History Podcasts

Dr. Samuel Smith

Dr. Samuel Smith

Question How long have you practised in your profession?

Answer I have been in actual practice upwards of nineteen years.

Question Have you had extensive practice, particularly among the poor, during the period.

Answer Yes. I have been parish surgeon of Leeds for thirteen years. I am one of the surgeons of the Leeds Infirmary, the largest hospital in Yorkshire, an institution through which about 5,000 patients pass annually, about one-sixth of which pass under my immediate care.

Question Is the appearance of factory children easy to be distinguished from that of the children composing the rest of the labouring population differently employed?

Answer Yes. It is easy to see that they have not that healthy appearance; they appear languid, weak, and debilitated.

Question Is not the labour in mills and factories "light and easy"?

Answer It is often described as such, but I do not agree at all with that definition. The exertion required from them is considerable, and, in all the instances with which I am acquainted, the whole of their labour is performed in a standing position.

Question What are the effects of this on the children.

Answer Up to twelve or thirteen years of age, the bones are so soft that they will bend in any direction. The foot is formed of an arch of bones of a wedge-like shape. These arches have to sustain the whole weight of the body. I am now frequently in the habit of seeing cases in which this arch has given way. Long continued standing has also a very injurious effect upon the ankles. But the principle effects which I have seen produced in this way have been upon the knees. By long continued standing the knees become so weak that they turn inwards, producing that deformity which is called "knock-knees" and I have sometimes seen it so striking, that the individual has actually lost twelve inches of his height by it.

Question Are not the females less capable of sustaining this long labour than males.

Answer Yes. In the female the pelvis is considerably wider than the male. When having to sustain the upright posture for long periods, the pelvis is prevented from being properly developed; and, in many of those instances, instead of forming an oval aperture, it forms a triangular one, the part supporting the spine being pressed downwards, and the parts receiving the heads of the thigh-bones being pressed inwards. When they are expecting to become mothers, sometimes because of the development of the bones of the pelvis, there is not actually space for the exit of the child which is within the womb. Under these circumstances, it is often the painful duty of the surgeon to destroy the life of the child in order that he may preserve the more valuable one of the mother. I have seen many instances of this kind, all of which, with one exception, have been those of females who have worked long hours at factories. I believe if horses in this country were put to the same period of labour that factory children are, in a very few years the animal would be almost extinct among us. Every gentleman who is in the habit of using horses well knows the effect produced upon them by too long continued labour; you may give them what corn you please, but nothing will counteract the effects of too long continued labour.

Question Are there many accidents in the factories and mills?

Answer I have frequently seen accidents of the most dreadful kind. I have seen cases in which the arm had been torn off near the shoulder joint; I have seen the upper extremity chopped into small fragments, from the tip of the finger to above the elbow.

Question In what manner you think that a legislative enactment could be made beneficial for the prevention of accidents from machinery?

Answer I have no doubt that a great number of accidents might be prevented by some act to compel the owners of mills to have such horizontal and upright shafts as revolve with great rapidity, in situations, where children are placed near them, sheathed and covered with square boxes of wood, which may be done at a very trifling expense, and which I understand is often neglected.


Smith was born in Pequea, Pennsylvania, on March 15, 1751. He was the son of Robert Smith (1723–1793) and Elizabeth (née Blair) Smith (1725–1777). In 1769, he graduated as a valedictorian from the College of New Jersey (name later changed to Princeton University), and went on to study theology and philosophy under John Witherspoon. [2]

In his mid-twenties, he worked as a missionary in Virginia, and from 1775 to 1779, he served as the founder and rector of Hampden–Sydney College, which he referred to in his advertisement of 1 September 1775 as "an Academy in Prince Edward." [3] The school, not then named, was always intended to be a college-level institution later in the same advertisement, Smith explicitly likens its curriculum to that of the College of New Jersey. "Academy" was a technical term used for college-level schools not run by the established church. [4] Stanhope Smith held honorary doctorates from Yale and Harvard and in 1785, was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society. [5]

President of Princeton Edit

Smith studied under president Witherspoon and returned to Princeton as a professor in 1779, and succeeded Witherspoon as president in 1795. The situation during the winter semester of 1806–07 under Smith's presidency was characterized by little or no faculty-student rapport or communication, crowded conditions, and strict school rules — a combination that led to a student riot on 31 March–1 April 1807. College authorities denounced it as a sign of moral decay. Smith was active in the affairs of the Presbyterian Church and served as moderator of the 11th General Assembly in 1799. Smith was an urbane and cultivated man who sought, in the tradition of Witherspoon, to maintain orthodoxy while opposing tendencies toward rigidity and obscurantism. His efforts were unsuccessful, and he was forced to resign from his office in 1812 as a result of criticism from within the church. In his efforts to reconcile reason and revelation Smith left himself vulnerable to charges of rationalism and Arminianism. [6]

Theories Edit

Smith was the first systematic expositor of Scottish Common Sense Realism in America. An empiricist in his anthropology and a Lamarckian before Lamarck, he sought to mediate between science and religious orthodoxy. [1]

In his work, Stanhope Smith expressed progressive views on marriage and egalitarian ideas about race and slavery. The second edition of his Essay on the Causes of Variety of Complexion and Figure in the Human Species (1810) became important as a powerful argument against the increasing racism of 19th-century ethnology. [7] He opposed the racial classifications of naturalists such as Johann Friedrich Blumenbach, Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon, and Carl Linnaeus [8] In this text, his attempt to explain the variety of physical appearances among humans involved a strongly environmental outlook. An example he provides involves "the blacks in the southern states." Smith noted that field slaves had darker skin pigmentation and other "African" features than did domestic slaves, and hypothesized that exposure to white, European culture through their "civilized" masters had changed their anatomy as well.

In Smith's essay titled Essay on the Causes of Variety of Complexion and Figure in the Human Species, Smith claimed that Negro pigmentation was nothing more than a huge freckle that covered the whole body as a result of an oversupply of bile, which was caused by tropical climates. [9] In this essay Smith described the basic concept of sexual selection, this was before Charles Darwin later popularized the theory. [10]

Smith is also known for his attempt to refute Thomas Jefferson's claim in Notes on the State of Virginia, that there were no great black writers or artists. [11] In it, he attacked Jefferson's disregard of poetic abilities of Phillis Wheatley, African slave prodigy.

Noah Webster cited Stanhope Smith in Webster's 1828 Dictionary in the definition of philosophy. The citation was from Stanhope Smith's second edition of his Essay on the Causes of Variety of Complexion and Figure in the Human Species (1810). The quote as given,"True religion, and true philosophy must ultimately arrive at the same principle.". [12]

On June 28, 1775, Smith was married to Ann Witherspoon (1749–1817), the daughter of his mentor and predecessor President. [2] Together, they were the parents of: [13]

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Dr. Samuel M. Smith

The Security Oracle’s (TSO’s) chief technology advisor and a ground floor owner is Dr. Samuel M. Smith who received his Ph.D. in Electrical and Computer Engineering from Brigham Young University in 1991. Dr. Smith invested a decade in academia at Florida Atlantic University, attaining full professor status. He has over 100 refereed publications in the areas of automated reasoning. Dr. Smith and TSO’s CEO Charles L. Butler, Jr. developed what, in retrospect, may be viewed as a first in master planning for a Smart/Safe and Survivable “City” in their visionary work with Miami Dade County in 2005-2006.

Dr. Smith addresses attendees at the ASIS, Orlando, 2016,
RCADS™ Presentation.

Dr Samuel Smith at the TSO booth with Charles Butler and the
Technology Manager from 8th largest energy firm in the world.

Dr. Smith’s forte is to understand and to solve problems both technical and business using a holistic systems design approach. He has developed expertise in systems using machine intelligence (aka, artificial intelligence and automated reasoning) to build very cost efficient and highly performant active physical protection systems, e.g., TSO’s Remotely Controlled Active Defense and Denial System (RCADS™).

Beginning in 2014, Dr. Samuel Smith collaborated with The Security Oracle’s technology team in engineering a system of systems that has moved the old best practice of “Detect, Delay and Respond” to “Detect, Engage and Neutralize”.

He also developed an open source elliptic curve based end-to-end encrypted and authenticated protocol for reliable asynchronous event transport (RAET).

Samuel Smith: Topsfield selectman

Samuel Smith (1714-1785) was a selectman, legislative representative, and Committee of Correspondence member for the town of Topsfield, Massachusetts. But that's not why he attracts attention today. Many other men served their neighbors the same way, and Topsfield was not a major town then: third-smallest in Essex County. People still write about Samuel Smith because one of his great-grandsons, Joseph Smith, founded the Mormon church.

According to some writers with Latter-Day Saints ties, Smith was involved in destroying the tea in Boston harbor on 16 Dec 1773. Indeed, this page at josephsmithsr.com says, "Capt. Samuel T. Smith was the ring-leader of the Boston Tea Party." [My emphasis—and I don't know where that middle initial sprang from.] In 2002, the magazine LDS Living published a travel article about Boston that passed on a similar claim, with some skepticism:

The article shows a—let's say—casual approach to historical research, and makes some other missteps. For the record, British army officers were not locked out of Boston's huge tea meetings in 1773 since there were no officers in town then. The Rev. Thomas Prince of Old South did not go to England when war broke out he had died in 1758. And there's no evidence Samuel Smith was in Boston on the night of the Tea Party.

Smith, a fifty-nine-year-old gentleman farmer who probably did most of his trading in Salem, was highly unlikely to travel thirty miles to Boston and spend the night hoisting and chopping open heavy chests of tea. The Boston Whigs didn't need his help they had plenty of local volunteers. No first- or second-hand reminiscences of the event mention Smith.

Looking at Topsfield town records shows how this myth sprouted. In 1773 Smith and his fellow selectmen called a town meeting

Thus, Smith was chairman of Topsfield's committee on the tea crisis.

However, the selectmen didn't call that town meeting until 27 December, over a week after they'd heard about the tea destroyed in Boston. The warrant for the meeting asked

Topsfield's Whigs were responding to news from Boston, not making news there.

On 20 January, Topsfield’s town meeting accepted its committee’s report calling for a boycott on British tea, and affirmed that Topsfield voters

The town (under Smith’s leadership) thus positioned itself as fully in support of the law—while tacitly supporting extra-legal resistance to unjust new laws.

This committee was only one small part of Smith's political work for Topsfield. Because the Boston Tea Party became such an iconic moment of the pre-Revolutionary period, however, historians looking into Smith's life paid extra attention to it. After that, some eager writers read too much into those references. They spun Samuel Smith, chairman of his small town's committee to respond to the tea protest, into Samuel Smith, leader of the protest itself. But not every New Englander's great-grandfather was at the Tea Party.

Ohrstrom Library Digital Archives

The Reverend Dr. Samuel Smith Drury arrived at St. Paul’s School to serve as Vice Rector in April 1910. In June 1911 he succeeded the Reverend Dr. Ferguson and became Fourth Rector, serving in that position for the next twenty-seven years until his death in 1938. Pier’s St. Paul’s School 1855-1934 states that:

. . . the main results of Dr. Drury’s administration up to the present time are four: closer attention to scholarship, a freer and better standard of conduct, a more liberal yet not less devout attitude towards religion, and a friendlier relationship between boys and masters.

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Dr. Samuel Smith - History

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  • Share information in a disaster relief situation
  • Include your information in a hospital directory (*Note: We do not create or manage a hospital directory.)

If you are not able to tell us your preference, for example if you are unconscious, we may go ahead and share your information if we believe it is in your best interest. We may also share your information when needed to lessen a serious and imminent threat to health or safety.

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Eastern Carolina ENT Head & Neck Surgery

We are pleased you have chosen to visit our website. As you scroll through, you will become more familiar with our services and physicians. Eastern Carolina ENT Head & Neck Surgery is the largest ENT practice of its kind in the region, offering treatments and services to patients throughout Eastern North Carolina.

First established as Pitt ENT, the practice name changed to Eastern Carolina Ear, Nose, Throat, Head & Neck Surgery in 1999. The practice relocated to its present location at 850 Johns Hopkins Drive in 2001. With satellite offices in Wilson, Washington, Windsor and Tarboro, Eastern Carolina ENT provides the people of Eastern North Carolina with several locations Down East for convenience of our patients.

With eight full-time physicians on staff, assisted by a number of additional staff, Eastern Carolina ENT Head & Neck Surgery offers not only the latest treatments, but also the most comprehensive patient care. Among the many services we offer are cochlear implants, audiology/hearing aids, laser surgery, speech pathology, thyroid surgery, comprehensive head and neck cancer care, Robotic-Assisted Surgery (TORS), sinuplasty and sleep apnea surgery, and allergy diagnosis and treatment.

Watch the video: The Courage to Keep Going Dr. Charles Stanley (January 2022).