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Shepard Knapp - History

Shepard Knapp - History

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Shepherd Knapp
(Ship: t. 838, 1. 160'10", b. 33'8"; dph. 22'3", dr. 13'
(It.); cpl. 93; a. 8 guns)

Shepherd Knapp-a ship-rigged sailing vessel-was purchased at New York City on 28 August 1861 from Laurence Giles Co.

Since the logs of Shephard Knapp are missing, many details of her career are unknown. Apparently her first commanding officer was Acting Volunteer Lieutenant Henry S. Eytinge who was ordered on 1 November 1861 to cruise in the West Indies seeking to capture or destroy any "vessels of the rebels" he might encounter. The special object of his attention was the Confederate commerce raider, Sumter, which had been preying on Union shipping since early summer. After a long cruise in which she never quite caught up with Capt. Raphael Semmes and his elusive steamer, Shepherd Knapp returned to New York on the afternoon of 17 April 1862.

The ship was laid up at the New York Navy Yard for the rest of the year. On 20 January 1863, she was again ordered to cruise in the West Indies seeking Confederate ships, especially the Alabama. Again, Semmes managed to elude the Union warship. After cruising in the Caribbean for over three and one-half months Shepherd Knapp struck a coral reef off Cape Haiten and was abandoned.

Hidden Nearby: The U.S.S. Pittsburgh Bell in New Milford

The monument in Honor of Admiral Henry Shepard Knapp on the New Milford green.

A granite shaft with a bell adorning it stands at the center of the New Milford green. It honors an American naval officer with deep family ties to the town.

Henry Shepard Knapp was born in New Britain in 1856, and graduated from the United States Naval Academy in 1878. He served in the navy for the next 42 years. Gaining combat experience in the Spanish-American War, in 1908 he was given command of his own ship, the cruiser U.S.S. Charleston. In 1915, Knapp was named to command the U.S. Atlantic Fleet, and in 1916 he proclaimed the American occupation of the Dominican Republic, of which he would be named the military governor in 1917. He was promoted to rear admiral a week before World War I broke out.

During the war, Knapp was commanded American efforts to protect shipping from German U-Boats and was awarded the Navy Cross for this “meritorious service.” After the armistice Knapp served as naval attache in London, then commander of all American naval forces in European waters. During this time the U.S.S. Pittsburgh served as his flagship. He retired in 1920 but was so highly esteemed that he was kept on as a consultant and unofficial diplomat in handling crises in Haiti and the Dominican Republic and taught summer courses at the United States Naval Institute until his death in Hartford in 1923.

The bell of the U.S.S. Pittsburgh. It is interesting to note from the inscription that the bell had been used on a ship before, the Steamer Pensacola, which was commissioned in 1859 and decommissioned at Mare Island Navy Yard in California (visible on the bell) in 1911, a year before the Pittsburgh was commissioned.

In 1951, New Milford’s Ezra Woods Post 31 of the American Legion erected the monument to Knapp on the town green. (Woods was New Milford’s first resident killed in World War I.) Knapp had owned property in town – including a commercial building on Bank Street – and spent summers in New Milford at the family’s ancestral home.

In 1956, the Knapp house was donated to the New Milford Historical Society by Mary Clissold Knapp in 1956. This was the house of cobbler Levi Knapp who purchased it from Royal Davis in 1838. Parts of the house date to 1770, while much was of it was built in 1815. The house stands at the northern end of the green on the historical’s society’s property.

Shepard Knapp - History

Harry Shepard Knapp, born 27 June 1856 in New Britain, Conn., graduated from the Naval Academy 20 June 1878. After serving in Pensacola as cadet midshipman and in Minnesota and Jamestown as a midshipman, he was commissioned Ensign 8 July 1882. Following assignments to a number of ships and stations ashore, he was ordered to Dorothea as executive officer at the outbreak of the Spanish American War. Outstanding service in a variety of important billets afloat and ashore was rewarded on 3 August 1908 when Knapp assumed command of Charleston (C-22). Promoted to Captain 1909, Knapp was assigned to the General Board 8 January 1910. At about this time he served intermittently on the Joint Army and Navy Board for Defense of the Panama Canal. He was in charge of Florida (BB-30) while she was fitted out and commanded the battleship when she first commissioned 15 September 1911. He took command of Cruiser Force, Atlantic Fleet 8 November 1915.

Knapp was promoted to Rear Admiral 17 March 1917 and a week before the United States entered World War I was appointed Military Governor of Santo Domingo and Military Representative of the United States in Haiti. "Meritorious service" in this post, labouring to protect Allied shipping from German U-boats and to make the Caribbean secure from enemy aggression, won Rear Admiral Knapp the Navy Cross. Soon after the armistice, he was Naval Attache in London with staff duties and on 4 February 1920 assumed command of U.S. Naval Forces operating in European waters with rank of Vice Admiral. Even after Vice Admiral Knapp was placed on the retired list effective 27 June 1920, the Navy utilized his singular abilities. This won him temporary active duty as a consultant and as quasi-diplomat. He died at Hartford, Conn., 6 April 1928.

(DD-653: dp. 2,050 1. 376'6" b. 39'7" dr. 17'9" s. 37 k. cpl. 319 a. 5 5", 10 21" tt., 6 dcp., 2 dct. cl. Fletcher)

Knapp (DD-653) was laid down 8 March 1943 by Bath Iron Works, Bath, Maine launched 10 July 1943 sponsored by Misses Margaret L. and Mary C. Knapp and commissioned 16 September 1943, Comdr. Frank Virden in command.

After shakedown out of Bermuda, Knapp departed Boston 26 November for the Pacific arriving Pearl Harbor 21 December. She departed Pearl Harbor 16 January with the mighty carriers of Admiral Mitscher's Task Force 58 for the Marshall Islands invasion. At sea on this duty from 16 January until 12 February when she put in to Majuro, Knapp also bombarded Kwajalein Island. She continued her screening as carriers launched raids on Truk 16-17 February and on bases in the Marianas from 21 to 22 February, then sailed from Majuro to Espiritu Santo to screen carriers providing air cover for the seizure of Emirau Island from 20 to 25 March and raiding the Palaus, Yap, and Woleai from 30 March to I April.

The destroyer returned to Majuro 6 April 1944 and a week later she sortied with heavy ships for the Hollandia landings of 21 to 24 April, and air raids on Truk, Satawan, and Ponape at the close of the month.

Following replenishment at Majuro, in May Knapp joined and screened carriers during operations against Saipan. On 19 June Knapp guarded her force during the momentous air Battle of the Philippine Sea in which Japan's air power was annihilated. From 25 July to 5 August she continued her screening in the raids on Palau, Ulithi, Yap, Iwo Jima, and Chichi Jima during the last of which she joined in the surface gunfire which sank several ships of a Japanese convoy earlier badly mauled by carrier aircraft. Knapp refitted at Eniwetok 11 to 30 August.

Knapp steamed out of Eniwetok for the invasion of the Palaus .30 August screening five battleships and later rendezvous with carriers Langley, Lexington, Essex, and Princeton before their deadly strikes at targets in the Palaus during the bloody struggle to take Peleliu. During September Knapp screened heavy ships making strikes at the Philippines and 6 October she sailed from Ulithi for the air strikes on Okinawa and Formosa in preparation for the Leyte landings, and fired protective antiaircraft cover for her force during the Formosa air battle of 12-14 October. After guarding the retirement toward safety of the stricken Canberra which had been struck by an aerial torpedo 13 October, she rejoined her force for air strikes on Luzon, and screened them during the Battle of Surigao Strait, one phase of the decisive Battle of Leyte Gulf. She returned to Ulithi 30 October, 2 days later headed back to the Philippines. After Reno was damaged 3 November by a submarine torpedo, Knapp guarded her withdrawal to safety. From 25 November through the middle of January 1945 Knapp screened air strikes on Luzon, French Indo China, and cities on the China Coast neutralizing Japanese bases in preparation for the Lingayen invasion. Escorting Ticonderoga which was hit during an air attack on 21 January, Knapp arrived in Ulithi 24 January 1945 with the crippled carrier. Accomplishing her mission, the veteran destroyer sailed 30 January for the West Coast, arriving 20 February for overhaul.

Knapp sailed for the Western Pacific 23 April arriving off Okinawa 27 May 1945. She served on dangerous and demanding duty as radar picket ship until 26 June. Three days later she joined carrier Task Force 39 for the final series of raids against the Japanese home island. Following the end of fighting 15 August, Knapp arrived in Sagami Wan, Honshu, Empire of Japan, 27 August and sailed into Tokyo Bay I September for the surrender ceremonies aboard the Missouri (BB-63) 2 September. During the early days of the occupation she helped demilitarize Japanese midget submarine and suicide boat bases.

She sailed for the United States 5 December and arrived at San Diego 21 December 1945. Shortly thereafter Knapp sailed via the Panama Canal for Boston arriving 17 January 1946. She sailed for Charleston, S.C., 2 April and decommissioned 5 July 1946.

Knapp recommissioned 3 May 1951 when the outbreak of the Korean conflict necessitated more naval vessels. She served in the Atlantic Fleet working out of Newport, R.I. She cruised in the Caribbean from 20 July to 13 September when she pulled into Charleston, where she was refitted with modern equipment then sailed 4 February 1952 with a task force to England, Norway, and Germany. She made a voyage to the Mediterranean 22 November visiting ports in Italy, Turkey, and Spain. Knapp transitted the Straits of Gibraltar 26 January 1953 and overhauled at Boston until 10 August 1953 when she deployed with Destroyer Division 182 for a world cruise. Her cruise was delayed when she arrived in the Far East. She patrolled the Korean coast with Task Force 77 until 14 January 1954 when she resumed her cruise via Hong Kong Singapore Colombo Aden Saudi Arabia Suez Canal visited Port Said, Naples, Barcelona, Lisbon, Bermuda, and arrived Fall River, Mass., 10 March 1954.

Knapp sailed from Newport for San Diego arriving 15 December. She got underway 4 January 1955 for the Western Pacific and patrolled the East China Sea and the Formosa Straits until the first part of June when she returned to San Diego 19 June 1955. After operations along the California coast she returned to the Par East 27 January 1956, visited ports of Kobe, Subic Bay, Buckners Bay and patrolled the Formosa Straits showing off to the Communists our interests in that part of the world before returning San Diego 31 May 1956. She operated along the California coast, entering Long Beach Naval Shipyard 4 September for overhaul. Knapp was decommissioned 4 March 1957 and assigned to the Long Beach Group, Pacific Reserve Fleet. At present she is berthed at Bremerton, Wash.


Después de ser asignado a un número de barcos y estaciones en tierra, se le encargó de la cañonera "Dorothea" como oficial ejecutivo en el estallido de la Guerra Española-Americ ana.

Realizó un excelente servicio en una variedad de palanquillas importantes en mar y en tierra y fue recompensado el 3 de agosto 1908, siendo nombrado al mando del crucero protegido Charleston (C-22).

Ascendido a capitán en 1909, Knapp fue asignado a la Junta General el 08 de enero de 1910. En esta época se desempeñó de manera intermitente en el Ejército y la Marina Conjunta de Defensa del Canal de Panamá. Estuvo a cargo del barco "Florida" (BB-30), mientras este se habilitaba y dirigió el acorazado en su primera misión, el 15 de septiembre de 1911.

Knapp tomó el mando del CRUISE FORCE, que era la Flota Naval Norteamericana del Atlántico , el 8 de noviembre de 1915.

Sucedió al Presidente Francisco Henríquez y Carvajal, como líder de Santo Domingo en 1916, siendo nombrado como el primer Gobernador Norteamericano de la Isla, cuando los ellos tomaron control . Recordemos que Francisco Henríquez y Carvajal, había sustituido al renunciante Juan Isidro Jiménez en la presidencia, pero se opuso a las pretensiones del gobierno norteamericano de recortar los ingresos de las aduanas y fue removido y sustituido por Knapp.

El 29 de Noviembre de 1916, el Contralmirante Harry Shepard Knapp, leyó a bordo del Vapor de Guerra OLIMPIA, una proclama, donde se ponía a la República Dominicana, bajo la soberanía del gobierno Norteamericano.

Knapp fue ascendido a contralmirante el 17 de marzo 1917 y una semana antes de que Estados Unidos entrara en la Primera Guerra Mundial, fue nombrado gobernador militar de Santo Domingo y Representante Militar de los Estados Unidos en Haití.

Con el distintivo de "Servicio Meritorio", y habiendo realizado un buen trabajo en la protección de los barcos aliados, frente a los submarinos alemanes , hizo del Mar Caribe un sitio seguro de la agresión enemiga, ganando el contralmirante Knapp, la Cruz de la Marina.

Poco después del armisticio, fue Agregado Naval en Londres con las funciones de jefe de STAFF y en 04 de febrero 1920 estuvo al mando de las Fuerzas Navales que operaron en aguas europeas , con rango de Vice almirante.

Incluso después de que el vicealmirante Knapp fue colocado en la lista de jubilados a partir del 27 junio de 1920 la Armada utilizó sus singulares habilidades. Esto le valió el servicio activo temporal como consultor y como cuasi-diplomáti co. Murió en Hartford, Connecticut, el 06 de abril 1928.

Texto: Historia Dominicana en Gráficas
Foto: Remasterizada a color por Carlos Olivo


Alan Bartlett Shepard Jr. was born on November 18, 1923, in Derry, New Hampshire, [1] to Alan B. Shepard Sr. and Pauline Renza Shepard ( née Emerson). [2] He had a younger sister, Pauline, who was known as Polly. [3] He was one of many famous descendants of Mayflower passenger Richard Warren. [2] His father, Alan B. Shepard Sr., known as Bart, worked in the Derry National Bank, owned by Shepard's grandfather. Alan Sr. joined the National Guard in 1915 and served in France with the American Expeditionary Force during World War I. [4] He remained in the National Guard between the wars, and was recalled to active duty during World War II, rising to the rank of lieutenant colonel. [5]

Shepard attended Adams School in Derry, where his academic performance impressed his teachers he skipped the sixth grade, [6] and proceeded to middle school at Oak Street School in Derry, [5] where he skipped the eighth grade. [6] He achieved the Boy Scouts of America rank of First Class Scout. [7] In 1936, he went to the Pinkerton Academy, a private school in Derry that his father had attended and where his grandfather had been a trustee. He completed years 9 to 12 there. [6] Fascinated by flight, he created a model airplane club at the Academy, and his Christmas present in 1938 was a flight in a Douglas DC-3. [8] The following year he began cycling to Manchester Airfield, where he would do odd jobs in exchange for the occasional ride in an airplane or informal flying lesson. [9] [10]

Shepard graduated from Pinkerton Academy in 1940. Because World War II was already raging in Europe, his father wanted him to join the Army. Shepard chose the Navy instead. He easily passed the entrance exam to the United States Naval Academy at Annapolis in 1940, but at sixteen was too young to enter that year. The Navy sent him to the Admiral Farragut Academy, a prep school for the Naval Academy, from which he graduated with the Class of 1941. [11] Tests administered at Farragut indicated an IQ of 145, but his grades were mediocre. [12]

At Annapolis, Shepard enjoyed aquatic sports. He was a keen and competitive sailor, winning several races, including a regatta held by the Annapolis Yacht Club. He learned to sail all the types of boats the academy owned, up to and including USS Freedom, a 90-foot (27 m) schooner. He also participated in swimming, and rowed with the eight. [12] During his Christmas break in 1942, he went to Principia College to be with his sister, who was unable to go home owing to wartime travel restrictions. There he met Louise Brewer, whose parents were pensioners on the du Pont family estate, and, like Renza Shepard, were devout Christian Scientists. [13] [14] Owing to the war, the usual four-year course at Annapolis was cut short by a year. He graduated with the class of 1945 on June 6, 1944, ranked 463rd out of 915, and was commissioned as an ensign and awarded a Bachelor of Science degree. The following month he became secretly engaged to Louise. [15] [16]

—Shepard quoted at the New Mexico Museum of Space History [17]

After a month of classroom instruction in aviation, Shepard was posted to a destroyer, USS Cogswell, in August 1944 [18] it was US Navy policy that aviation candidates should first have some service at sea. [9] At the time the destroyer was deployed on active service in the Pacific Ocean. Shepard joined it when it returned to the naval base at Ulithi on October 30. [19] After just two days at sea Cogswell helped rescue 172 sailors from the cruiser USS Reno, which had been torpedoed by a Japanese submarine, then escorted the crippled ship back to Ulithi. The ship was buffeted by Typhoon Cobra in December 1944, a storm in which three other destroyers went down, and battled kamikazes in the invasion of Lingayen Gulf in January 1945. [20]

Cogswell returned to the United States for an overhaul in February 1945. Shepard was given three weeks' leave, in which time he and Louise decided to marry. The ceremony took place on March 3, 1945, in St. Stephen's Lutheran Church in Wilmington, Delaware. His father, Bart, served as his best man. The newlyweds had only a brief time together before Shepard rejoined Cogswell at the Long Beach Navy Yard on April 5, 1945. [21] After the war, they had two children, both daughters: Laura, born in 1947, [22] and Julie, born in 1951. [23] Following the death of Louise's sister in 1956, they raised her five-year-old niece, Judith Williams—whom they renamed Alice to avoid confusion with Julie—as their own, although they never adopted her. [24] [25] They eventually had six grandchildren. [26]

On Shepard's second cruise with Cogswell, he was appointed a gunnery officer, responsible for the 20 mm and 40 mm antiaircraft guns on the ship's bow. They engaged kamikazes in the Battle of Okinawa, where the ship served in the dangerous role of a radar picket. The job of the radar pickets was to warn the fleet of incoming kamikazes, but because they were often the first ships sighted by incoming Japanese aircraft, they were also the most likely ships to be attacked. Cogswell performed this duty from May 27, 1945, until June 26, when it rejoined Task Force 38. The ship also participated in the Allied naval bombardments of Japan, and was present in Tokyo Bay for the Surrender of Japan in September 1945. Shepard returned to the United States later that month. [19] [27]

In November 1945, Shepard arrived at Naval Air Station Corpus Christi in Texas, where he commenced basic flight training on January 7, 1946. [28] He was an average student, and for a time faced being "bilged" (dropped) from flight training and reassigned to the surface navy. To make up for this, he took private lessons at a local civilian flying school—something the Navy frowned on—earning a civil pilot's license. [29] His flying skills gradually improved, and by early 1947 his instructors rated him above average. He was sent to Naval Air Station Pensacola in Florida for advanced training. His final test was six perfect landings on the carrier USS Saipan. The following day, he received his naval aviator wings, which his father pinned on his chest. [30]

Shepard was assigned to Fighter Squadron 42 (VF-42), flying the Vought F4U Corsair. The squadron was nominally based on the aircraft carrier USS Franklin D. Roosevelt, but the ship was being overhauled at the time Shepard arrived, and in the meantime the squadron was based at Naval Air Station Norfolk in Virginia. He departed on his first cruise, of the Caribbean, on Franklin D. Roosevelt with VF-42 in 1948. Most of the aviators were, like Shepard, on their first assignment. Those who were not were given the opportunity to qualify for night landings on a carrier, a dangerous maneuver, especially in a Corsair, which had to bank sharply on approach. Shepard managed to persuade his squadron commander to allow him to qualify as well. After briefly returning to Norfolk, the carrier set out on a nine-month tour of the Mediterranean Sea. He earned a reputation for carousing and chasing women. He also instituted a ritual of, whenever he could, calling Louise at 17:00 (her time) each day. [31]

Normally sea duty alternated with periods of duty ashore. In 1950, Shepard was selected to attend the United States Naval Test Pilot School at Naval Air Station Patuxent River in Maryland. [32] As a test pilot he conducted high-altitude tests to obtain information about the light and air masses at different altitudes over North America carrier suitability certification of the McDonnell F2H Banshee experiments with the Navy's new in-flight refueling system and tests of the angled flight deck. [16] He narrowly avoided being court-martialed by the station commander, Rear Admiral Alfred M. Pride, after looping the Chesapeake Bay Bridge and making low passes over the beach at Ocean City, Maryland, and the base but Shepard's superiors, John Hyland and Robert M. Elder, interceded on his behalf. [33]

Shepard's next assignment was to VF-193, a night fighter squadron flying the Banshee, that was based at Naval Air Station Moffett Field, California. The squadron was part of Commander James D. "Jig Dog" Ramage's Air Group 19. Naval aviators with experience in jet aircraft were still relatively rare, and Ramage specifically requested Shepard's assignment on the advice of Elder, who commanded VF-193's sister squadron, VF-191. Ramage made Shepard his own wingman, [34] a decision that would save Ramage's life in 1954, when his oxygen system failed and Shepard talked him through a landing. [35] As squadron operations officer, Shepard's most important task was imparting his knowledge of flying jets to his fellow aviators to keep them alive. He served two tours on the aircraft carrier USS Oriskany in the western Pacific. It set out on a combat tour off Korea in 1953, during the Korean War, but the Korean Armistice Agreement ended the fighting in July 1953, and Shepard did not see combat. [36]

Rear Admiral John P. Whitney requested Shepard's services as an aide de camp, but Shepard wanted to fly. Therefore, at Shepard's request, Ramage spoke to the admiral on his behalf, and Shepard was instead sent back to Patuxent. [37] He flight tested the McDonnell F3H Demon, Vought F-8 Crusader, Douglas F4D Skyray and Grumman F-11 Tiger. [38] The Vought F7U Cutlass tended to go into an inverted spin during a snap roll. This was not unusual many aircraft did this, but normally if the pilot let go of the stick the aircraft would correct itself. When he attempted this in the F7U, Shepard found this was not the case. He was unable to break out of the spin and was forced to eject. In 1957, he was project test pilot on the Douglas F5D Skylancer. Shepard did not like the plane, and gave it an unfavorable report. The Navy canceled orders for it, buying the F8U instead. He also filed an unfavorable report on the F11F after a harrowing incident in which the engine failed on him during a high-speed dive. He managed to restart the engine and avoid a fatal crash. [39]

Shepard was an instructor at the Test Pilot School, and then entered the Naval War College at Newport, Rhode Island. [40] He graduated in 1957, and became an Aircraft Readiness Officer on the staff of the Commander-in-Chief, Atlantic Fleet. [41] By this time he had logged more than 3,600 hours of flying time, including 1,700 hours in jets. [42]

Mercury Seven Edit

On October 4, 1957, the Soviet Union launched Sputnik 1, the first artificial satellite. This shattered American confidence in its technological superiority, creating a wave of anxiety known as the Sputnik crisis. Among his responses, President Dwight D. Eisenhower launched the Space Race. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) was established on October 1, 1958, as a civilian agency to develop space technology. One of its first initiatives was publicly announced on December 17, 1958. This was Project Mercury, [43] which aimed to launch a man into Earth orbit, return him safely to the Earth, and evaluate his capabilities in space. [44]

NASA received permission from Eisenhower to recruit its first astronauts from the ranks of military test pilots. The service records of 508 graduates of test pilot schools were obtained from the United States Department of Defense. From these, 110 were found that matched the minimum standards: [45] the candidates had to be younger than 40, possess a bachelor's degree or equivalent and to be 5 feet 11 inches (1.80 m) or less. While these were not all strictly enforced, the height requirement was firm, owing to the size of the Project Mercury spacecraft. [46] The 110 were then split into three groups, with the most promising in the first group. [47]

The first group of 35, which included Shepard, assembled at the Pentagon on February 2, 1959. The Navy and Marine Corps officers were welcomed by the Chief of Naval Operations, Admiral Arleigh Burke, while the United States Air Force officers were addressed by the Chief of Staff of the United States Air Force, General Thomas D. White. Both pledged their support to the Space Program, and promised that the careers of volunteers would not be adversely affected. NASA officials then briefed them on Project Mercury. They conceded that it would be a hazardous undertaking, but emphasized that it was of great national importance. That evening, Shepard discussed the day's events with fellow naval aviators Jim Lovell, Pete Conrad and Wally Schirra, all of whom would eventually become astronauts. They were concerned about their careers, but decided to volunteer. [48] [49]

The briefing process was repeated with a second group of 34 candidates a week later. Of the 69, six were found to be over the height limit, 15 were eliminated for other reasons, and 16 declined. This left NASA with 32 candidates. Since this was more than expected, NASA decided not to bother with the remaining 41 candidates, as 32 candidates seemed a more than adequate number from which to select 12 astronauts as planned. The degree of interest also indicated that far fewer would drop out during training than anticipated, which would result in training astronauts who would not be required to fly Project Mercury missions. It was therefore decided to cut the number of astronauts selected to just six. [50] Then came a grueling series of physical and psychological tests at the Lovelace Clinic and the Wright Aerospace Medical Laboratory. [51] Only one candidate, Lovell, was eliminated on medical grounds at this stage, and the diagnosis was later found to be in error [52] thirteen others were recommended with reservations. The director of the NASA Space Task Group, Robert R. Gilruth, found himself unable to select only six from the remaining eighteen, and ultimately seven were chosen. [52]

Shepard was informed of his selection on April 1, 1959. Two days later he traveled to Boston with Louise for the wedding of his cousin Anne, and was able to break the news to his parents and sister. [53] [54] The identities of the seven were announced at a press conference at Dolley Madison House in Washington, D.C., on April 9, 1959: [55] Scott Carpenter, Gordon Cooper, John Glenn, Gus Grissom, Wally Schirra, Alan Shepard, and Deke Slayton. [56] The magnitude of the challenge ahead of them was made clear a few weeks later, on the night of May 18, 1959, when the seven astronauts gathered at Cape Canaveral to watch their first rocket launch, of an SM-65D Atlas, which was similar to the one that was to carry them into orbit. A few minutes after liftoff, it spectacularly exploded, lighting up the night sky. The astronauts were stunned. Shepard turned to Glenn and said: "Well, I'm glad they got that out of the way." [57]

Freedom 7 Edit

Faced with intense competition from the other astronauts, particularly John Glenn, Shepard quit smoking and adopted Glenn's habit of taking a morning jog. [58] On January 19, 1961, Robert R. Gilruth, the director of NASA's Space Task Group, informed the seven astronauts that Shepard had been chosen for the first American crewed mission into space. [59] Shepard later recalled Louise's response when he told her that she had her arms around the man who would be the first man in space: "Who let a Russian in here?" [60] During training he flew 120 simulated flights. [61] Although this flight was originally scheduled for April 26, 1960, [62] it was postponed several times by unplanned preparatory work, initially to December 5, 1960, then mid-January 1961, [63] March 6, 1961, [64] April 25, 1961, [65] May 2, 1961, and finally to May 5, 1961. [66] On April 12, 1961, Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin became the first person in space, and the first to orbit the Earth. [67] It was another body blow to American pride. [64] When Shepard heard the news he slammed his fist down on a table so hard a NASA public relations officer feared he might have broken his hand. [68]

On May 5, 1961, Shepard piloted the Mercury-Redstone 3 mission and became the second person, and the first American, to travel into space. [69] He named his spacecraft, Mercury Spacecraft 7, Freedom 7. [64] He awoke at 01:10, and had breakfast consisting of orange juice, a filet mignon wrapped in bacon, and scrambled eggs with his backup, John Glenn, and flight surgeon William K. Douglas. He was helped into his space suit by suit technician Joseph W. Schmitt, and boarded the transfer van at 03:55. He ascended the gantry at 05:15, and entered the spacecraft five minutes later. It was expected that lift off would occur in another two hours and five minutes, [70] so Shepard's suit did not have any provision for elimination of bodily wastes, but after being strapped into the capsule's seat, launch delays kept him in that suit for over four hours. [71] Shepard's endurance gave out before launch, and he was forced to empty his bladder into the suit. Medical sensors attached to it to track the astronaut's condition in flight were turned off to avoid shorting them out. The urine pooled in the small of his back, where it was absorbed by his undergarment. [72] [73] After Shepard's flight, the space suit was modified, and by the time of Gus Grissom's Mercury-Redstone 4 suborbital flight in July, a liquid waste collection feature had been built into the suit. [74]

Unlike Gagarin's 108-minute orbital flight in a Vostok spacecraft three times the size of Freedom 7, [67] Shepard stayed on a suborbital trajectory for the 15-minute flight, which reached an altitude of 101.2 nautical miles (116.5 statute miles 187.4 kilometers), and then fell to a splashdown 263.1 nautical miles (302.8 statute miles 487.3 kilometers) down the Atlantic Missile Range. [75] Unlike Gagarin, whose flight was strictly automatic, Shepard had some control of Freedom 7, spacecraft attitude in particular. [76] Shepard's launch was seen live on television by millions. [77] It was launched atop a Redstone rocket. According to Gene Kranz in his 2000 book Failure Is Not an Option, "When reporters asked Shepard what he thought about as he sat atop the Redstone rocket, waiting for liftoff, he had replied, 'The fact that every part of this ship was built by the lowest bidder.'" [78]

After a dramatic Atlantic Ocean recovery, Shepard observed that he "didn't really feel the flight was a success until the recovery had been successfully completed. It's not the fall that hurts it's the sudden stop." [79] Splashdown occurred with an impact comparable to landing a jet aircraft on an aircraft carrier. A recovery helicopter arrived after a few minutes, and the capsule was lifted partly out of the water to allow Shepard to leave by the main hatch. He squeezed out of the door and into a sling hoist, and was pulled into the helicopter, which flew both the astronaut and spacecraft to the aircraft carrier USS Lake Champlain. The whole recovery process took just eleven minutes. [80] Shepard was celebrated as a national hero, honored with ticker-tape parades in Washington, New York and Los Angeles, and received the NASA Distinguished Service Medal from President John F. Kennedy. [81] He was also awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross. [82]

Shepard served as capsule communicator (CAPCOM) for Glenn's Mercury-Atlas 6 orbital flight, which he had also been considered for, [83] and Carpenter's Mercury-Atlas 7. [84] He was the backup pilot for Cooper for the Mercury-Atlas 9 mission, [85] nearly replacing Cooper after Cooper flew low over the NASA administration building at Cape Canaveral in an F-102. [86] In the final stages of Project Mercury, Shepard was scheduled to pilot the Mercury-Atlas 10 (MA-10), which was planned as a three-day mission. [87] He named Mercury Spacecraft 15B Freedom 7 II in honor of his first spacecraft, and had the name painted on it, [88] but on June 12, 1963, NASA Administrator James E. Webb announced that Mercury had accomplished all its goals and no more missions would be flown. [87] Shepard went as far as making a personal appeal to President Kennedy, but to no avail. [89]

Project Gemini Chief Astronaut Edit

Project Gemini followed on from Project Mercury. [90] After the Mercury-Atlas 10 mission was canceled, Shepard was designated as the commander of the first crewed Gemini mission, with Thomas P. Stafford chosen as his pilot. [91] In late 1963, Shepard began to experience episodes of extreme dizziness and nausea, accompanied by a loud, clanging noise in the left ear. He tried to keep it secret, fearing that he would lose his flight status, but was aware that if an episode occurred in the air or in space it could be fatal. Following an episode during a lecture in Houston, where he had recently moved from Virginia Beach, Virginia, Shepard was forced to confess his ailment to Slayton, who was now Director of Flight Operations, and seek help from NASA's doctors. [92]

The doctors diagnosed Ménière's disease, a condition in which fluid pressure builds up in the inner ear. This syndrome causes the semicircular canals and motion detectors to become extremely sensitive, resulting in disorientation, dizziness, and nausea. There was no known cure, but in about 20 percent of cases the condition went away by itself. They prescribed diuretics in an attempt to drain the fluid from the ear. They also diagnosed glaucoma. An X-ray found a lump on his thyroid, and on January 17, 1964, surgeons at Hermann Hospital made an incision on his throat and removed 20 percent of his thyroid. [93] [94] The condition caused Shepard to be removed from flight status. Grissom and John Young flew Gemini 3 instead. [95]

Shepard was designated Chief of the Astronaut Office in November 1963, receiving the title of Chief Astronaut. [96] He thereby became responsible for NASA astronaut training. This involved the development of appropriate training programs for all astronauts and the scheduling of training of individual astronauts for specific missions and roles. He provided and coordinated astronaut input into mission planning and the design of spacecraft and other equipment to be used by astronauts on space missions. [88] He also was on the selection panel for the NASA Astronaut Group 5 in 1966. [97] He spent much of his time investing in banks, wildcatting, and real estate. He became part owner and vice president of Baytown National Bank and would spend hours on the phone in his NASA office overseeing it. He also bought a partnership in a ranch in Weatherford, Texas, that raised horses and cattle. [98] During this period, his secretary Gaye Alford had two "mood-of-the-day" photographs taken of Shepard, one of a smiling Al Shepard, and the other of a grim-looking Commander Shepard. To warn visitors of Shepard's mood, she would hang the appropriate photograph on the door of her boss's private office. [99] Tom Wolfe characterized Shepard's dual personalities as "Smilin' Al" and the "Icy Commander". [100]

Apollo program Edit

In 1968, Stafford went to Shepard's office and told him that an otologist in Los Angeles had developed a cure for Ménière's disease. Shepard flew to Los Angeles, where he met with William F. House. House proposed to open Shepard's mastoid bone and make a tiny hole in the endolymphatic sac. A small tube was inserted to drain excess fluid. The surgery was conducted in early 1969 at St. Vincent's Hospital in Los Angeles, where Shepard checked in under the pseudonym of Victor Poulos. [88] [101] The surgery was successful, and he was restored to full flight status on May 7, 1969. [88]

Shepard and Slayton put Shepard down to command the next available Moon mission, which was Apollo 13 in 1970. Under normal circumstances, this assignment would have gone to Cooper, as the backup commander of Apollo 10, but Cooper was not given it. A rookie, Stuart Roosa, was designated the Command Module Pilot. Shepard asked for Jim McDivitt as his Lunar Module Pilot, but McDivitt, who had already commanded the Apollo 9 mission, balked at the prospect, arguing that Shepard did not have sufficient Apollo training to command a Moon mission. A rookie, Edgar Mitchell, was designated the Lunar Module Pilot instead. [102] [103]

When Slayton submitted the proposed crew assignments to NASA headquarters, George Mueller turned them down on the grounds that the crew was too inexperienced. So Slayton asked Jim Lovell, who had been the backup commander for Apollo 11, and was slated to command Apollo 14, if his crew would be willing to fly Apollo 13 instead. He agreed to do so, and Shepard's crew was assigned to Apollo 14. [102] [103]

Neither Shepard nor Lovell expected there would be much difference between Apollo 13 and Apollo 14, [102] but Apollo 13 went disastrously wrong. An oxygen tank explosion caused the Moon landing to be aborted and nearly resulted in the loss of the crew. It became a joke between Shepard and Lovell, who would offer to give Shepard back the mission each time they bumped into each other. The failure of Apollo 13 delayed Apollo 14 until 1971 so that modifications could be made to the spacecraft. The target of the Apollo 14 mission was switched to the Fra Mauro formation, the intended destination of Apollo 13. [104]

Shepard made his second space flight as Commander of Apollo 14 from January 31 to February 9, 1971. It was America's third successful lunar landing mission. Shepard piloted the Lunar Module Antares. [105] He became the fifth and, at the age of 47, the oldest man to walk on the Moon, and the only one of the Mercury Seven astronauts to do so. [106] [107]

This was the first mission to broadcast extensive color television coverage from the lunar surface, using the Westinghouse Lunar Color Camera. (The same color camera model was used on Apollo 12 and provided about 30 minutes of color telecasting before it was inadvertently pointed at the Sun, ending its usefulness.) While on the Moon, Shepard used a Wilson six-iron head attached to a lunar sample scoop handle to drive golf balls. [105] Despite thick gloves and a stiff spacesuit, which forced him to swing the club with one hand, Shepard struck two golf balls, driving the second, as he jokingly put it, "miles and miles and miles". [108] Analysis of high-resolution film scans of the event determined the distance to be about 24 yards (22 m) for the first shot and 40 yards (37 m) for the second. [109] [110]

For this mission Shepard was awarded the NASA Distinguished Service Medal [111] and the Navy Distinguished Service Medal. His citation read:

The President of the United States of America takes pleasure in presenting the Navy Distinguished Service Medal to Captain Alan Bartlett Shepard, Jr. (NSN: 0-389998), United States Navy, for exceptionally meritorious and distinguished service in a position of great responsibility to the Government of the United States, as Spacecraft Commander for the Apollo 14 flight to the Fra-Mauro area of the Moon during the period 31 January 1971 to 9 February 1971. Responsible for the on-board control of the spacecraft command module Kittyhawk and the lunar module Antares in the gathering of scientific data involving complex and difficult instrumentation positing and sample gathering, including a hazardous two-mile traverse of the lunar surface, Captain Shepard, by his brilliant performance, contributed essentially to the success of this vital scientific moon mission. As a result of his skillful leadership, professional competence and dedication, the Apollo 14 mission, with its numerous tasks and vital scientific experiments, was accomplished in an outstanding manner, enabling scientists to determine more precisely the Moon's original formation and further forecast man's proper role in the exploration of his Universe. By his courageous and determined devotion to duty, Captain Shepard rendered valuable and distinguished service and contributed greatly to the success of the United States Space Program, thereby upholding the highest traditions of the United States Naval Service. [82]

Following Apollo 14, Shepard returned to his position as Chief of the Astronaut Office in June 1971. In July 1971 President Richard Nixon appointed him as a delegate to the 26th United Nations General Assembly, a position in which he served from September to December 1971. [88] He was promoted to rear admiral by Nixon on August 26, 1971, the first astronaut to reach this rank, although McDivitt had previously been promoted to brigadier general, an equivalent rank in the Air Force. [112] [113] He retired from both NASA and the Navy on July 31, 1974. [88]

Shepard was devoted to his children. Frequently, Julie, Laura and Alice were the only astronauts' children at NASA events. He taught them to ski and took them skiing in Colorado. He once rented a small plane to fly them and their friends from Texas to a summer camp in Maine. He doted on his six grandchildren as well. After Apollo 14 he began to spend more time with Louise, and started taking her with him on trips to the Paris Air Show every other year, and to Asia. [114] Louise heard rumors of his affairs. [115] The publication of Tom Wolfe's 1979 book The Right Stuff made them public knowledge, but she never confronted him about it, [116] nor did she ever contemplate leaving him. [114]

After Shepard left NASA, he served on the boards of many corporations. He also served as president of his umbrella company for several business enterprises, Seven Fourteen Enterprises, Inc. (named for his two flights, Freedom 7 and Apollo 14). [117] He made a fortune in banking and real estate. [118] He was a fellow of the American Astronautical Society and the Society of Experimental Test Pilots, a member of Rotary, Kiwanis, the Mayflower Society, the Order of the Cincinnati, and the American Fighter Aces, an honorary member of the board of directors for the Houston School for Deaf Children, and a director of the National Space Institute and the Los Angeles Ear Research Institute. [88] Together with the other surviving Mercury astronauts, and Betty Grissom, Gus Grissom's widow, in 1984 Shepard founded the Mercury Seven Foundation, which raises money to provide college scholarships to science and engineering students. It was renamed the Astronaut Scholarship Foundation in 1995. Shepard was elected its first president and chairman, positions he held until October 1997, when he was succeeded by former astronaut Jim Lovell. [88]

In 1994, he published a book with two journalists, Jay Barbree and Howard Benedict, called Moon Shot: The Inside Story of America's Race to the Moon. Fellow Mercury astronaut Deke Slayton is also named as an author. The book included a composite photograph showing Shepard hitting a golf ball on the Moon. There are no still images of this event the only record is TV footage. [108] The book was turned into a TV miniseries in 1994. [119]

Shepard was diagnosed with chronic lymphocytic leukemia in 1996 and died from complications of the disease in Pebble Beach, California, on July 21, 1998. [120] [121] Among astronauts who had walked on the Moon, he was the second to die (Jim Irwin had been the first, in 1991). [106] Shepard's widow Louise had planned to cremate his remains and scatter the ashes, but before she was able to do that, she herself died from a heart attack—on August 25, 1998, at 17:00, which, coincidentally, was the same time of day at which he had always phoned her when they were apart. They had been married for 53 years. Their family decided to cremate them both, and their ashes were scattered, together, from a Navy helicopter, over Stillwater Cove, in front of their Pebble Beach home. [122] [123]

Shepard was awarded the Congressional Space Medal of Honor by President Jimmy Carter on October 1, 1978. [124] He also received the Golden Plate Award of the American Academy of Achievement in 1981 [125] the Langley Gold Medal on May 5, 1964 the John J. Montgomery Award in 1963 the Lambert trophy the SETP Iven C. Kincheloe Award [126] the Cabot Award the Collier Trophy [127] and the City of New York City Gold Medal for 1971. [88] He was awarded honorary degrees of Master of Arts from Dartmouth College in 1962, D.Sc. from Miami University in 1971, and Doctorate of Humanities from Franklin Pierce College in 1972. [88] He was inducted into the National Aviation Hall of Fame in 1977, [128] the International Space Hall of Fame in 1981, [17] [129] and the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame on May 11, 1990. [130] [131]

The Navy named a supply ship, USNS Alan Shepard (T-AKE-3) , for him in 2006. [132] The McAuliffe-Shepard Discovery Center in Concord, New Hampshire, is named after Shepard and Christa McAuliffe. [133] In 1996, the entirety of I-565 (which passes in front of the U.S. Space & Rocket Center, home to both the Saturn V Dynamic Test Vehicle and a full-scale vertical Saturn V replica) was designated the "Admiral Alan B. Shepard Highway" in his honor. [134] [135] Interstate 93 in New Hampshire, from the Massachusetts border to Hooksett, is designated the Alan B. Shepard Highway, [136] and in Hampton, Virginia, a road is named Commander Shepard Boulevard in his honor. [137] His hometown of Derry has the nickname Space Town in honor of his career as an astronaut. [138] Following an act of Congress, the post office in Derry was designated the Alan B. Shepard Jr. Post Office Building. [139] Alan Shepard Park in Cocoa Beach, Florida, a beach-side park south of Cape Canaveral, is named in his honor. [140] The City of Virginia Beach renamed its convention center, with its integral geodesic dome, the Alan B. Shepard Convention Center. The building was later renamed the Alan B. Shepard Civic Center, and was razed in 1994. [141] At the time of the Freedom 7 launch, Shepard lived in Virginia Beach. [142]

Shepard's high school alma mater in Derry, Pinkerton Academy, has a building named after him, and the school team is called the Astros after his career as an astronaut. [143] Alan B. Shepard High School, in Palos Heights, Illinois, which opened in 1976, was named in his honor. Framed newspapers throughout the school depict various accomplishments and milestones in Shepard's life. Additionally, an autographed plaque commemorates the dedication of the building. The school newspaper is named Freedom 7 and the yearbook is entitled Odyssey. [144] Blue Origin's suborbital space tourism rocket, the New Shepard, is named after Shepard. [145]

In a 2010 Space Foundation survey, Shepard was ranked as the ninth most popular space hero (tied with astronauts Buzz Aldrin and Gus Grissom). [146] In 2011, NASA honored Shepard with an Ambassador of Exploration Award, consisting of a Moon rock encased in Lucite, for his contributions to the U.S. space program. His family members accepted the award on his behalf during a ceremony on April 28 at the U.S. Naval Academy Museum in Annapolis, Maryland, where it is on permanent display. [147] On May 4, 2011, the U.S. Postal Service issued a first-class stamp in Shepard's honor, the first U.S. stamp to depict a specific astronaut. The first day of issue ceremony was held at NASA's Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex. [148]

Each year, the Space Foundation, in partnership with the Astronauts Memorial Foundation and NASA, present the Alan Shepard Technology in Education Award for outstanding contributions by K–12 educators or district-level administrators to educational technology. The award recognizes excellence in the development and application of technology in the classroom or to the professional development of teachers. The recipient demonstrates exemplary use of technology either to foster lifelong learners or to make the learning process easier. [149]

KNAPP Genealogy

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Searching for Captain Raphael Semmes [ edit | edit source ]

Since the logs of Shepherd Knapp are missing, many details of her career are unknown. Apparently her first commanding officer was Acting Volunteer Lieutenant Henry S. Eytinge, who was ordered on 1 November 1861 to cruise in the West Indies seeking to capture or destroy any "vessels of the rebels" he might encounter.

The special object of his attention was the Confederate commerce raider, CSS Sumter, which had been preying on Union shipping since early summer. After a long cruise in which she never quite caught up with Capt. Raphael Semmes and his elusive steamer, Shepherd Knapp returned to New York City on the afternoon of 17 April 1862.

The ship was laid up at the New York Navy Yard for the rest of the year. On 20 January 1863, she was again ordered to cruise in the West Indies seeking Confederate ships, especially the CSS Alabama. Again, Semmes managed to elude the Union warship.

Sunk on a coral reef [ edit | edit source ]

After cruising in the Caribbean for over three and one-half months, Shepherd Knapp struck a coral reef off Cap-Haïtien and was abandoned.

5 When Commander Shepard Survived The Omega-4 Relay Trip

The Omega-4 relay has always been an oddity, just sitting there near the notorious Omega space station. No space vessel ever survives going through that relay, and many theories described what might be on the other side. However, a few people do know that the Collectors often emerged from his eerie relay.

By 2185, Commander Shepard was ready to face the Collector threat, and with the Illusive Man's help, the Commander bravely went through the deadly Omega-4 relay and reached the Collector base (despite the debris field around it). Shepard then made it back in one piece, becoming the first ship captain to navigate such dangerous waters, so to speak. Joker and EDI deserve some credit too, though.

Blue Origin Targets NET 20 July for First Crewed New Shepard Flight

Sixty years to the day since its Project Mercury namesake became America’s first man in space, Blue Origin announced on Wednesday that its next New Shepard booster will fly later this summer with a six-strong human crew. “On 20 July, New Shepard will fly its first astronaut crew to space,” the Kent, Wash.-headquartered launch provider revealed. “We are offering one seat on this first flight to the winning bidder of an online auction.” It is expected that the NS4 vehicle—the selfsame booster and crew capsule that has reached suborbital space twice this year, most recently just last month—will rise again from Launch Site One in West Texas on the 52nd anniversary of the first human lunar landing.

“The winning bid amount will be donated to Blue Origin’s foundation, Club for the Future, to inspire future generations to pursue careers in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) and help invent the future of life in space,” it was reported Wednesday.

“On this day, 60 years ago, Alan Shepard made history by becoming the first American to fly to space. In the decades since, fewer than 600 astronauts have been to space above the Kármán Line through a meticulous and incremental flight program to test its multiple redundant safety systems. Now it’s time for astronauts to climb aboard. This seat will change how you see the world.”

The historic flight will be the 16th mission by New Shepard and is expected to mark the third foray into suborbital space for the NS4 booster/capsule combo, which previously flew together in January and April. The 59-foot-tall (18-meter) NS1 first flew back in April 2015 and passed an altitude of 62.4 miles (100.5 km), thereby exceeding the “Kármán Line” which is generally recognized to be the edge of space.

However, a loss of hydraulic pressure during descent meant the NS1 booster was not recovered. In November 2015, the NS2 booster flew its first mission flawlessly and came home to a smooth landing. In doing so, it marked the first occasion that a suborbital-class booster had returned from space and achieved a vertical landing.

Its capsule also benefited from cushioned wall-linings and sound suppression devices to reduce ambient noise levels and cooling and humidity controls to regulate temperatures, scrub carbon dioxide from the air and circumvent window-fogging. On both its January launch and its second flight on 14 April, the NS4 vehicle saw the New Shepard booster rotate at a couple of degrees per second during ascent, which on human flights will afford passengers spectacular 360-degree views.

Perhaps the nearest analog for what the 20 July crew will experience came during last month’s flight, when a group of senior Blue Origin personnel—Vice President of Legal and Compliance Audrey Powers, Chief Financial Officer Susan Knapp, Vice President of Sales Clay Mowry and New Shepard’s designer Gary Lai—rode the two miles (3.2 km) from “the Barn” where the booster is readied for flight out to Launch Site One.

They climbed the four flights of stairs up the gantry, after which Lai and Powers boarded the crew capsule and completed strap-in activities and communications checks with Capsule Communicator (CAPCOM) Sarah Knights. Assisted by the Tower Operations Team, they disembarked before New Shepard’s launch, but after the successful landing of the crew capsule they participated in unstrapping and egress exercises.

The lucky bidder for the 20 July flight can expect quite a ride, although Blue Origin remain tight-lipped about the identities of the other astronauts, or even if a full crew of six will be aboard. “We will not be sharing further details about who will be flying on our first astronaut mission,” Blue Origin told AmericaSpace.

Together with his or her crewmates, they will be loaded aboard the crew capsule a little more than a half-hour prior to launch. At T-2 minutes, the gantry will be retracted and at T-16 seconds the booster will transition its guidance system to internal power. Engine Start will be commanded at T-4 seconds—as New Shepard’s single BE-3 main rocket engine comes alive with a thrust of 110,000 pounds (50,000 kg)—after which a rapid climb away from the flatness of West Texas will commence.

A minute into the flight, the crew will pass through peak aerodynamic turbulence and the BE-3 will shut down 90 seconds later. As the crew capsule separates from New Shepard, the lucky space travelers will unbuckle from their seats and enjoy a few minutes of weightlessness as their upward momentum pushes them to an apogee of roughly 66.4 miles (106 km), equivalent to 350,800 feet above mean sea level. The effects of gravity will then inexorably draw them back to Earth, with a soft, parachute-aided touchdown some ten minutes after launch.

Mission Statement

Standard-Knapp will design, build and support the ULTIMATEcase and shrink packaging machinery for the most demanding customers.

ULTIMATE Attributes:

Most Reliable

Simplest To Use

Smart Innovation

Simplest to Maintain

Flexible and Adaptable

  • Broad Range of Applications
  • Able to Support New Applications
  • Embrace Customer Requirements

Quality Appearance

History of Standard-Knapp

The history of Standard-Knapp can be traced back to the founding of the Fred H. Knapp company in New Jersey. There is documented evidence that the first Knapp Gravity Labelers were placed on the market and shown during the 1893 World’s Fair at the National Convention of Canners. A few years later, in 1895, the Knapp Boxer, a hand-operated machine designed to pack cans, was perfected. Apparently, it did its job well. In fact, it did so well that, as late as 1901, the Knapp Boxer was the only machine of its kind in the world.

At some time during the early 1900s, a company known as the National Binding Company (based out of New York City, New York), was manufacturing paper cutting and dispensing machines and compression units for case sealing. In December of 1920, the National Binding Company declared bankruptcy. The following year, the company was purchased by a group of past employees for just $10,000. Later that same year, on November 17, 1921, the former National Binding Company resurfaced under the new name of the Standard Sealing Company, Inc.

While the new Standard Sealing Company was beginning its new business, the Fred H. Knapp Company had expanded its operations to include offices in Chicago, Baltimore, Ridgewood (NJ), and a factory in Westminster, Maryland. At this time, the Fred H. Knapp Company was offering a series of labelers with wood or iron frames designed for such “modern” innovations as hand, steam, or electric motor drives.

In 1926, the Standard Sealing Company took its first step in acquiring larger facilities to meet increased demand by moving to Long Island City, New York. Five years later, Standard Sealing merged with the Fred H. Knapp company, thus changing its name to the now familiar Standard-Knapp.

Increased demand for its products forced Standard-Knapp to expand its existing facilities yet again. In 1940, Standard-Knapp relocated to its present location in Portland, Connecticut.

In 1948, the company became a division of the Hartford Empire Company, now known as the Hartford Division. The Hartford Division is world famous for its design and construction of glass container manufacturing equipment. Three years later, in 1951, the Hartford Empire Company effected a corporate name change to the Emhart Manufacturing Company.

And, finally, on June 30, 1964, the Emhart Manufacturing Company merged with the American Hardware Corporation to form the Emhart Corporation.

In 1979, Standard-Knapp was purchased from Emhart by Anderson Manufacturing Company, Rockford, Illinois. Finally, in December of 1984, Standard-Knapp was purchased once more by its employees, becoming an “employee-owned company,” which it remains today.

Machine Innovations

The following machinery represents a partial listing of Standard-Knapp technical innovations spanning more than a century:

Gravity Labeler 1893
Sealer 1918
Gluer and Sealer 1924
Package Packer 1927
Can Packer 1928
Package Collector 1929
Can Elevator 1930
Automatic Bottle Packer 1936
Bottle Rinser 1946
Glass Palletizer 1952
Milk Carton Packer 1953
Traymore Tray Packer 1958
Closed Glue System 1959
Plastic Bottle Unscrambler 1960
Random Auto-adjust Case Sealer 1961
Traymore Tray Packer (Next Generation) 1962
Continuous Motion “One-way” Bottle Rinser 1963
Bulk Glass Palletizer/Depalletizer 1964
Automatic Case Setup/Bottom Sealer 1965
Paper Industry Color Collator/Case Packer 1966
Sealstar Hot Melt Case Sealer 1967
Wonderwall Continuous Motion Auto Partitioner 1968
Lowering Head Case Packer 1969
Continuous Motion Slitter 1970
Tandem Head Drop Packer 1971
Tandem Head Drop Packer with Indexing Case Feed 1973
Single Head Standard Case Packer 1975
Continuous Motion Tab-lock Slitter/Sealer 1980
Apollo Continuous Motion Bottle Packer (Brewery) 1984
Spectrum Tray Packer 1986
Spectrum Integrated Tray Packer/Shrink Wrapper 1987
Synchron 2 & 3 L PET Bottle Packer 1989
Orbitron Continuous Motion Bottle Packer 1992
Centurion Continuous Motion Bottle Packer (Partitions) 1993
Continuous Motion Tray Packer with 𔄜-sided Printing” 1994
Versatron Stainless Steel Case Packer 1995
Continuum Quick Change Tray Packer 1996
Positron Continuous Motion Bottle Packer 1996
Servo Tab-lock Slitter/Sealer 1997
Versatron™ “Soft Catch” Case Packer 1998
Continuum™ High Speed Integrated Tray Packer/Shrink Wrapper 1999
Phoenix Non-round Bottle Handling/Case Packing 2000

Directions to Our Facilities

63 Pickering Street, Portland, CT 06480 U.S.A.
Telephone: (860) 342-1100

From Hartford or Bradley International Airport, take I-91 South

  • Take I-91 South to Exit 22S (this is a left-hand exit) onto Route 9 South toward Middletown.
  • Take Route 9 South to Exit 16 (Route 17) toward Portland this will take you across the bridge.
  • Take the first right immediately after crossing the bridge.
  • After 200 feet, turn left onto Pickering Street.
  • At the end of Pickering Street (about 1/3 mile) you will be facing Standard-Knapp.
  • Park on your left.

From New York City, take I-95 to New Haven, then…

From New Haven, take I-91 North

  • Take I-91 North to Exit 22 onto Route 9 South toward Middletown.
  • Take Route 9 South to Exit 16 (Route 17) toward Portland this will take you across the bridge.
  • Take the first right immediately after crossing the bridge.
  • After 200 feet, turn left onto Pickering Street.
  • At the end of Pickering Street (about 1/3 mile) you will be facing Standard-Knapp.
  • Park on your left.

From Danbury, take I-84 East

  • Take I-84 East to Exit 27 onto I-691 East.
  • Take I-691 East to Exit 11 onto I-91 North.
  • Take I-91 North to Exit 22 onto Rte. 9 South toward Middletown.
  • Take Route 9 South to Exit 16 (Route 17) toward Portland this will take you across the bridge.
  • Take the first right immediately after crossing the bridge.
  • After 200 feet, turn left onto Pickering Street.
  • At the end of Pickering Street (about 1/3 mile) you will be facing Standard-Knapp.
  • Park on your left.
Quality Policy

Standard-Knapp is a world-class manufacturer and marketer of packaging machinery for the food, beverage, household goods, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, oil and personal care industries.

The primary strategic objective of Standard-Knapp is to provide customers with products and services that surpass the competition and exceed customer expectations. Standard-Knapp is committed to achieving this objective through an aggressive Research and Development program, a company commitment to quality and an all-encompassing Customer Service program.

The most important aspects of the pursuit of quality at Standard-Knapp are:

A recognition that machine reliability – the machine performs as expected, the first day and all day every day thereafter – is the most important component of quality to our customers.

Recognition that the other important components of quality to our customers are:

  • After-sales support (correct and prompt spare parts, competent service, and accurate spare parts and operations manuals),
  • Fit and finish of machines and parts,
  • Prompt and courteous communications, and
  • On-time delivery.

Continuous quality improvement will be pursued through a company wide program called Quality First, which is made up of a matrix of quality improvement teams and includes the development and use of a formal, documented quality system.

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