározása

A Smithsonian Intézet összefoglalja a fajunk meghatározásához használt főbb jellemzőket, de sajnos sokan nem találhatók könnyen a korai afrikai őseink koponyáin.

Ez azt jelenti, hogy nem a mi elődeink? Nem feltétlenül, csak hogy a jelenlegi megközelítésünk meglehetősen korlátozott, és szem előtt kell tartanunk, hogy a legkorábbi őseink jól néztek, ősei!

Bővebben: A világ tudósai Ázsiába és Ausztráliába fordulnak, hogy átírják az emberi történelmet

Végül, a jégkorszak éghajlatváltozás és az afrikai környezeti változások közötti bonyolult kapcsolatok, amelyek a természetes kiválasztás és a genetikai sodródás kulcsfontosságú mozgatórugói, egyre jobban megértik. Ezek az erők úgy alakították ki, hogyan nézünk ki és viselkedünk, és továbbra is gyakorolják befolyását a biológiánkra.

Annak ellenére, hogy az elmúlt évtizedben előreléptünk az eredetünket, a Scerri és a csapata manifesztáltsága több, mint egy „vissza a jövőbe”.

Annyira merész és ambiciózus, mint amilyennek van, sokkal több kérdésre hagy számomra, mint a válaszok, és egy tartós érzés, hogy a kérdések sokkal bonyolultabbak, mint amilyeneket eddig felkészültünk.

Změna ve větru

Je samozřejmé, že věda musí být pravidelně aktualizována, s novými objevy, které posouvají to, co si myslíme, že víme, a někdy dokonce rozšiřujeme znalosti na nová místa.

Ale jako někdo, kdo má nadšený vývoj v našem vývoji a skutečně aktivně zkoumá náš vývoj, je mi jasné, že se tu něco děje. Změna je ve větru!

Tak hluboký je posun probíhající ve vědě o lidském původu, který je viděn neobvyklým krokem týmu 23 výzkumných pracovníků (pod vedením Eleanor Scerri z University of Oxford), který zveřejňuje dnešní novou syntézu důkazů - a v tomto směru zahrnuje nově vznikající obraz složitosti a vynechat staré zjednodušující myšlenky. Mezi jejich pozice patří archeologové, antropologové, genetici a klimatičtí specialisté.

To čte jako manifest, a nastiňuje hlavní nové výzkumné směry archeologie by měla následovat vyřešit naše záhadné původy. Klíčovým poselstvím je, že žádná z těchto disciplín sama o sobě není schopna to udělat a jít sama. Tento přístup vede pouze k tomu, abychom se uchopili za jednoduché odpovědi na složité otázky.

Čtěte více: Pohřbené nástroje a pigmenty vypráví o nové historii lidí v Austrálii po dobu 65 000 let

Tukar angin

Pasti, ia adalah perkara biasa untuk sains sentiasa dikemaskini, dengan penemuan baru memindahkan apa yang kita fikir kita tahu dan kadang-kadang juga memperluaskan pengetahuan ke tempat-tempat baru.

Tetapi sebagai seseorang yang terus memerhatikan perkembangan, dan sememangnya meneliti secara aktif, evolusi kita, jelas kepada saya bahawa ada sesuatu yang berlaku di sini. Perubahan dalam angin!

Begitu mendalam adalah peralihan yang sedang dijalankan dalam sains asal-usul manusia bahawa ia melihat langkah luar biasa dari sekumpulan 23 peneliti (yang diketuai oleh Eleanor Scerri dari University of Oxford) menerbitkan sintesis baru pada bukti-bukti baru ini - dan dengan itu memeluk gambar yang muncul kerumitan dan parit idea-idea sederhana lama. Di antara mereka adalah ahli arkeologi, ahli antropologi, pakar genetik dan pakar iklim.

Ia berbunyi seperti manifesto, dan menggariskan tajuk-tajuk utama penyelidikan arkeologi harus mengikuti untuk menyelesaikan asal-usul kita yang membingungkan. Mesej utama adalah bahawa tiada satu pun dari disiplin ini sendiri yang mampu melakukannya dan melakukannya sendiri. Pendekatan itu hanya membawa kepada kita meraih jawapan mudah kepada soalan yang rumit.

Baca lebih lanjut: Alat dan pigmen yang dikebumikan memberitahu sejarah manusia baru di Australia selama 65, 000 tahun

The Anunnaki Movie

Welcome to The Anunnaki Movie! This is a special edition of The Sumerian Epic which combines Episodes 4 through 7 of the Sumerian Epic into a 2+ hour movie! Along with an additional 15 minutes of bonus footage never before seen in the original episodes!

The film continues the exploration of the Sumerian Mythology, and the curious interpretations around them concerning the Anunnaki, and the legends of human origin. Even more curious, how these ancient Sumerian and Babylonian myths made their way into the modern world today, in the form of the Bible. Could the "God" of Genesis actually be describing an Anunnaki from an even older Sumerian Myth?

Along with all of our research, we have also shared several clips from Gaia's Ancient Civilizations - featuring interviews with Gregg Braden and Graham Hancock, that share groundbreaking discoveries that are being made right now, lending evidence to this theory! Ancient Civilizations is now streaming on Gaia. Watch two full seasons where we delve deeper into the forgotten codes hidden throughout ancient mythology and history. Explore ancient sites, such as Baalbek, Stonehenge and the American Southwest, to unlock new understanding of humanity&rsquos origins. Start your FREE trial and https://bit.ly/STREAM_NOW

Sitchin, Zechariah (1976). The 12th Planet, Harpercollins

Mark, Joshua. (2017). Ancient History Encyclopedia, &ldquoEnlil&rdquo. Retrieved from https://www.ancient.eu/sumer/

Sitchin, Zechariah (1976). The 12th Planet, Harpercollins. Ch.5 &ldquoNephilim, People of the Fiery Rockets&rdquo.

Genesis 6:4, New International Version.

Chaffey, Tim. (2015), Creation today, &ldquoGiant Speculations: The Bible and Greek Mythology&rdquo. Retrieved from https://creationtoday.org/giant-speculations-the-bible-and-greek-mythology/

Sitchin, Zechariah (1976). The 12th Planet, Bear & Company.
See also: The Wars of Gods and Men (1985), Genesis Revisited (1990), Divine Encounters (1995)

&ldquoAncient Civilizations S01E01&rdquo, citing Anton Parks sharing his discoveries and translations of the tablets. Retrieved from https://www.gaia.com/series/ancient-civilizations?season=1

&ldquoThe Sumerian Tablets&rdquo, retrieved Google Image Search, &ldquoAnunnaki Statues and Carvings&rdquo. You will find a number of ancient Sumero-Babylonian depictions of the &ldquogods&rdquo, featuring reptile, bird, and human depictions.

Johnston, Bradley. &ldquoA Categorical List of Celebrities who are Definitely Probably Lizard People&rdquo, Punkee. Retrieved from https://punkee.com.au/celebrity-reptilian-lizard-people/52752

Sitchin, Zechariah (1976). The 12th Planet, Harpercollins. Ch.8, p.250

&ldquoANUNNAKI &ndash Mensageiros do Vento (Messengers of the Wind). Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bBkdLzya3B4 (subtitles in multiple languages available through YouTube&rsquos closed captioning service)

Dean, Robert (2009), Exopolitics Summit Presentation, presented by Project Camelot. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_ngvIP0Za9M

O&rsquoLeary, Brian (2009), Interview with Project Camelot. Retrieved from: http://projectcamelot.org/brian_o_leary.html

Sitchin, Zechariah (1976). The 12th Planet, Harpercollins. Ch.9 &ldquoLanding on Planet Earth&rdquo.
See also: Black, John (2019) &ldquoThe origins of human beings according to ancient Sumerian texts&rdquo. Ancient Origins, retrieved from

Melchizidek, Drunvalo (1998), The Ancient Secret of the Flower of Life, Volume 1. Light Technology Publications, 119.

vc_column_text Sitchin, Zechariah (1976). The 12th Planet, Harpercollins

Tellinger, Michael (2013), &ldquoDecoding the Hidden Ruins of Southern Africa &ndash Discovering the True Cradle of Humankind&rdquo. Featured on GrahamHancock.com. Retrieved from https://grahamhancock.com/tellingerm1/

Bradfield, Laura (2015), &ldquo200 000 year old city found in Southern Africa may rewrite history&rdquo, The South African. Retrieved from https://www.thesouthafrican.com/opinion/200-000-year-old-city-found-in-southern-africa-set-to-re-write-history/

Tellinger, Michael, &ldquoTemples of the African Gods&rdquo, Viewzone. Retrieved from:

Robert Shoch, The Great Sphinx of Egypt (at Giza). Retrieved from https://www.robertschoch.com/sphinx.html

Stoneking, Wilson, Caan (1987), Science, &ldquoThe Unmasking of Mitochondrial Eve&rdquo. American Association for the Advancement of Science.

Baron, Rabbi Doniel (2008), &ldquoThe Meaning of &ldquoAdam&rdquo: Insights into the Hebrew Language&rdquo, Aish.com. Retrieved from https://www.aish.com/sp/ph/48956911.htm

The Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature, &ldquoEnki and Ninmahah. Retrieved from http://etcsl.orinst.ox.ac.uk/section1/tr112.htm

Sitchin, Zechariah (1976). The 12th Planet, Harpercollins

Myths from Mesopotamia : creation, the flood, Gilgamesh, and others. Dalley, Stephanie. Oxford [England]: Oxford University Press. 1989

Sladek, J. 1974. The New Apocrypha: A guide to strange science and occult beliefs. New York: Ship and Day.

Leick, Gwendolyn (1998) [1991], A Dictionary of Ancient Near Eastern Mythology, New York City, New York: Routledge,

David., Coogan, Michael (2013). A reader of ancient Near Eastern texts : sources for the study of the Old Testament. New York: Oxford University Press.

Mark, Altaweel (2018-02-26). Revolutionizing a world : from small states to universalism in the pre-Islamic Near East. Squitieri, Andrea. London

Bromiley, Geoffrey William, ed. (2009). "Apocrypha". The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia (2 ed.). Grand Rapids, Michigan: W.B. Eerdmans.

Sitchin, Zecharia (2007). The Wars of Gods and Men: Book III of the Earth Chronicles. Harper.

Griffith, Joan T. &ldquoJames Churchward and His Lost Pacific Continent,&rdquo 5. Accessed January 21, 2020.

Torsvik, Trond H., Cocks, L. Robin M., Gondwana from top to base in space and time,Gondwana Research(2013), doi:10.1016/j.gr.2013.06.012

Melchizedek, Drunvalo: 1999: The Ancient Secret of the Flower of Life, Volumes I&II. Light Technology Publishing

Neild, Ted Supercontinent: Ten Billion Years in the Life of Our Planet pp.Harvard University Press (

Le Plongeon 1896: Queen Moo & the Egyptian Sphinx. 0-227

Fischer, Steven Roger. Island at the End of the World: the Turbulent History of Easter Island. London: Reaktion Books, 2006.

Thomas S. Barthel's The Eighth Land: The Polynesian Settlement of Easter Island (Honolulu: University of Hawaii 1978 originally published in German in 1974)

Jowett, Benjamin (1871). The dialogues of Plato. Vol. III. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Ebbing, Jörg, Peter Haas, Fausto Ferraccioli, Folker Pappa, Wolfgang Szwillus, and Johannes Bouman. &ldquoEarth Tectonics as Seen by GOCE - Enhanced Satellite Gravity Gradient Imaging.&rdquo Scientific Reports 8, no. 1 (May 2018). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-34733-9.

Atil, Esin (1987), The Age of Sultan Süleyman the Magnificent, New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., p. 81.

Antarctic Explorers: Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen. Accessed January 21, 2020. http://www.south-pole.com/p0000073.htm.

Hale, Jennifer. &ldquoICY ATLANTIS? New Satellite Images Reveal Mysterious Dome Structure Hidden in Antarctica Fuelling Shock Claims an Ancient Civilisation Once Lived There.&rdquo The Sun, January 6, 2017. https://www.thesun.co.uk/news/2548611/antarctica-building-structure-surface-image-people-lived-there/.

Isaac Newton. "Keynes MS. 28". The Chymistry of Isaac Newton. Ed. William R. Newman. June 2010. Retrieved March 4, 2013.

Barker, Margaret. (2005) [1987]. "Chapter 1: The Book of Enoch," in The Older Testament: The Survival of Themes from the Ancient Royal Cult in Sectarian Judaism and Early Christianity. London: SPCK Sheffield Phoenix Press

Leeming, David A. (2010). Creation Myths of the World: An Encyclopedia. 1. ABC-CLIO

Chen, Y.C. (2013). The Primeval Flood Catastrophe: Origins and Early Development in Mesopotamian Traditions. OUP Oxford.

Lambert, W. G. Millard, A. R. (1999), Atrahasis: The Babylonian Story of the Flood, Eisenbrauns

Rosenberg, Donna (1994). World Mythology: An Anthology of the Great Myths and Epics. Lincolnwood, Chicago: National Textbook Company. pp. 196&ndash200.

Bandstra, Barry L. (2009). Reading the Old Testament: An Introduction to the Hebrew Bible (4th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/ Cengage Learning. pp. 59&ndash62.

Lost Civilization Under Persian Gulf?, Science Daily, Dec 8, 2010

The Epic of Gilgamesh. Translated by Andrew R. George (reprinted ed.). London: Penguin Books. 2003

Finkel, Irving. The Ark Before Noah. Doubleday, 2014.

Schmidt in Schmidt (ed.) 2009, p. 188

Early days among the Cheyanne & Arapahoe Indians by John H. Seger, page 135

Fairall, A. (1 June 1999). "Precession and the layout of the ancient Egyptian pyramids". Astronomy & Geophysics. 40 (3): 3.4.

Krupp, E.C. (February 1997). "Pyramid marketing schemes". Sky & Telescope. 93 (2): 64.

Strassberg, Richard, ed. (2002), A Chinese bestiary : strange creatures from the guideways through mountains and seas, University of California Press

Yang, Lihui An, Deming Turner, Jessica Anderson (2005), Handbook of Chinese mythology, Santa Barbara: ABC-Clio,

Horcasitas, Fernando (1988). "An analysis of the deluge myth in Mesoamerica". In Alan Dundes (ed.). The Flood Myth. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Graham Hancock, Fingerprints of the Gods. 2001: 233

Kennet, J.P. et al, Bayesian chronological analyses consistent with synchronous age of 12,835&ndash12,735 Cal B.P. forYounger Dryas boundary on four continents. PNAS. Available at: https://cometresearchgroup.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/PNAS-2015-Kennett-E4344-53.pdf [Accessed February 22, 2020]

Dawelbeit, Ahmed Jaillard, Etienne Eisawi, Ali (1 December 2019). "Sedimentary and paleobiological records of the latest Pleistocene-Holocene climate evolution in the Kordofan region, Sudan". Journal of African Earth Sciences. 160:

Shaw, 2000, The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, Ian Shaw, Ed., Oxford University Press 2000,

The Wars of Gods and Men, 1985, Avon Books, Zecheria Sitchin

Townsend, Richard F., and Robert V. Sharp, eds. (2004). Hero, Hawk, and Open Hand. The Art Institute of Chicago and Yale University Press.

F. Kent Reilly and James Garber, eds. (2007). Ancient Objects and Sacred Realms.

Hancock, G. America Before. 2019

Martinez-Frias, J., Rull, F., Martín-Redondo, M. P., Delgado, A., Fernández-Sampedro, M. T., García-Talavera, F., López-Vera, F. and Menor Salván, C. (2011) Multianalytical characterization of silica-rich megabreccias from the proposed natural area of Richat (Sahara desert, Mauritania). Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment v. 15, no. 3, pp. 49&ndash54.

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【灵性科学】苏美尔史诗 第四部分:走进阿努纳奇

(6:05) Sitchin, Zechariah (1976). 12颗行星, Harpercollins. 第5章 “Nephilim, People of the Fiery Rockets”.

(7:51) Chaffey, Tim. (2015), Creation today, “大推测:圣经与希腊神话”

(8:57) Sitchin, Zechariah (1976). 12颗行星, Bear & Company.
另见::《神与人的战争》The Wars of Gods and Men (1985), 《创世纪》Genesis Revisited (1990), 《 神圣邂逅 》 Divine Encounters (1995)

(9:27) Gardner, Laurence (1999), 圣杯国王的起源. 纽约,班塔姆出版社。 参见Halexandria, (2009),

(9:44)盖亚 (2017), “古老文明 S01E01”, 引用安东·帕克斯(Anton Parks)分享他的发现和石板的翻译。

(11:15) Johnston, Bradley. “绝对是蜥蜴人的名人分类列表”Punkee.

(11:40) Mark, Joshua (2017), “Anu”《古代历史百科全书》

另请参阅: Annunaki.org, “Anu”, retrieved from

(12:36) Sitchin, Zechariah (1976). 12颗行星, Harpercollins. Ch.8, p.250

(12:59) “ANUNNAKI – Mensageiros do Vento (Messengers of the Wind).

(14:26) King, Anthony (2016), 《化学世界》,“大气中注入石灰粉尘可以阻止全球变暖”

(15:26) Sitchin, Zechariah (2002). The Lost Book of Enki, Bear & Company. (End of “The Fourth Tablet”)

(16:42) Dean, Robert (2009), 《对外政治峰会演讲》 由卡米洛特(Project Camelot)主持。

(18:04) O’Leary, Brian (2009), 卡米洛特工程 访谈

(19:36) (The Following 3 Links)
Walia, Arjun (2017), ““前NASA科学家分享了关于火星上发现的脸和金字塔的隐藏信息。集体进化( Collective Evolution).

Walia, Arjun (2016), NASA科学家发现了5亿年前存在于火星上的外星人种族的有力证据。

Walia, Arjun (2018), 研究人员在火星人脸发现了眼球和牙齿。

(20:30) Mark, Joshua. (2018). 古代历史百科全书,“ Enuma Elish –巴比伦创造史诗–全文”

(20:42) Sitchin, Zechariah (1976). 12颗行星, Harpercollins.第9章“在地球上着陆”。
参见: Black, John (2019) 根据古代苏美尔文献,人类的起源”。 古代起源

(24:38) 对话(The Conversation) (2018), “重新思考智人?”我们起源的故事变得极其复杂。

(24:53) Melchizidek, Drunvalo (1998), 【生命之花的古老秘密 第1卷】. Light Technology Publications, 119.

Watch the video: ΟΥ ΦΟΝΕΥΣΕΙΣ - Κύκλος 2 - Επεισόδιο 7 ΣΥΓΝΩΜΗ (July 2022).


  1. Garmann

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  2. Gardajinn

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  3. Darwin

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