History Podcasts

Hawker Hector

Hawker Hector

Hawker Hector

The Hawker Hector was the seventh and last member of the family of aircraft that had originated with the Hawker Hart light bomber of 1930. It was designed to replace the Hawker Audax as an army co-operation aircraft. The most significant change made to the Hector was the replacement of the Rolls Royce Kestrel engine used in the Audax with a Napier Dagger III engine. The Dagger was too large to fit in the elegant pointed nose of the Hart family, and so the Hector received a more rounded nose. In order to balance the extra weight of the Dagger, the swept back upper wing of the earlier aircraft was replaced by one with a straight wing.

Despite these visual changes, the Hector was very similar to the Audax. As a result development and production was rapid. The first production aircraft made its maiden flight on 14 February 1936. Hawker received orders for 178 Hectors, and despite the production switching from Hawker to Westland, all 178 were complete by the end of 1937.

The Hector equipped seven RAF army co-operation squadrons from 1937 to 1938-9, when it was replaced by the Westland Lysander. The Hectors were then transferred to five squadrons of the Auxiliary Air Force (Nos. 602, 612, 613, 614 and 615). Of these squadrons, only No. 613 used the Hector operationally. In May 1940 the squadron used its Hectors in attacks on the German troops advancing through northern France, losing two aircraft during one mission near Calais. In June 1940 the squadron finished converting to the Lysander, ending the front line career of the Hector. Between 1940 and 1942 the Hector served as a glider tug, before more modern aircraft became available for that role.

Stats

Engine: Napier Dagger III
Horsepower: 805
Max speed: 187mph at 6,500ft
Ceiling: 24,000ft
Endurance: 2 hours 25 minutes
Span: 36 ft 11.5in
Length: 29ft 9.75in
Armament: Two 0.303in machine guns, one forward firing and one on flexible mount in aft cockpit.
Payload: Two 112lb bombs or supply containers under wings.


January 2015: Hawker Hector – 20 photos

Each photograph is offered at a 300dpi res/13x8cm size making them available for a very good quality digital print, but also for Iphone/IPad, smartphone or computer screen (but should convert the image into a jpeg format for doing so)

Photo Hector 01: Side view of Hawker Hector K3719, the prototype. First flew on 14.02.36, it became an Instructional airframe on 07.05.38 as 1062M.

Photo Hector 02: Three Hawker Hectors of No. 614 Sqn in flight, taken shortly before the Munich Crisis in September 1938. The 614 continued to use the Hector until November 1939 to switch on the Lysander.

Photo Hector 03: Hawker Hector K9738 of No. 2 Sqn in 1938.

Photo Hector 04: Hawker Hector K9748 of No. 2 Sqn in 1937.

Photo Hector 05: Hawker Hector K9722 of No. 26 Sqn in 1937.

Photo Hector 06: Hawker Hectors of No. 2 Sqn in 1938.

Photo Hector 07: Hawker Hector K9690 of No. 59 Sqn with the new camouflage and codes introduced after the Munich Crisis. This aircraft was wrecked in an accident on 19.05.39, killing the crew.

Photo Hector 08: Hawker Hectors in formation in 1937. This squadron was equipped with Hectors in May 1937, and changed for Lysanders in January 1939.

Photo Hector 09: Another view of K9690 (see photo 07)

Photo Hector 10: Hawker Hector K9700 of No. 59 Sqn in 1937.

Photo Hector 11: Hawker Hector K8143 of No. 4 Sqn in 1937.

Photo Hector 12: Another view of Hectors of No. 4 Sqn (see photo 08).

Photo Hector 13: Hawker Hector K8095 of No. 13 Sqn in 1937. This squadron received its first machines the same month as No. 4 Sqn.

Photo Hector 14: Hawker Hector K8104 of No. 612 sqn taken before being lost in an accident in May 1939.

Photo Hector 15: An unidentified Hawker Hector of 2 AACU to be used for target tugs duty.

Photo Hector 16: Hawker Hector K9711 believed to belong to No. 102 GOTU early in 1942.

Photo Hector 17: Hawker Hector K8145 of No. 4 Sqn, preparing for a night training flight.

Photo Hector 18: Hawker Hector K9703 of No. 53 Sqn in 1937, the first squadron to be equipped with Hectors in January 1937.

Photo Hector 19: Hawker Hectors of No. 53 Sqn, ready for night exercise.

Photo Hector 20: Hawker Hector K9755 of No. 2 Sqn in 1938.


Variants

Data from Hawker Aircraft since 1920 [3]

General characteristics

  • Crew: Two
  • Length: 29 ft 9¾ in (9.09 m)
  • Wingspan: 36 ft 11½ in (11.26 m)
  • Height: 10 ft 5 in (3.18 m)
  • Wing area: 346 ft² [4] (33.1 m²)
  • Empty weight: 3,389 lb (1,537 kg)
  • Loaded weight: 4,910 lb (2,227 kg)
  • Powerplant: 1 × Napier Dagger III 24-cylinder air-cooled H-block engine, 805 hp (601 kW)
  • Maximum speed: 162 kn (187 mph, 301 km/h) at 6,560 ft (1,999 m)
  • Stall speed: 44 kn (50 mph, [5] 80.5 km/h)
  • Range: 261 nmi (300 mi, [4] 483 km)
  • Service ceiling: 24,000 ft (7,815 m)
  • Wing loading: 14.2 lb/ft² (67.3 kg/m²)
  • Power/mass: 0.17 hp/lb (0.27 kW/kg)
  • Climb to 10,000 ft (3,050 m): 5 min 40 s
  • Guns:
    • 1 × forward-firing .303 in (7.7 mm) Vickers machine gun Mk.V
    • 1 × .303 in (7.7 mm) Lewis gun in the rear cockpit on a Hawker mount

    Hawker Hector - History

    The prototype Hawker Hector K3719 photographed at Brooklands in 1936.

    The Hawker Aircraft Company Hector was the final aircraft to be derived directly from the Hawker Hart and served with the RAF between 1937 and 1940.

    It was designed, against Specification 14/25 to replace the Hawker Audax in the Army co-operation role.

    The airframe was based on that of the Hawker Hind, but making use of the more powerful (and heavier) 805 hp 24-cylinder Napier Dagger &lsquoH-engine&rsquo. Because the increased engine weight moved the aircraft centre of gravity forward, the Hector&rsquos upper wing was unswept, unlike all other Hawker Hart derivative aircraft.

    The first prototype (K3719) was first flown on 14th February 1936 with Hawker Test Pilot George Bulman at the controls.

    178 production aircraft were built, this being contracted to Westland Aircraft Ltd with deliveries being completed between February and December 1937. This decision to outsource the production was undoubtedly taken so that Hawker Aircraft could give priority to the production of the Hawker Hurricane fighter.

    The prototype Hawker Hector K3719 in flight, showing the unswept upper wing and Napier engine.

    The main external difference between the prototype and the production aircraft was that the latter were fitted with tailwheels, rather than the tailskid used by the prototype.

    The Hawker Hector entered service in February 1937 with 4 Sqn, based at Odiham although during 1939 it was withdrawn from service with front-line squadrons, being replaced by the Westland Lysander. It continued in service however with five Auxiliary Air Force squadrons and it was flown operationally against German forces in northern France in 1940.

    On 26th May 1940, six Hawker Hectors of 613 Sqn dive-bombed German forces near Calais and then carried out supply drops to British troops the following day.

    Following the withdrawal from France, the 72 Hawker Hector aircraft that remained on RAF strength were relegated to target and glider towing duties in support of 38 Group Training Units. They operated from several locations, including Croughton, Thame, Wellesbourne Mountford, Weston-on the-Green, Kidlington and Shobdon.

    Thirteen ex-RAF aircraft were subsequently supplied to the Irish Air Corps for general purpose use.

    The Westland-built first production Hawker Hector K8090.

    Πίνακας περιεχομένων

    Το Hector αναπτύχθηκε προκειμένου να αντικαταστήσει τα προγενέστερα Hawker Audax. Τον σχεδιασμό και την κατασκευή του πρωτοτύπου ανέλαβε η Hawker, όμως η παραγωγή μεταφέρθηκε στην Westland Aircraft. Εξαιτίας της ανάγκης για χρήση των κινητήρων Rolls-Royce Kestrel στα Hawker Hind, εξαιτάστηκε η χρήση εναλλακτικού προωστικού συστήματος με τα Hector. Συγκεκριμένα επιλέχθηκε ο Napier Dagger III. Το πρωτότυπο πραγματοποιήσε την παρθενική του πτήση στις 14 Φεβρουαρίου 1936 με χειριστή τον George Bulman. Πέραν του πρωτοτύπου κατασκευάστηκαν ακόμη 178 αεροσκάφη παραγωγής, εκ των οποίων τα 13 διατέθηκαν στην Ιρλανδία στα 1941–2.

    Οι παραδόσεις σε σχηματισμούς της Βασιλικής Αεροπορίας ξεκίνησαν τον Φεβρουάριο του 1937, όμως η αντικατάσταση των Hector από τα Westland Lysander ξεκίνησε μόλις τον Ιούλιο του 1938. [1] Τα Hector μεταφέρθηκαν σε μονάδες της Βοηθητικής Αεροπορίας (Auxiliary Air Force). Το Νο. 613 Σμήνος της RAF ήταν στην φάση της μετάβασης από τα Hector στα Lysander όταν ανέλαβε αποστολές υποστήριξης των περικυκλωμένων Συμμαχικών δυνάμεων στο Καλαί. Στις 26 Μαΐου 1940 έξι Hector καθώς και τα Lysander του Σμήνους έπληξαν τις γερμανικές θέσεις γύρω από το Καλαί και την επομένη έριξαν εφόδια στα φίλια στρατεύματα, αγνοώντας ότι είχαν ήδη παραδοθεί. [2] Από το 1940 η RAF αξιοποίησε τα Hector για την ρυμούλκηση ιπτάμενων στόχων καθώς και ανεμόπτερων.

    Η Ιρλανδία παρέλαβε μικρό αριθμό αεροσκαφών, που αποδείχθηκαν δύσκολα στην συντήρηση ενώ ήταν ήδη σε κακή κατάσταση.

    Στα μέσα της δεκαετίας του 1990 ανακτήθηκε ένα από ιρλανδικά αεροσκάφη κοντά στο Dundrum, [4] ενώ κομμάτια του αεροσκάφους με αναγνωριστικό K8096 στην κορυφή Red Pike στην βορειοδυτική Αγγλία. Το αεροσκάφος συνετρίβη εκεί στις 8 Σεπτεμβρίου 1941 με συνέπεια να σκοτωθεί ο πιλότος του. [5]


    5 unusual hawker classics

    Everyone who has set foot in a hawker centre knows the “national dishes” like chicken rice and char kway teow. But there are others that you may not know – or shudder at the thought of! Singaporeans have been eating them forever, though, so how bad could they be? Here are five to try next time you wander into tasty-town.

    1. Kway chap: Pig parts and offal stewed in a dark broth of soy and herbs, and served with rice noodle ribbons, fishcakes, tofu and egg. Hey, don’t knock it till you’ve tried it!
    2. Sambal skate: Skate wing slathered with belachan chilli paste, grilled on a banana leaf over an open flame and squirted with calamansi (lime juice). Crazy.
    3. Sup tulang: Mutton bones cooked in a crimson, sweet-hot Indian broth until the meat is tender and the marrow is like butter. Slurp that marrow or spread it on bread. It’s the foie gras of sheep!
    4. Lontong: Mashed rice cakes simmered with tofu and vegetables in a spicy coconut milk broth. Rich and smooth, it isn’t pretty – but it is tasty.
    5. Or luak: A batter of oysters, eggs, herbs and starch, deep fried into a brown, crispy-edged “omelette” of just-cooked oyster goodness. Just don’t tell your cardiologist.

    Hawker Hector - History

    After Flight Lieutenant Chris House was shot down in RB396, he knew he had to get away from the crash site as quickly as possible. As he was coming in for his forced landing, he had noticed a large build with a Red Cross on the roof. Rightly deciding this was a German field hospital, he made for the fields in the other direction.

    As he was escaping, he could see German troops making their way towards RB396. Safely away, Chris needed to make sure he wasn’t found. In a field where he noticed a few people working, Chris burrowed into a haystack and hoped for the best. He was found by Herman ter Duis and taken to their farmhouse. With the aid of a translator, Chris explained his situation and that he had come from an airfield in Germany. Chris remembered they listened to the BBC before turning in for the night.

    The next day, April 2nd, a local guide turned up with a spare bicycle and they made their way toward Allied lines, using the ditches and hedges for cover. Eventually, Chris found the advanced units of the Guards Armoured Division and he was safe. From there, he made his way back across the Rhine to B.100 at Goch, Germany. When he arrived back, the rumours that had been whispered were now confirmed, 174 (Mauritius) Squadron was to be disbanded in the following days.

    The Squadron was not in the best of mood but the ORB Summary noted that the mood lifted noticeably when an exhausted Chris turned up and told all about his adventure. With the war’s end in sight, 2TAF were consolidating their units. In 121 Wing, 174 Squadron were the third to be disbanded. Between Chris’ return and the formal disbanding of the unit, 174 Squadron flies 11 more sorties, Chris himself flew one more on the 7th, four days after getting back, before being posted to 175 Squadron where he saw out the war.

    174 Squadron had been formed at Manston on 3 March 1942 around seventeen Hurricanes and eight pilots from No.607 Squadron, and as a result, was able to begin operations on the same day. They flew on the Dieppe Raid and converted to Typhoons a year later. After being equipped with Rockets in January 1944, 174 would play a key role as part of 121 Wing 2nd Tactical Air Force, including the attack on the Jobourg radar station near Cap de la Hague on the day before the D-Day landings. RB396 would only be a part of the squadron for a little under four months but she lived up to the squadron’s simple but apt moto, “Attack”.

    April 1st 1945 dawned dull but 174 Squadron was called upon at noon to deal with a report of MET (Mechanised Enemy Transport) on the roads near Hengelo in the Netherlands. Departing the safety of their base at B.100 outside of Goch, Germany, Flight Lieutenant Chris House was flying as Red 4 in Hawker Typhoon MkIb, RB396 for the first time. Her usual pilot, Frank Johnson, was shot down just two days before and taken PoW. He was flying another aircraft that day because RB396 was being repaired from flak damage picked up whilst being flown by Sydney Russell-Smith two days prior to that.

    The convoy was soon spotted and Red Section made their first attack, unleashing the Typhoon’s powerful payload of 8 RP-3 60lb rockets on the trucks below them. Wheeling around after his first pass, F/L House and RB396 followed up their attack with their 20mm cannons. Despite the carnage created by the rocket attack, the Germans responded with heavy and accurate anti-aircraft fire from their light flak guns. RB396 was at about 500 feet when she was hit by this intense flak.

    F/L House had moments to react, getting RB396 away to the north, he knew he would not be able to return to base and he successfully force landed RB396 in a field outside of Denekamp, Netherlands. Once down, the rest of Red Section were relieved to hear Chris radio that he was OK. Chris unstrapped himself, unplugged his RT and Oxygen cables and perhaps with one last look at the Typhoon with the name of another man’s girlfriend written on the nose, in his words, ‘did a runner’.

    This newly discovered image of RB396 was taken while she was being salvaged, sometime after 1st April 1945. It clearly shows the impact of the landing that Chris carried out 75 years ago.

    Chris recalled that dull April day many years later in a letter, he said, “I left the aircraft and ran away from the direction of what I presumed was a German field hospital. I also observed some Germans heading in the direction of the crash. I skirted several fields in which there were one or two men working and eventually I came to a haystack and decided to burrow into it pulling the hay in behind me.” Later Chris was found by a local farmer, Herman ter Duis. Noticing the British uniform, Herman approached and was greeted by the offer of a cigarette. Chris was taken back to the farm that Herman shared with his brother, where he spent the night.

    Chris later wrote in a letter, “I was discovered by a young lad who took me into the farm where several adults were in the kitchen. They made me welcome and whilst there they showed me their hidden radio with which they listened to the BBC news. They were very kind to me.” Chris slept in one of the farmhouse bedrooms with his revolver placed on the bedside cabinet.

    The following morning Chris was provided with overalls, a bicycle and a guide. They set off in the direction of the Allied advance. Chris remembered, “we had to cycle past a long column of German armour and eventually later in the day I said goodbye to my guide and bicycle and after using ditches to hide in, I was eventually found by the advanced elements of the Guards Armoured Division and a couple of days later was returned across the Rhine to my Squadron.”

    In a very matter of fact way, Chris recorded in his logbook that he had been “Shot down 5 miles SW of Lingen. Evaded. Returned a couple of days later.” His return was recorded by his CO in the Squadron’s ORB on 3rd April by the comment, “Depression lifted slightly today when House was known to be safe and on his way back. Poor Chris looked nearly exhausted when he came in but what an adventure.”

    75 years on from that final flight, the project to return RB396 to the skies where she belongs has announced new initiatives for how you can support the rebuild. There is a new and exciting tier to the Supporters’ Club, as a route for those who are able and willing to contribute to the rebuild at a higher level than is currently available. It is the Platinum Club, and with significant interest already, it has the potential to enable the rebuild to progress at a much faster pace than is currently possible. It seeks just one thousand people who really want to see the rebuild take off, membership to this club is limited. Alongside that, a range of special new merchandise to commemorate the events of the 75th anniversary have been produced, including a Limited Edition artwork, depicting Chris escaping from the scene of his forced landing. Throughout this 75th anniversary year, the HTPG is planning special events, to mark the anniversary. As soon as restrictions allow, those events will come to fruition and will be incredibly special.

    Chris heard that the family who had helped him escape had been shot by the Gestapo. This haunted him forever, and he passed away in 2007 never being able to bring himself to return to the area. Through countless hours of extensive enquiries, the research team on the HTPG have now discovered that the family survived. They were not shot by the Gestapo. The team have now been in touch with the descendants who helped Chris, including the then young boy, as well as Chris’ own family. Planning is ongoing to reunite the two families, in the anniversary year of the final flight, at the exact site, bringing a degree of closure to the story.

    To support the project to return RB396 to the skies, 75 years after she fell from them, please head to the “Get Involved” section of this website.

    While RB396 was still being repaired from the damage of the 28th, P/O Frank Johnson continued to fly, today in Typhoon SW495. They took off in a flight of four 174 Squadron Typhoons at 13:40 with Frank flying as Red 4. They were tasked with intercepting some enemy transport on the roads near Neimberg. after their first attack with rockets, Frank seems to have been hit by flak and radioed in that his engine was cutting out and he was returning to base at Goch. He never made it back, force landing near Gronau. Germany.

    Frank can explain what happens next better than we can.

    On this 75 th anniversary of Frank being shot down, we are delighted to present this excerpt of The Memory Project’s Shayla Howell interview with Frank, where he describes the mission and its aftermath.

    We are honoured to have partnered with The Memory Project, an initiative of Historica Canada, to share Frank’s and other Canadian Typhoon pilot’s experiences.

    The Memory Project Archive houses more than 2,800 testimonials and over 10,000 images from veterans of the First World War, Second World War, the Korean War and peacekeeping missions. While the archive no longer accepts submissions, it remains the largest of its kind in Canada. You can access the interviews, digitised artefacts and book a speaker at www.thememoryproject.com/stories.

    After a day of indifferent weather, RB396 and P/O Frank Johnson were back in action, flying close support mission in aid of the ground forces pushing deeper into the Reich. The morning operation had four 174 Squadron Typhoons proceed to their cab rank station, with P/O Frank Johnson in RB396 flying as Red 3 with the newly joined F/L Chris House flying as his wingman in Red 4. Soon their controller, ‘Limejuice’, had trade for them. They were vectored to a farmhouse the Army designated with red target smoke. A force of German troops were holed up inside and the four Typhoons made four attacks on the building, first with rockets and then with cannon. The result was that the building was totally destroyed. All aircraft returned safely to B.100 at Goch, Germany after a forty-minute sortie.

    That afternoon, Frank and Chris would together again on an Armed Recce to Winterswijk on the Netherlands/German border. Frank would be flying in another Typhoon, XP-M, as F/O Sydney Russell-Smith was flying RB396 as Red 4 that afternoon.

    The operation was a patrol over the bomb line that took them to Zutphen in the Netherlands. While no trade was given by forward controllers, they spotted some anti-aircraft guns and made an attack. Due to the increasing cloud cover, the results on the ground were inconclusive, but the effect on RB396 was clear. Sydney reported that they had been hit in the starboard tank.

    This did not stop Sydney and RB396 from making a safe return to B.100 after a sortie of 1 hour and 10 minutes.

    Sydney Russell-SMith’s logbook for the 28th March 1945

    RB396 would be out of action for the next three days.

    The project has had extensive contact with Sydney’s son and family, and Sydney is still with us. He is certainly the last known pilot to have physically flown in the very aircraft that the project is working on rebuilding. Sydney managed to sign two copies of the artwork depicting RB396 that was painted by Neil Hipkiss. Sydney, who was a P/O at the time, completed his ground training for the Typhoon MkIb on the 8/9th January 1945 and he appeared to arrive with 174 Squadron, who were at B100 Goch, sometime before the 22nd March 1945, completing his first sortie with them on that date.

    The day broke fine and 174 Squadron put up 9 operations of four aircraft each. RB396 and P/O Frank Johnson would fly two of them with Sydney Russell-Smith as their wingman. The advance into Germany continued apace with Monty’s 21st Army Group pushing into the Rhineland from Wessel and Patton and Bradley in the south pushing in from Remagen.

    The first op of the day saw them airborne for 09:15, flying as Red 3, and they proceeded to the holding point for the Visual Control Point (VCP) ground controller to call them in. With no target given, they were directed to their alternate, which was the town of Isselburg, north-west of Wessel. They attacked the town with rockets and cannon, which all landed in the target area but no clear results were seen or reported. All aircraft returned to B.100 safely after a sortie of just 45 minutes, which show how close to the frontline 174 Squadron was based.

    Churchill crossing the Rhine at Wessel. 25 March 1945

    Shortly after RB396’s return, the next set of four Typhoons departed for their cab-rank. But the lead aircraft, flown by F/L D.C. Nott crashed on takeoff. The remaining three aircraft got away ok, Nott was unhurt and his Typhoon would be repaired and returned to service. On such a busy day, this could have been disastrous for the wing operating out of Goch.

    The interior of “G Air” Command vehicle. “G Air” is responsible for all air support within the Corps and sets in motion bombing by Allied planes of enemy concentrations and Typhoon RP attacks on tanks. Image: IWM BU 428

    The interior of “G Air” Command vehicle. “G Air” is responsible for all air support within the Corps and sets in motion bombing by Allied planes of enemy concentrations and Typhoon RP attacks on tanks. Image: IWM BU 428

    After a break of 6 hours, RB396 with Frank Johnson at the controls were airborne again. Their usual V.C.P. controller, callsign ‘Limejuice’ handed them over to another, callsign ‘Armour’, who had a group of enemy troops holed up in a house that needed clearing. White smoke was laid on to the house and RB396 went into the attack. Attacking with rockets and cannon, Frank noted the success of the strike in his logbook saying: “Attacked “Jerry” billets. Scored several strikes. Buildings left burning.”

    All aircraft returned to base safely after a 50-minute sortie. 174 would fly two more operations that day, including one lead by F/L Nott in a borrowed Typhoon. The squadron summary noted at the end of the day that “targets and results were both very good. Pilots happy and tired.”

    While RB396 and Frank Johnson were busy, freshly captured Wessel was visited by the Prime Minister, Winston Churchill. He made the crossing with little fanfare and was not far from the fighting throughout his visit. Eisenhower was not amused.


    Operační historie [ editovat | editovat zdroj ]

    Počínaje únorem 1937 začaly Hectory přicházet do výzbroje celkem sedmi perutí RAF pro spolupráci s armádou, ale již od července 1938 začaly být u pravidelných jednotek nahrazovány letouny Westland Lysander. Α] Hectory pak byly předány útvarům Auxiliary Air Force.

    V květnu 1940 procházela 613. peruť přezbrojením na Lysandery na základně RAF Hawkinge, odkud začala podnikat lety na podporu spojeneckých vojsk odříznutých v Calais. Dne 26. května spolu s Lysandery podniklo střemhlavý nálet na německé pozice okolo města i šest Hectorů, Ώ] a následujícího dne byly dva Hectory sestřeleny při pokusu o shoz zásob pozemním vojskům, aniž by bylo známo, že tamní posádka již mezitím kapitulovala. V roce 1940 RAF Hectory přeřadilo k pomocným úlohám při vleku cvičných terčů a výcvikových kluzáků General Aircraft Hotspur.

    V období po evakuaci z Dunkerku získal několik exemplářů typu také Irský letecký sbor. Většina z nich byla ve špatném stavu. Britské ministerstvo války je Irsku prodalo na jeho žádost o vojenská letadla, za situace kdy ozbrojené síly Irska nebyly připraveny na vedení rozsáhlých bojových operací, a v oblasti dodávek vojenského materiálu byly téměř zcela závislé na Spojeném království. Zajištění obrany Irska bylo i v britském zájmu, ale v době probíhající bitvy o Británii Hectory představovaly ten nejlepší typ, který mohl být irské vládě odprodán. V Irsku byl letoun značně neoblíben u příslušníků pozemní obsluhy, vzhledem ke složitosti a nespolehlivosti motorů Dagger, které měly dvacet čtyři válců ve velmi kompaktní konfiguraci, která komplikovala přístup k nim.


    A Short History of Enersys Hawker

    Enersys Hawker are a leading manufacturer of Pure Lead Batteries that have a popular use in Emergency Lighting applications. Their cyclon batteries are confusingly referred to in a number of ways including Enersys Cyclon, Hawker Cyclon or Hawker Enersys Cyclon!

    The history of the organization dates back to 1945 when the Swedish company Svenska Batteri AB was founded. Within three years they were purchased by Boliden who changed the name to Boliden Batteri AB.

    In 1961 this business was then acquired by VARTA and yet another name change followed, this time to Nordiska Ackumulatorfabriker NOACK AB. This literally translates to “Nordic Battery Factory”.

    It was in 1989, as market globalization accelerated, that the name was simplified to VARTA Batteri AB, part of the VARTA Industrial Battery Division. This in turn, in 1995, was sold to BTR plc. It was under BTR, 5 years later, that the name Hawker AB came into being.

    In 2002 Hawker was merged with Enersys and the brand officially became Enersys SA although even on their own website and some battery units they continue to display the Hawker logo.

    Enersys have manufacturing plants in France, Germany and Poland while supplying to a global market including Asia and the United States.

    Within the world of Emergency Lighting Batteries Enersys are best known for the Cyclon battery, a type of unit where the lead plates are a spiral design within the casing rather than rectangular plates as seen in cube shaped units.

    BatteryGuy stocks a wide range of Enersys Cyclon batteries available for same day shipping. And yes, when we say Enersys Cylon we also mean Hawker Cyclon because they are one and the same!


    Politics [ edit ]

    This is a community maintained wiki. If you spot a mistake then you are welcome to fix it.

    South Africa is a minor nation whose main feature is its unique position. Far away from Europe, it is the only African country with a national government other than tiny Liberia (unless a player-led Ethiopia pulls off a miracle). Although South Africa is not affected by the Great Depression, it suffers from History of Segregation, which inflicts a crippling -55% recruitment factor on an already limited manpower pool. The nation has a small industry by Western standards, but it is far more developed than the rest of the continent. Once Europe has been engulfed in the flames of the World War, it will fall upon South Africa to protect the colonial empires - or destroy them.

    National spirits [ edit ]

    This is a community maintained wiki. If you spot a mistake then you are welcome to fix it.

    By default, South Africa has no national spirits. However, with the Together for Victory DLC enabled, the country will have the Ossewabrandwag and History of Segregation national spirits at the start of both the 1936 and 1939 scenario. These national spirits can be modified depending on which national focuses South Africa chooses throughout the course of a game.


    Watch the video: Nostalgia osa 2 (January 2022).