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Carondelet - History

Carondelet - History

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Carondelet, formerly a separate village in St. Louis County, Mo., is now a part of the city of St. Louis.

(IrcGbt: t. 512; 1. 175'; b. 61'2"; dr. 6'; s. 4 k.; cpl. 251;
a. 6 32-par., 3 8" sb., 4 42-pdr. r., 1 12-pdr. how.;
cl. Cairo)

Carondelet, an ironclad river gunboat, was built in 1861 by James Eads and Co., St. Louis, Mo., under contract to the War Department, commissioned 15 January 1862 at Cairo, III., naval Captain H. Walke in command, and reported to Western Gunboat Flotilla (Army), commanded by naval Flag Omeer A. H. Foote.

Between January and October 1862 Carondelet operated almost constantly on river patrol and in the capture of Forts Henry and Donaldson in February; the passing of Island No. 10 and the attack on and spiking of the shore batteries below New Madrid, Mo., in April; the lengthy series of operations against Plum Point Bend Fort Pillow, and Memphis from April through June and the engagement with CSS Arkansas on 15 July during which Carondelet was heavily damaged and suffered 35 casualties.

Transferred to Navy Department control with the other ships of her flotilla on 1 October 1862, Carondelet continued the rapid pace of her operations, taking part in the unsuccessful Steele's Bayou Expedition in March 1863. One of those to pass the Vicksburg and Warrenton batteries in April 1863' Carondelet took part on 29 April in the five and one-half hour engagement with the batteries at Grand Gulf. She remained on duty off Vicksburg, hurling fire at the city in its long sedge from May to July. Without her and her sisters and other naval forces, the great operations on the rivers would not have been possible and Northern Victory might not have been won. From 7 March to 15 May 1864, she sailed with the Red River Expedition, and during operations in support of Army movements ashore, took part in the Bell's Mill engagement of December l864 For the remainder of the war, Carondelet patrolled in the Cumberland River. She was decommissioned at Mound City, Ill., 20 June 1865, and sold there 29 November 1865.

Carondelet Genealogy (in St Louis County, MO)

NOTE: Additional records that apply to Carondelet are also found through the St Louis County and Missouri pages.

Carondelet Birth Records

Missouri, Birth Records, 1910-present Missouri Department of Health and Senior Services

Carondelet Cemetery Records

Carondelet Census Records

Federal Census of 1940, Carondelet, Missouri LDS Genealogy

United States Federal Census, 1790-1940 Family Search

Carondelet Church Records

Carondelet Death Records

Missouri Death Certificates 1910-1969 Missouri State Archives

Missouri, Death Records, 1910-present Missouri Department of Health and Senior Services

St. Louis Post Dispatch Obituary Index 1880-1930, 1942-1945, 1960-1969, and 1992-2011 St Louis Public Library

Carondelet Histories and Genealogies

Carondelet Immigration Records

Carondelet Land Records

Carondelet Marriage Records

Carondelet Newspapers and Obituaries

St. Louis Post Dispatch Obituary Index 1880-1930, 1942-1945, 1960-1969, and 1992-2011 St Louis Public Library

Offline Newspapers for Carondelet

According to the US Newspaper Directory, the following newspapers were printed, so there may be paper or microfilm copies available. For more information on how to locate offline newspapers, see our article on Locating Offline Newspapers.

Carondelet Probate Records

Carondelet Tax Records

Additions or corrections to this page? We welcome your suggestions through our Contact Us page

Carondelet - History

More than high school. Her school.

We do a lot of math at Carondelet, but no girl is just a number here. Our teachers are committed to helping all our students do their best work every day. And as a Catholic, college-prep high school, our students graduate with both practical and analytical skills as well as strong character to get the most out of their education.

More than strong curriculum. Strong character.

We provide a college-preparatory education designed to prepare students not just for success in college and beyond, but for a lifelong journey of personal growth and altruism.

More than college prep. College bound.

Any good high school will help your student get into a good college. At Carondelet, she’ll get the support she needs to choose the college that’s the best fit for her skills and interests. And she’ll build a foundation of practical and analytical skills to help her make the most of her college experience.

“My sister and I have become what we were meant to be. Carondelet has helped us find the power we had our whole lives.”

Catherine, Class of 2021

“We have so many great classes to choose from, in every academic direction.”

Jasmine, Class of 2020

“Our new Jean Hofmann Center for Innovation will enable us to teach team building, group work, exploration, and running with ideas beyond a class session and a single classroom.”

An end to our presence in Washington State

The history of the Sisters of St. Joseph of Carondelet in Washington state is ending this month with the departure of Sisters Esther Polacci, CSJ and Mary Williams, CSJ from Pasco.

Sisters of St. Joseph arrived in Pasco in September of 1916, traveling from Lewiston, Idaho to found a much-needed hospital, Our Lady of Lourdes.

Our Lady of Lourdes Hospital in 1916 Our Lady of Lourdes Hospital in 1951

Over the years, many Sisters maintained our presence there and expanded our ministry through the area to St. Patrick’s School in Pasco, St. Joseph’s School in Kennewick and Lourdes Counseling Center in Richland.

St. Patrick’s Catholic School in Pasco, Washington St. Joseph’s Catholic School in Kennewick, Washington

Administrators at Lourdes Health have planned a special dinner in Pasco on May 22 to celebrate and honor the presence of our Sisters in the state for 102½ years!

“Ministry in this dear part of the Northwest has been a privilege and a pleasure that many of us have shared,” said Sister Mary. “As we say goodbye, let’s join in prayer for the assured future of our mission and charism here for years to come.”

Sister Mary Williams, CSJ

Our Beginnings in France

In 1650, six ordinary women, under the guidance of Jean Pierre Medaille,SJ, joined together in community under the patronage of St. Joseph in LePuy, France. They were neither educated nor wealthy, but worked to support themselves by making lace, a common trade in southern France.

This community, without cloister or habit, devoted themselves to the needs of ordinary people, living among them and offering their lives in service to these dear neighbors without distinction. They dedicated themselves to the “practice of all the spiritual and corporal works of mercy of which woman is capable and which will most benefit the dear neighbor.”

Coming to America

The first Sisters of St. Joseph came from Lyon to America in 1836 in response to a request from Bishop Joseph Rosati for a small group of religious to open a school for the deaf in St. Louis. Two convents were established—one in Cahokia, which closed in 1855, the other in Carondelet, a village on the outskirts of St. Louis. Carondelet was destined to become the cradle of the American congregation.

Bishop Rosati named Mother Celestine Pommerel superior of the Carondelet community in 1840. In 1847 the first foundation outside St. Louis was made in Philadelphia, to be followed shortly by foundations in St. Paul, Minnesota and Toronto.

Growth and Governance

As foundations continued to multiply, the need for centralized government was recognized. At the invitation of Mother St. John Facemaz, successor to Mother Celestine, delegates from the several branches of the Sisters of St. Joseph met in St. Louis in May 1860, to approve a plan of general government. Three provinces were established: St. Louis, Missouri St. Paul, Minnesota and Troy, New York, with headquarters in St. Louis. Mother St. John Facemaz was elected first superior general for a term of six years. (At this time some communities made the decision to remain under diocesan jurisdiction.)

One of Mother St. John’s first concerns was to secure papal approbation for the Constitutions of the Sisters of St. Joseph of Carondelet. Shortly after her election, Mother St. John went to Rome and presented a copy of the Constitutions for approval. A decree of commendation was received in 1863. Some years later, the final approbation was received, dated May 16, 1877. This approval established the Sisters of St. Joseph of Carondelet as a congregation of pontifical right.

A fourth province was added in 1876 with provincial headquarters in Tucson, Arizona. In 1903 the provincialate was moved to Los Angeles. In the course of the years several small groups appealed to Carondelet for admission into the congregation: Sisters of St. Joseph of Muskogee, Oklahoma, 1900 Sisters of St. Joseph of Georgia, 1922 Sisters of St. Joseph of Lewiston, Idaho, 1925 Sisters of St. Joseph of Superior, Wisconsin, 1985.

Foundations were established in Hawaii in 1938, in Japan in 1956, and in Peru in 1962. These have flourished and have attracted native members. The Hawaii community was given the status of a vice province in 1956 in 1978, Japan and Peru were established as vice provinces. The congregation opened a mission in Chile in 1987.

Spiritual Renewal and Ministry Expansion

In response to the call of the Second Vatican Council, the congregation initiated a program of spiritual renewal as recommended in the document Perfectae Caritatis. The members of the congregation began an intensive study of the gospels and the spirit of John Peter Medaille, their founder, and undertook an appraisal of the needs of late twentieth-century society. A subsequent expansion of ministries designed to respond to contemporary situations in diverse cultures and different ways of living community were effected by these studies.

We continue to respond to the needs of our time. On June 4, 2008, at the invitation of Archbishop Odama, we began a new congregational ministry project in the Archdiocese of Gulu in Northern Uganda. Our sisters accompany the Acholi people, serving in health care, catechetical direction, and education.

With a 1972 Chapter recommendation that “the provinces be allowed to establish commissions to initiate lay associate membership on an experimental basis,” the congregation, faithful to the original intent of Father Medaille, formally reintroduced lay association into its reality. At present, over 600 women and men have made formal commitments either as associates, consociates, Ohana, or Familia de San Jose.

Today as Sisters of St. Joseph of Carondelet, we strive to be responsive to the inspiration of the Holy Spirit as were our foremothers. We derive our strength and our hope from our deepening desire for Communion. Faithful to our heritage and to our gift of unifying love, we reach out in communion with creation, with the Church, with the dear neighbor, and with each other wherever the Spirit leads us.

Learn more in our Log Cabin Chronicles video series, presented by Sister Mary McGlone

The Civil War Muse

Description: Carondelet was the location of a significant boatyard run by St. Louis engineer and businessman James Eads. The following description is attributed to the Missouri Civil War Museum's website.

Many ironclad ships of the Union's brown water fleet navy were built by James B. Eads & Co. at Carondelet, Missouri (a city now incorporated within the city limits of St. Louis). Eads was a well known riverboat salvager and engineer in St. Louis at the time of the Civil War. Construction on the boats was primarily at Eads’ Union Marine Works (also known as Union Iron-Works or Marine Railway). Eads’ facility was located just north of Jefferson Barracks at the confluence of the River des Peres and the Mississippi River.

The boatyard was formerly known as the Carondelet Marine Railway Company and it was situated at the terminus of Marceau Street off of South Broadway. It consisted of a series of tracks and cranes that could transport ships in or out of the river using a railway car. The railway car could move a short distance into the water, then up a shallow slope and into one of the handful of sheds where 800 artisans, laborers and shipwrights were employed. The yard was built in the 1850's by Primus Emerson and then leased to James Eads for his operations. To support the shipyard operations, Eads also had at his disposal a rolling mill, five sawmills and two metal foundries all designed to supply his materials.

The text of The Carondelet Historical Marker reads as follows:

Clement DeLore Treget could stand up here looking over the gentle sweep of this great river bend and could see the homes and his village nestled in the sylvan vale below.

In 1767, four years after Spain acquired all west of the River, DeLore, a Frenchman of worthy ancestry, came across the sea with his wife and children. With followers, they came up the Mississippi and chose the site below, at the foot of what became Elwood Street, for their new home. Parcels of land including a long Common Fields strip, were allotted. DeLore called it Louisbourg, but the nickname "Vide Poche" was often used.

1794 - DeLore changed the name to Carondelet in honor of the Spanish Governor General and in 1795 Carondelet was given 6000 acres extending some ten miles along the river.

1803 - The United States purchased Louisiana from France who had regained it from Spain three years before. American influence grew in Upper Louisiana. By now Carondelet was a hamlet of some 50 homes with 250 people.

1825 - On his triumphal return visit to our Country, Lafayette stopped here.

1826 - Carondelet "sold" the United States 1700 acres for Jefferson Barracks for $5.00.

1832 - Carondelet became a Town - a survey defined the Town, the Common Fields, the Commons and the Towpath along the River.

1835 - A Catholic church of stone replaced the first one of wood, built in 1819. The Convent of the Sisters of St. Joseph, with a notable school for girls, was started in 1836. The first Protestant church, Presbyterian, was built in 1850. Soon there were many other churches.

1851 - Carondelet, with 1200 people, became a City. A great industrial impulse began the railroad was built large plants arose general business and population grew.

1860 - Turmoil, confusion and bitterness brewed up with the coming Civil War - then men went away to both Armies, North and South - and Carondelet built "Lincoln's Gunboats." After the War, things became placid again with industry growing and life pleasant.

1870 - The City of Carondelet was joined to St. Louis. Much followed thereafter: Carondelet School in 1871 the first public school kindergarten system in the United States started at the Des Peres School in 1873 beautiful Carondelet Park Carondelet Library for books and Meetings. The people of Carondelet came from many backgrounds: French, early American, German, Irish, African, Spanish, British, Italian, Polish and others - quite varied in qualities and nature but all worthy and respected.

All those who have lived here still think of it as age-honored Carondelet settled down along the Mighty Mississippi River.

Carondelet Canal or Old Basin Canal

The site of New Orleans first appealed to the city's founder, Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville, in 1699. Native Americans had informed him about Bayou St. John, a shortcut from Lake Pontchartrain to the higher land on the banks of a defensible bend in the Mississippi River. Almost two decades later, Bienville supervised the first efforts to build a city on this site.

Until the advent of the steam engine, portage upriver against the Mississippi current was difficult even under the most ideal of conditions. In the 18th century, sailing ships could easily enter Lake Pontchartrain and access Bayou St. John. From there, goods could be portaged a short distance to what is now the oldest section of the city, the French Quarter.

Governor Francisco Luis Hector, Baron de Carondelet, who oversaw the Spanish colonies of Louisiana and West Florida from 1791-1797, was responsible for many advances in the quality of life of the region. Seeking to improve drainage and improve access from the city to the bayou, in 1794 he excavated a 1.6 mile canal. In 1796, the Cabildo issued a decree naming it Canal Carondelet.

The canal became a vital resource for shipping thanks to the efforts of James Pitot and the formation of the Orleans Navigation Company in 1805. It was improved many times over the next several decades, but because it did not flow except with the wind and tides, it often filled with sewage, detritus and plants. It also was a source of frequent flooding because it allowed water from the lake to enter the city during storms.

In the 1830s, a new, wider, deeper canal was dug, this time not by prisoners and slaves, but by newly arrived Irish immigrants who died by the thousands of disease and dysentery. The New Basin Canal paralleled the Carondelet one and ran directly from the lake to the thriving new American sector. In a relatively short time, Canal Carondelet saw its volume of traffic decrease significantly. Schemes to re-establish its relevance led to losses and lawsuits. However, its placement at the heart of the old French city, where many merchants and institutions were located, kept it operating until the early 20th century.

As the city grew, the canal proved to be a corridor for other development and traffic. For many decades in the mid-to-late 1800s, pedestrians enjoyed the Carondelet Walk which featured as many as 3 gardens that charged admission. It also became a corridor for the new railroad systems, which ultimately are responsible for much of the land remaining open to this day.

By the 1920s, the Old Basin Canal, a name it acquired to differentiate it from the New Basin Canal, again fell into disrepair. It was declared un-navigable and filled between 1927 and 1938. In the 1990s, visionary citizens began an effort to transform the land--now a 3.6 mile corridor from City Park to near Armstrong Park--into a linear park and bicycle path. Called the Lafitte Corridor, design plans were approved by the public in 2011.

The Vanishing Stone Houses of Carondelet

116 E. Steins Street. Photograph by Chris Naffziger

124 East Steins Street. Photograph by Chris Naffziger

Jacob Steins House, 7600 Reilly Street. Photograph by Chris Naffziger

The 7700 Block of Vulcan. Photograph by Chris Naffziger

Zeiss Houses, 7707-7713 Vulcan Street. Photograph by Chris Naffziger

Charles Schlichtig House, 300 East Marceau. Photograph by Chris Naffziger

Anton Schmitt House, 7727 South Broadway. Photograph by Chris Naffziger

There’s a reason why the far south St. Louis neighborhood of Carondelet feels like a small town for over 100 years, it was just that. But Carondelet continues to fascinate not just because it was once independent. After all, Hyde Park, The Ville, and several other parts of the city were once settled before annexation by St. Louis. More so than any other part of St. Louis, Carondelet still maintains a sense of identity that makes the neighborhood unique.

Founded in 1767 by Clement DeLore de Treget, the historic core of Carondelet also includes what is now known as The Patch neighborhood. A failed attempt at colonization had occurred around 1700 at the confluence of the Mississippi and the River de Peres, so named because Catholic priests (peres in French) had spearheaded that earlier attempt. Industry came to the town before the Civil War in the form of the Vulcan Ironworks. During the war, James Eads constructed many of his famous ironclads in his yards near the mouth of the River des Peres. Later, the site would become the infamous Carondelet Coke, which left a history of pollution long after its closure.

Now that those industries are long gone, what gives Carondelet its most striking landmarks are the remnants of its early settlement. While St. Louis is rightfully famous for its culture of red brick construction, the stone houses of the early- to mid-19th Century present a fascinating link to the earliest forms of architecture in the region. This is not the fine-cut stone seen in the mighty churches and public buildings of the city this is humble but beautiful limestone boulders, stacked one on top of the other. Certainly St. Louis possessed stone houses in its historic core, such as the Old Rock House, but those have all been swept away. Carondelet is now the place to come to see the rugged, calculated, and almost elegant art of stacking irregular stone building blocks on top of each other, like a giant jigsaw puzzle.

While many stone houses are scattered throughout Carondelet, the few remaining dwellings east of Broadway are the most compelling. Most famously the Jacob Steins House, sitting at the corner of Steins Street at 7600 Reilly Street, which gives its name to a small historic district that stretches several blocks along the eponymous street (coincidentally, stein means “stone” in German). Owned for generations by the Fanetti family, the house was constructed sometime in the mid-1840s, and perhaps built in two segments. Several blocks to the south, the Charles Schlichtig House at 300 E. Marceau was built in 1852, and is still well-preserved.

Luckily, several houses on the blocks west of the Steins House are now seeing the possibility of rehabilitation. A small stone house from 1854 at 124 E. Steins Street, set far back on its lot, is currently being restored. Next door, a row of houses, some stone and others brick, await renovation. Thankfully, several Carondelet residents have taken interest in saving these houses and their renovation will come soon.

That’s the good news. The bad news is that many more sit abandoned and deteriorating. The 1850s Zeiss Houses, at 7707-13 Vulcan Street, are now vacant. They are also severely damaged and missing roofs and windows. In 1980, the Zeiss family still occupied these houses. Interestingly, as the Zeiss family grew in wealth, they constructed the neighboring brick two-story house adjacent to the original stone houses. The 7700 block of Vulcan has many beautiful, intact houses hopefully this trend of abandonment does not continue.

But why does this matter now? For over a century, the stone houses of Carondelet thrived along with their neighborhood. But times are changing. As late as the 1980s, National Register Nominations spoke of the original families still occupying these houses, proud of their heritage. Fast forward to the present day, and many of those once proudly occupied houses now sit empty. Industry encroaches on the historic residential neighborhoods east of Broadway in fact, as early as 1980, the National Register nomination was warning of this threat. Attempts at relocating the houses have been successful at least once. The Anton Schmitt House, built in 1859, was saved from demolition during an expansion of a Monsanto chemical plant, and now sits reconstructed in St. Louis Square Park, at 7727 S. Broadway. Though it survived, it is stripped of its historic context.

Meanwhile, super-blocks are forming to provide room for more factories and warehouses. Trucks rumble by, shaking the ground. One worries that this historic area will face the same fate of the Kosciusko district on the Near South Side, where a proud, working-class neighborhood was annihilated for an industrial park in the mid-20th Century. Will Carondelet’s historic homes still have a place in St. Louis in a decade, or will they become another story of lost opportunity as “progress” sweeps them away?

Our Heritage

Los Angeles is the youngest of the four provinces of the Congregation of St. Joseph of Carondelet. Already well known in the eastern part of the country with provinces established in St. Louis, St. Paul, and Albany, the Sisters of St. Joseph received an appeal from two pioneer bishops in the West. Santa Fe bishop John Baptist Lamy, and the newly installed bishop of Tucson, John Baptist Salpointe, wrote to Carondelet in the late 1860s asking for Sisters to establish a school in Tucson, Arizona.

Seven Sisters began the long journey to the west in April 1870, traveling on the newly completed transcontinental railroad to San Francisco, by steamer to San Diego, and by covered wagon across the American Desert to Tucson, Arizona. Their first school, the future St. Joseph’s Academy, opened on June 6, 1870, eleven days after their arrival in Tucson.

Ministries spread rapidly from this early beginning with schools opening in Arizona and California. Close to the Sisters’ hearts was the education and care of their beloved Native Americans. By 1873, the Sisters had opened a school for the Papago Indians at San Xavier del Bac. Within a few years, they were ministering at Fort Yuma, St. Anthony’s in San Diego, St. Boniface School in Banning, and St. John’s Mission School in Komatke.

When Bishop Salpointe opened St. Mary’s Hospital in Tucson in 1880, health care became an important part of the Sisters’ ministry. Over the years, the sisters sponsored and operated hospitals in Arizona, California, Washington, and Idaho until recent developments in health care led them to transfer ownership and sponsorship to a Catholic health system.

As the majority of ministries increased in California, Los Angeles was selected as seat of the western province and established in 1903. Academies were established as early as 1882, Mount St. Mary’s College (now University) was founded in 1925, and Sisters were teaching in parish schools in five states. Work with the deaf, a treasured tradition since the first days in St. Louis, flourished for many years in Oakland and San Francisco.

In 1925, the Sisters of St. Joseph of Lewiston, Idaho, joined the Carondelet congregation. In 2011, the Sisters of the Vice Province of Japan joined the Los Angeles Province as a region.

From the first days in Arizona, education and health care merged naturally into other forms of care of the dear neighbor. Over the years, and especially after Vatican II, the Sisters’ work has expanded and diversified, including parish service, adult education, spiritual direction and retreat work, direct service of the poor, and justice activities.

Francisco Luis Hector, baron de Carondelet

F rancisco Luis Héctor, barón de Carondelet served as governor of the Spanish colonies of Louisiana and West Florida between 1791 and 1797, perhaps the most turbulent years of the Spanish colonial era (1763–1800). While in office, Carondelet faced expansionist pressures from the United States, internal dissension inspired by the French Revolution (1789–1799), and threatened attacks from the French (in 1793–1794) and the British (in 1796–1797).

Carondelet was born in Cambrai, France, on July 29, 1747, the son of Jean Louis Carondelet and Marie Angélique Bernard de Rasoir. He entered Spanish military service in 1762. In October 1777, he married María de la Concepción Castaños y Aragorri, a native of La Coruña, in Madrid. After serving in the Caribbean during the American Revolution (1775–1783), Carondelet participated in the Spanish siege of Pensacola in 1781. Eight years later, he became governor of San Salvador in Guatamala (now part of El Salvador).

On March 13, 1791, he was appointed governor of Spanish Louisiana and West Florida. During his term, Carondelet worked diligently—if unrealistically—to forge a grand alliance of southern Native Americans to defend Spain’s holdings against encroachment from the United States. As a means of stimulating economic growth in the colony Carondelet also urged the Spanish Crown, without success, to make New Orleans a free port and was responsible for numerous public improvements in New Orleans, including the construction of a canal linking the Mississippi River with Lake Pontchartrain. His efforts to strengthen the colony were dashed, however, when Spain acquiesced to US territorial demands in the Treaty of San Lorenzo (1795), also known as Pinckney’s Treaty.

In 1796, Carondolet was reassigned to the Viceroyalty of New Granada in northern South America, where he eventually became president of the Audiencia of Quito, an administrative branch of the Spanish government located near present-day Equador. He died there on December 10, 1807.

Adapted from Thomas D. Watson’s entry for the Dictionary of Louisiana Biography, a publication of the Louisiana

Sources: Eric Beerman, “XV Baron de Carondelet, Governador de la Luisiana y la Florida (1791-1797),” Hidalguia, (1978) Charles Gayarré, History of Louisiana, vol. 3, The Spanish Domination, 4th ed. (1983) Abraham P. Nasatir, Spanish War Vessels on the Mississippi, 1792-1796 (1968) James Pitot, Observations on the Colony of Louisiana from 1796 to 1802 (1979) Arthur Preston Whitaker, The Spanish-American Frontier, 1783-1795 (1927) Mary A. M. O’Callaghan, “The Indian Policy of Carondelet in Spanish Louisiana, 1792-1797” (Ph. D. dissertation, University of California at Berkeley, 1942) Thomas Mark Fiehrer, “The Baron de Carondelet as Agent of Bourbon Reform: A Study of Spanish Colonial Administration in the Years of the French Revolution” (Ph. D. dissertation, Tulane University, 1977).


Suggested Reading

Cowan, Walter Grieves and Jack McGuire. Louisiana Governors: Rulers, Rascals, and Reformers. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2008.

Watch the video: Virtual Tour at Carondelet (July 2022).


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