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I'm trying to find some details about an event that my father has a vague memory of. I'm sorry this is quite vague.
It was an international event happening in about the 1950s. It was a sporting competition between Britain and the Soviet Union taking place in England. During the event one of the Soviet athletes was arrested for shoplifting. The minor diplomatic incident resulted in the whole of the Soviet team being recalled to Russia and the event cancelled.
Does anyone know what event this may be referring to, or when it may have taken place?
Thank you for your help
That was UK vs. USSR athletics competition similar to ones USA vs. USSR. Not much info about it, as it was obviously cancelled.
This is interview with Nina Ponomaryova published on 6th February, 2015 by Russian magazine "Sport-Express".
When asked about that incident she said the following:
- Вас обвиняли в попытке кражи дамской шляпки?
- Не шляпки - ободка с перьями. Ценой 5 фунтов. Это случилось на матче сборных СССР и Великобритании - через два года после скандала с Куцем. Только теперь в роли жертвы оказалась я. В выходной привезли в торговый центр. Я выбрала ободок, положила в сумку, расплатилась. И побежала искать подружку, которая покупала платье.
Неожиданно приглашают в комнату. Думала, примерочная, подружка там. Но это совсем другое помещение. Помню, посмотрела на часы - 10.22. Через минуту открывается запасная дверь, входит молодой человек, по-русски произносит: "Я переводчик". Отвечаю: "Еще никто не спрашивал, кто я, откуда. Может, я француженка? Или немка?" Окончательно убедилась, что это провокация, когда к обеду принесли местную газету. С шапкой на первой полосе: "Пономарева в Мельбурн не едет! Советская команда теряет золотую медаль!"
- Вызвали представителя посольства. Начали разбираться, тщетно просили снять кассу, чтобы найти чек, который я не взяла… А в Великобритании закон: любой спорный вопрос решается в суде. Но когда доложили в Москву Хрущеву, тот отрезал: "Никаких судов! Нашему человеку там не место!" Когда на следующий день туда не явилась, на меня автоматически наложили арест. После чего укрыться могла только в нашем посольстве.
- Что вы там делали?
- Рыдала целыми днями. Чесалась на нервной почве. Потом стала седеть. В 27 лет! С тех пор ношу короткую стрижку. Вы не представляете, что я пережила… Квартиру и наше посольство отделяла дорога. Так под окнами ночью дежурили репортеры, зеваки, расставили палатки. Следили, чтоб я не проскочила.
- Чем дело кончилось?
- В суд пойти все-таки пришлось. С адвокатом, бумагами. Там выяснилось - мало того, что я ни в чем не виновата, так еще меня на три шиллинга надули. Вопрос закрылся. Но я попросила, чтоб домой отправили пароходом.
- Боялась - вдруг с рейса снимут или еще какую-нибудь пакость придумают? Лучше по морю, тогда из Лондона в Ленинград ходил корабль. На нем вернулась. И почти сразу - в Мельбурн. Там в аэропорту встречала толпа, со всех сторон неслось: "Нина! Нина!" Я расплакалась. Понимала, что люди меня ждали и думали: если прилечу на Олимпиаду - значит, точно ни в чем не виновата.
Translating into English this roughly means: that was not hat but some "rim with feathers" cost about 5 pounds; that happened during the match of SU vs. UK, two years after the incident with Kuts (probably she made mistake here, as car accident with Kuts took place in Melbourne - later she mentions that all happened a little before Melbourne Olympics 1956); she also says that she paid but didn't take cheque and returned to find her friend; that was provocation etc.etc. She also says that her coming to court was prohibited by Khrushev himself. But later that was resettled, so she finally appeared before the court and was absolved.
(EDITOR'S NOTE-- This is the fifth in a series covering area sports in the 20th Century. Today's article covers 1940 through 1949),
The 1940s were magical years in area sports despite the outbreak of World War 2.
When the decade started Centralia was the toast of the basketball world with the Wonder Five, coached by Arthur Trout, romping to a 44-2 season record in 1940-41. The team finished third at state after being upset by Morton Cicero in the semi-finals.
The Wonder Five consisted on Dwight Eddleman, Bill Castleman, Jack Klosterman, Harold Wesner and Bob Michael. Eddleman scored 969 points that season for a state record and averaged 21.5 points per game. He also scored 42 points in a game when scoring was considerably lower .
While Eddleman went on to a great collegiate career at Illinois in basketball, he also had the distinction of scoring a touchdown in the Rose Bowl game, setting a Big Ten record in punting and high jumped in the London Olympics before playing pro basketball.
The 1941-42 season was dampened by the bombing of Pearl Harbor, but Centralia won the state title by upsetting Paris in the title game. The big win was a 43-42 sectional title victory over Mt. Vernon and its star Walt Kirk. Eddleman closed his prep career with 2,702 points, still a school record, and the Troutmen posted its 700th school win.
Other great athletes were popping up in the area. In the next few years Roy Gatewood, Jim Finks, John McDougal and Dean White led Salem to some glory moments while Sandoval's Don Watkins was rated as one of the best. Finks later played pro football and was general manager of several teams before his untimely death.
Relationships between Centralia and Salem reached a low ebb and the schools did not compete for several years.
Patoka's Cy Delay led the 3-year school to a victory over Centralia in 1944, the worst year in CTHS' basketball history. The following year Delay joined Centralia for his senior season and helped capture the Holiday Tourney title in the third year of its existence.
In 1946 Centralia took second at state with Colin Anderson being all-state and had a fine supporting class including Ken McBride. Odin had some great times the following season with Bob Pursley leading the way.
Meanwhile many former young athletes lost their lives on battlefields around the world before the war ended in 1945.
Fast-pitch softball was in full swing in the area and the women's teams drew large crowds. Sis Lincoln, Elma Kiss or Faye Vaccaro were sure to fill the bleachers at Fairview Park.
The 1940s also found professional baseball coming to Centralia and Mt. Vernon. Lighted ball parks were built and teams were imported to play on league off days. The St. Louis Browns, then an American League team, played in Centralia as did the House of David, the New York Cubans and a team consisting of St. Louis area players including Yogi Berra, Joe Garagiola, four Schoendiensts and Pete Reiser.
Meadow Woods Country Club sponsored a Labor Day Tourney annually which drew players from throughout the area. Clyde Webb, long-time pro there, was instrumental in bringing outstanding amateurs to the tourney.
Nashville had a fine basketball team in the late ཤs which gave inspiration to the smaller schools in their quest to defeat schools with big enrollment.
The Centralia Twilight Baseball League was a victim of the pro team in Centralia and although it continued to operate it had lost the luster of the decade before.
Zuke Gansauer posted the first of his three perfect games in bowling and his 776 series stood for many years as Centralia's best. Carlyle had some fine bowlers with Bud Erlinger one of the big names, but two youngsters, Ron Thouvenin and Reggie Weihe were making waves.
The area sports world was changing as service men were returning, television was about to become a fixture in the Fifties and Arthur Trout's long reign as king of Centralia's Court was nearing an end.
The next article will be on those changes and the events of 1950 through 1959.
By IVA TORA
KARAM CHAND RAMRAKHA, prominent lawyer and a contemporary of leading political lights, Siddiq Koya and Ratu Sir Kamisese Mara, died at Sydney’s Mater hospital on April 17, following a long illness.
Mr Ramrakha was among the last remaining stalwarts of the National Federation Party from Fiji’s early post-independence era.
Erudite and eccentric, he was an engaging raconteur whom I affectionately knew, by turns, as Uncle or KC. He was 88 when he passed on, mind still as sharp, like cut glass, a firm twinkle in his eye and spirits as buoyant as ever, right to the very end.
KC was born March 18 1933 in Nabouwalu in Bua to Odin Ramrakha, a senior public servant in the colonial judiciary and his wife — Mohandai.
He had led a peripatetic life during childhood with Odin moving the family several times, including to remote outposts where he remembered having to walk six miles to and from school. He then completed what was then known as the Cambridge Certificate — with record passes — at Marist Brothers in Suva.
In the 1950s, the British governed the iTaukei natives with a system of rules and regulations not far removed from apartheid. Fijians had to obtain passes if they wanted a drink at the local pub.
No Fijian or Indian could join the exclusive Royal Suva Yacht Club or indeed, other British establishments like the Defence Club.
Schools were racially segregated and ordinary Fijians could not move freely around the country unless they had documentation.
The colonial masters maintained an iron-clad grip on the hearts, minds and pockets of their genuflecting citizens.
Across the Pacific, Australia’s White Australia policy was firmly entrenched so most people in Fiji would send their children to New Zealand to study. But Odin, ever the smooth operator, knew a Mrs Iris Hunt of a leading travel agency in town called Hunts Travel and arranged with her to obtain visas for his boys to study in Australia.
In 1950, KC and his older twin brothers left to study in Sydney.
After completing his law degree at Sydney University, KC was admitted, at the age of 22, to the New South Wales bar. Odin wanted him to get a job in a law firm back in Fiji but no one was willing to hire someone who looked so young.
Odin slipped into a depression over his son’s apparent lack of prospects and suggested opening an office in Labasa. His son had other ideas.
KC opened his law firm in Robertson Rd Suva which, at the time, had a total of 35 lawyers.
He had no intention of entering politics until the revered AD Patel, the undisputed NFP leader, inducted him into the fold. At the 1966 election for the Legislative Council, KC stood as the NFP’s candidate, easily defeating two other candidates. He soon forged a reputation as a masterful debator and was made Opposition Whip in the Legislative Council.
As a parliamentary tactician, he was without peer, according to Queenslandbased academic, Professor Brij Lal.
“He was a multitalented man of restless, brilliant intellect, very quick on his feet,” says Prof. Lal.
In 1969, a dispute erupted between the Colonial Sugar Refining Company (CSR) and sugarcane farmers who essentially argued that the accounting procedures by CSR lacked transparency and that they were getting a bad deal. KC supported AD Patel who represented the farmers in the arbitration proceedings presided over by England’s pre-eminent judge, Lord Alfred Denning.
The case was resolved with Denning ruling in favour of the farmers and in the process praising Patel for his marshalling of the facts and brilliant presentation.
KC was a member of the constitutional negotiating team that held talks in London in 1969.
What may surprise many is the fact that it was KC alone who had mooted the idea of giving the iTaukei chiefs the power of veto over legislation in the Upper House.
In a discussion with Prof. Lal, KC conveyed his intention to reassure the iTaukei that they had nothing to fear from independence.
“KC said the Indians had no intention of transgressing on, or appropriating iTaukei rights. I’ve seen the actual draft in his handwriting,” Prof. Lal says.
“That proposal was his handiwork.”
When AD Patel died suddenly in October 1969, the leadership mantle was passed to another lawyer — Siddiq Koya – to the surprise of most within and probably outside the party. Relations between KC and Siddiq Koya deteriorated by the time of the 1977 general election, an event that produced a pyrrhic victory for the NFP and was to set the course of the remainder of KC’s life.
Despite the NFP securing a win at the 1977 polls, in-fighting and the splitting of the party into various factions created a constitutional crisis, that forced the-then Governor-General, Ratu Sir George Cakobau to intervene and reappoint the Alliance Party as caretaker government. Before Sitiveni Rabuka stormed into the pages of history, this episode has gone down in some quarters as Fiji’s first coup d’etat. The NFP spent the following years trying to clean up the augean stables from the turbulence that changed the course of Fiji’s history – and collective psyche – and set the tone of politics in the years to come.
In 1981, KC packed his bags and left for Sydney with his wife Usha and four children.
In suburban Putney, he set up a legal practice where his cases took him back to Fiji on a regular basis. He reconnected with lawyers he had worked with and was on close terms with the scions of high society, among them, billionaire Richard Pratt and his wife Jeanne. KC and his wife attended the weddings of all the Pratt children and vice versa.
A prolific writer, during the 1987 coup, he wrote extensively for the Sydney Morning Herald and other publications on the litany of Fiji’s crises. As the man who had written vast tracts of the 1970 constitution, he was more uniquely placed than most to offer first-hand insight into Fiji’s history after independence.
In sport, KC has also been a gold medallist player-coach of the Fiji Table Tennis team at the South Pacific Games.
In publishing, he was the force behind the Pacific Review publication in its later years and wrote most of the articles. He was also president of the Fiji Teachers Union around the time of independence.
In the twilight of his life, KC found a new passion – oil painting and the large cache of works – mainly landscapes, are a testament to his eye for detail and his power for interpretation.
In the last few years of his life, he was receiving regular dialysis treatment at Sydney’s Mater Clinic and in his final moments, was surrounded by his beloved Usha, and family.
Karam Chand Ramrakha is survived by his widow Usha, their four children Kirath Kirith, Sandhya, Sushil and Aman, six grandchildren Navin, Nikhil, Priyanka, Odin, Ravi and Rahul and two great-grandchildren Elora and Owen.
RIP 18 March 1933 – 17 April 2021
• Iva Tora is a Melbourne-based writer and media adviser who interviewed KC Ramrakha on several occasions.
The little known Aussie little car.
At various times over the past century and a half entrepreneurs have endeavoured to produce an Australian car that would appeal to the hearts and pockets of everyday Australians.
As history tells, the number of attempts and failures runs into the hundreds even discounting the debacle of modern day big players like Holden, Ford and Toyota.
Lightburn & Co was an Adelaide-based successful manufacturer of washing machines, cement mixers, wheel barrows and jacks for cars. They also manufactured fibreglass boats.
In the newly industrialised post WWII economy Harold Lightburn, along with many others, toyed with the idea of manufacturing a small affordable car suitable for city commuting and as the second car in newly affluent families.
Lightburn and his senior engineers worked with various concepts throughout the 1950s discarding several designs along the way. By 1959 they had arrived at their definitive vehicle. It was a small station wagon type vehicle with a fibreglass body over a simple tubular steel chassis.
The Zeta was powered by a Villiers two-stroke engine of 324cc which drove the front wheels through a four-speed gearbox with a motorcycle-like sequential gearshift. Lightburn launched his Zeta and put it on the market in late 1963.
Tapping into what they identified as a gap in the market the Zeta was promoted as 'Australia's own second car' the ideal little runabout for mums who had to take the kids to school and sports, do the shopping and run household errands. For the Dads it was ideal for those jobs you didn't want to use the family car for taking the dogs for a run, going fishing or taking the kids to the beach.
The small size of the Zeta was a deterrent in its sales but it suffered other design faults too. The lack of access from the rear was cited as one. There were also no hinged rear windows. Dirty dogs and sandy kids had to climb over the front seat.
The poor performance of the Villiers engine was one of its biggest problem. It only delivered 16.5 bhp and the gear shift pattern was said to be an acquired art that many failed to learn.
The Zeta 'party trick' was that it had four speeds in reverse. Simply by stopping, turning off the engine and then switching the ignition the other way you could reverse the polarity! Unfortunately, that failed to prove itself as having a practical application.
Lightburn was very proud of his car and it certainly had some great moments. He entered three Zetas in the 1964 Ampol Trial and won the Meritorious Performance Prize for cars with an engine capacity of less than 350cc.
In an attempt to prove the value of the tiny car, a Zeta Runabout was driven non-stop from Newcastle (NSW) to Adelaide (SA) in 1964. It averaged 44 miles per hour and returned 41 miles per gallon and suffered no breakdowns. Unfortunately for Lightburn, the Australian buying public were less than impressed and turned their attention in other directions.
One of Lightburn's big problems was the 1961 release of the Morris Mini 850. It was all that the Zeta was but people liked its body and the fact it had a "proper" engine up front. The might of the British Motor Corporation (BMC) and its extensive dealer network was not lost on the buying public.
By the end of 1965 Lightburn production of the Zeta Runabout had ceased. Only 324 were made along with 48 Zeta sports cars. Several are owned by enthusiasts making ocassional appearances at car shows and vintage events around Australia.
Prisoners of War at the Carlisle Indian Industrial School: Part 2, Student Life at Carlisle
(The Same Chiricahua Children in the Part 1 Photograph as They Appeared Four Months Later at Carlisle School March 1887)
This post, part of a series about the Chiricahua and Geronimo prisoner of war years, people, and events leading up to them summarizes what happened to the Chiricahua Apaches after Geronimo surrendered to General Miles, September 4, 1886, under terms that were false. The full story of Geronimo’s years as a prisoner of war can found in the 2019 book: Geronimo, Prisoner of Lies, Twenty-Three Years as a Prisoner of War by W. Michael Farmer. The Odyssey of Geronimo is a novel of Geronimo’s years in captivity told through his eyes that puts meat and sinew on the bones of the documented and Apache oral history told in Prisoner of Lies. The Odyssey of Geronimo will be released in mid-May 2020 by Five Star.
Part 2 of this post continues the story of the Chiricahua prisoner of war children who were sent to the Carlisle Indian Industrial School in 1886 and 1887. Carlisle was developed and run by Captain Richard Henry Pratt who believed the Indians had to give up their tribal culture and lifeways in order to take their rightful place in Anglo society. While Pratt’s method of “educating” Indian children was adopted by virtually every school in the United States educating Indians and other cultures and was driven by good intentions, the method was also based on what Dr. C.L. Sonnichsen, great chronicler of southwest history, called “determined ignorance.” Determined ignorance assumed, without any study of Indian life ways, that Anglo society and beliefs were clearly superior to those of the Indians, that Indians were less moral, and that American-European Christianity was far superior to Indian religious beliefs, which were viewed as nothing more than superstition.
The Chiricahua children sent to Carlisle were caught between two worldviews: those of their People and those of Anglo society. If they survived at Carlisle, they were free to enter white society on their own. Unfortunately, survival at Carlisle could not be assumed. The famous army medical doctor, Walter Reed, who showed that malaria and yellow fever were diseases carried by mosquitos, compiled statistics in July 1889 that showed of the 112 Chiricahua children sent to Carlisle, nearly 25 percent, 27, died – 25 from tuberculosis) To the amazement of the Washington bureaucracy, nearly every Chiricahua child who survived at Carlisle returned to live with their people as prisoners of war even though they were free to go. This post describes Chiricahua student life at the Carlisle Indian Industrial School as Asa Daklugie, Geronimo’s nephew, described it to Eve Ball in the mid 1950s.
The thing that made life bearable at Carlisle for the Chiricahua boys was the athletic training. They enjoyed sports and although the conditioning training was not nearly as difficult as what the Chiricahuas went through to become warriors, it was enough to keep them active and fit. During bad weather they had access to the gym. All the Indian boys were good at wrestling it was in Daklugie’s words “a means of survival.” On the other hand, he didn’t think much of boxing. He couldn’t remember men standing up to fight unless they had used knives. “Knives were much quicker and effective.”
Track and racing were favorites among the Apaches. One reason the Apaches liked track was that they wore running trunks and didn’t have to wear long pants, which they hated. Daklugie and Frank Mangas specialized in “short” distances like five miles. They considered long races to be marathons. The best marathoner at Carlisle at that time was a Hopi, Lewis Tewanema. He could start at an easy jogtrot and keep it up all day. It was the kind of pace that could outrun a horse over long distances. The Carlisle marathoners often made training runs to Harrisburg (about twenty miles away) on Saturdays. Tewanema would suit up and play around in the gym for about thirty minutes while the other runners took off for Harrisburg. They were unguarded because the Carlisle staff knew no runaway could get far in running trunks. After half an hour, Tewanema would start alone and then beat the others into Harrisburg. Returning to Carlisle, they all came back in the school’s supply wagons. Tewanema was in the Olympic games twice. He finished seventh in the Marathon, and second place in the ten-kilometer races.
In those days, Carlisle had one of the best football teams in the eastern United States. Their players were fast and husky, outrunning, out dodging and outsmarting players on the other side. Pop Warner was their coach. He made star players out of boys who had never heard of football. Jim Thorpe from the Sac and Fox tribe in Oklahoma was Pop’s best-known student. Gifted with natural athletic ability, Jim Thorpe was superior at almost all sports. Daklugie saw him play several times and liked to watch the games, but thought football was silly and never played. He believed the only criterion for him to play a game was if the game helped teach him to survive. “Leaving a place of ambush to knock your enemy down and sit on him was no way for a warrior to fight.”
Carlisle students watched the football games from the stands. They wore uniforms, both boys and girls the girls made theirs and they were chaperoned by a female teacher. The boys and girls were not allowed to talk to each other, but Ramona and Daklugie (promised to each other ty their fathers when they were small children) managed silent greetings as they passed. Carlisle had a fine band that played at intervals during the game and paraded at half time. The band was so good that it marched in Theodore Roosevelt’s inaugural parade directly behind Geronimo and five other great war chiefs in 1904. After football games the students had parties in the gym and some, to celebrate, did their native dances.
One Sunday morning at breakfast, Daklugie was told that Kanseah, a young warrior in training with Geronimo when he surrendered, was in the hospital. It was terrible shock. Daklugie, as did the other Apache students, knew that if you went in the hospital, you rarely came out alive. Daklugie obtained permission to visit Kanseah who told him that he wasn’t going to die, and that he refused to swallow the medicine they gave him and spit it out when they doctors and nurses weren’t looking. Kanseah did survive, probably sick from some form of pneumonia, but he was the exceptional case. Usually, a student that became sick enough to warrant being in the hospital for any length of time was sent back to his family to die. Chappo, Geronimo’s bright son he had sent to Carlisle to learn the ways of the White Eyes and to escape possible execution if the army decided to wipe out the Chiricahuas, was sent to Mount Vernon Barracks and died there September 9, 1894, after six years at Carlisle and three weeks before the Chiricahuas were moved to Fort Sill.
In addition to learning the skills for a trade that could provide them a living (Daklugie studied cattle husbandry because he was convinced that was the best way to match Anglo work with the hunting culture from which he came) the Carlisle students were taught to read and write and do arithmetic. Occasionally there were misunderstandings between teachers and students that required cool heads on both sides. Daklugie told Eve Ball of an incident where his teacher was having her students use the dictionary to learn the meaning of words she gave them and to write a sentence using the word. One word was “work”. The first definition for work that Daklugie found said work meant ferment. He wrote, “I will not ferment in the house.” The teacher became angry when she read it and told him to write a hundred sentences using it correctly. Daklugie said that he had used it correctly, and wanted to know why she was punishing him. She made him go see Pratt who made him wait an hour before seeing him. When Pratt asked Daklugie to come in his office, he locked the door behind him, put the key in his pocket and pulled out a blacksnake whip from behind a bookcase. Daklugie decided Pratt wasn’t armed and took the whip away from him. Pratt grabbed him by the collar, but Daklugie grabbed Pratt’s collar lifting him off his feet, held him at arm’s length and shook him a few times before dropping him and saying, “If you think you can whip me, you are muy loco. Nobody has ever struck me in all my life and nobody ever will. I could break your neck with my bare hands.” Pratt stayed cool and politely asked Daklugie to sit down and asked why he disobeyed his teacher. When Daklugie explained, Pratt laughed. He asked him to go back to class and try to remember the many kindnesses his teacher had done for him. Pratt said, “You know that men must be courteous to the ladies and indulge them in their whims.” Daklugie said that he thought, ‘White Eyes! Their men spoil women. No wonder they are all henpecked. No wonder all white women are bossy.’ Daklugie went back to class and was never punished again. Despite his opinion on white women being spoiled, when he returned to Fort Sill he was angered to see soldiers asking Chiricahua women to do their laundry.
Daklugie, like many other students considered running away from Carlisle more than once. But in Daklugie’s case he didn’t want to leave Ramona and show up at Mount Vernon to face Geronimo and try to explain why he had left. Daklugie was at Carlisle for eight years and after the episode with Pratt had no more trouble and began to realize that some of the things Pratt required were beneficial, and that his intention was that all his decisions for them were for their good, regardless of their dislike for them.
In the fall of 1894, the prisoners at Mount Vernon Barracks were sent to Fort Sill. This led to Carlisle sending their Chiricahua students back to their parents at Fort Sill. The girls went first. For example, there were Ramona and Viola Massai. Viola married Ramona’s brother, Eugene Chihuahua, who never went to Carlisle, but learned to read, write, and do arithmetic working for George Wratten who ran the store for the Chiricahuas. When Daklugie returned to his people at Fort Sill, he saw how poor the Chiricahua cattle herd was. After a tussle, reminiscent of the one with Captain Pratt, with Captain Hugh Scott, who was in charge of the Chiricahuas, Daklugie was placed in charge of the herd. When most of the Chiricahuas moved to the Mescalero reservation eighteen years later the herd was sold and was considered one of the best in Oklahoma. Ramona and Daklugie were married in 1896 in two ceremonies: first as Apaches as Daklugie desired, and then in a Christian ceremony as Ramona desired. They lived a long and happy life together.
Next week: The Last Apaches to Surrender in 1886
Information for this post came from Indeh by Eve Ball, Lynda Sánchez, and Nora Henn, Geronimo by Angie Debo, and In the Days of Victorio by Eve Ball.
Thank you to W. Michael Farmer for for sharing his interesting post. We appreciate the work you put into your research.
Despite suffering an official loss of support during the period from 1392-1945 AD, a book of martial art illustration called " muyedobo-tongji " was
Published in the late 16th century showing " hand-fighting techniques " and illustrating 38 motion that basically resemble today's Taekwondo Poomsae ( formations ) and basic movements.
The martial art taekkyond ( Taekwondo ) was secretly handed down only by the Master's of art until the liberation of Korea in 1945, after over 300 years of Japanese colonial rules. After World War Two, the Korean people began recovering the thought of self-reliance and the traditional folkloric games which resumed their popularity song "Duk-ki " , one of the master from prior to the liberation, presented a demonstration of the martial art before the first Republic of Korea President Syngman Rhee on the latter's birthday, thus clearly distinguishing Taekwondo from the Japanese Karate which had been introduced by the Japanese rulers. After the end of Korean war ( 1950-1953 ) Taekwondo was popularised among the Dan-grade black -belters within the country. also dispatching about 2000 Taekwondo Master's to more than 100 countries for foreigners training, Taekwondo was nominated as a national martial arts in 1971 and on May 28, 1973, the World Taekwondo Federation was formed, In currently about 157 country members. In 1973 the biennial world Taekwondo Championship were organised and in 1974 it was admitted to the Asian Games as an official event. In 1979 President of the World Taekwondo Federation (WTF) was elected chairman of the world federations was of non-olympic sports.
The WTF become an International Olympic committee (IOC) recognised sports Federation in 1980 making Taekwondo an Olympic sports. Then the adoption of Taekwondo as an official event was followed by the World Games in 1981. before it was featured as a demonstration sports at both the 1988 and 1992 Olympic Games. It will be a competitive Olympic sports for first time at the 2000 Olympic Games in Sydney, Australia.