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Antigua Transport - History

Antigua Transport - History


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ANTIGUA & BARBUDA Transport

Airports:
3 (2006)
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2006)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2006)
Roadways:
total: 1,165 km
paved: 384 km
unpaved: 781 km (2002)
Merchant marine:
total: 1,011 ships (1000 GRT or over) 7,452,503 GRT/9,783,309 DWT
by type: bulk carrier 40, cargo 596, chemical tanker 7, container 321, liquefied gas 11, passenger/cargo 2, petroleum tanker 1, refrigerated cargo 12, roll on/roll off 21
foreign-owned: 984 (Australia 1, Bangladesh 4, Belgium 4, Colombia 2, Denmark 14, Estonia 12, France 1, Germany 858, Iceland 8, Isle of Man 2, Latvia 5, Lebanon 1, Lithuania 3, Netherlands 14, Norway 11, NZ 1, Poland 3, Russia 6, Singapore 1, Slovenia 6, Switzerland 4, Turkey 8, UK 7, US 7, Vietnam 1) (2006)
Ports and terminals:
Saint John's


First of all, where is Antigua, Guatemala? Guatemala contains 22 departments, and Antigua is the capital of the Sacatepéquez department. It’s a colonial city that for many years was the political, religious, and economic heart of Central America.

It has been founded three different times. The first foundation was in 1523, when Pedro de Alvarado and his group of Spanish conquistadors came to Guatemala and defeated the Mayan kingdom. Pedro de Alvarado became governor and set up his first capital in a city called Iximché. However, he betrayed and enslaved the people in that city and was forced to leave to avoid being killed. He decided to go to a nearby valley.

The second foundation began in 1524, when Alvarado named the valley Ciudad de los caballeros de Santiago de Guatemala. Here, he and his men set up their mini kingdom and lived for many years. Then, in 1541, Alvarado was killed in Mexico and his wife took over the city. However, a mudslide destroyed it and killed many, which is why they decided to move the city yet again.

The rebuilt city finally flourished, and the current Antigua Guatemala is the city’s third foundation. It was the home of the Spanish colonial administration and saw the construction of many incredible and colonial-style buildings. Different governors ruled the city in the name of the King of Spain.

Today, Antigua Guatemala is one of the most visited cities in the country due to the charm of its colonial architecture. In fact, thanks to its rich architecture and culture, Antigua Guatemala has been a cultural heritage site by UNESCO since 1979.


A History of Transport

The first form of transport was, of course, Shanks pony (the human foot!). However, people eventually learned to use animals for transport. Donkeys and horses were probably domesticated between 4,000 and 3,000 BC (obviously the exact date is not known). Camels were domesticated slightly later between 3,000 and 2,000 BC.

Meanwhile, about 3,500 BC the wheel was invented in what is now Iraq. At first, wheels were made of solid pieces of wood lashed together to form a circle but after 2,000 BC they were made with spokes.

The earliest boats were dugout canoes. People lit a fire on a big log then put it out and dug out the burned wood.

About 3,100 BC the Egyptians invented the sailing boat. They were made of bundles of papyrus reeds tied together. They had simple square sails made of sheets of papyrus or later of linen. However, the sail could only be used when sailing in one direction. When travelling against the wind the boat had to be rowed.

About 2,700 BC the Egyptians began using wooden ships for trade by sea. Early ships were steered by a long oar.

The Romans are famous for the network of roads they built across the Empire. Roman legionaries built them so the Roman army could march from one part of the empire to another quickly. Rich people traveled by horse or on long journeys by covered wagon. Sometimes they were carried in litters (seats between two long poles).

Transport by water was also important to the Romans. They built large merchant ships called cortia, which could carry up to 1,000 tons of cargo.

Roman ships had a single main mast, which carried a rectangular sail, although some ships also had small sails at the bow and stern. Roman ships did not have rudders. Instead, they were steered by oars. The Romans also built lighthouses to aid shipping.

TRANSPORT IN THE MIDDLE AGES

After the fall of Rome transport became more primitive. Roads in Europe returned to being simple dirt tracks, which turned to mud in the Winter. In the Middle Ages, rich people sometimes traveled in covered wagons. They must have been very uncomfortable as they did not have suspension and the roads were bumpy and rutted. Others traveled on a box between two poles. Two horses, one in front and one behind carried it. They were trained to walk at the same pace.

However, at sea, a number of useful inventions were made. By the 12th century, Europeans had learned to use a compass. Also in the 12th century, Europeans invented the rudder. (The Chinese independently invented it centuries before). Rudders made ships much easier to steer. Furthermore, Medieval shipbuilding became far more advanced and by the 15th-century ships were made with 3 masts.

In Tudor times transport was still slow and uncomfortable. Roads were still just dirt tracks. Men were supposed, by law, to spend a number of days repairing the local roads but it is unlikely they did much good! People traveled by horse. You could either ride your own or you could hire a horse.

In Tudor times you would be lucky if you could travel 50 or 60 kilometers a day. It normally took a week to travel from London to Plymouth. However rich people deliberately traveled slowly. They felt it was undignified to hurry and they took their time.

Goods were sometimes transported by packhorse (horses with bags on their sides). Also, carriers with covered wagons carried goods and sometimes passengers. However when possible people preferred to transport goods by water. All around England, there was a ‘coastal trade’. Goods from one part of the country, such as coal, were taken by sea to other parts.

Transport and communications improved in the 17th century. In 1600 the royal posts were exclusively used to carry the king’s correspondence. However in 1635, to raise money, Charles I allowed members of the public to pay his messengers to carry letters. This was the start of the royal mail.

From the middle of the 17th-century stagecoaches ran regularly between the major towns. However, they were very expensive and they must have been very uncomfortable without springs on rough roads. There was also the danger of highwaymen.

In 1663 the first Turnpike roads opened. You had to pay to use them. Meanwhile in towns wealthy people were carried in sedan chairs. n Transport was greatly improved during the 18th century. Groups of rich men formed turnpike trusts. Acts of Parliament gave them the right to improve and maintain certain roads. Travelers had to pay tolls to use them. The first turnpikes were created as early as 1663 but they became far more common in the 18th century.

Transporting goods was also made much easier by digging canals. In the early 18th century goods were often transported by packhorse. Moving heavy goods was very expensive. However, in 1759 the Duke of Bridgewater decided to build a canal to bring coal from his estate at Worsley to Manchester. He employed an engineer called James Brindley. When it was completed the Bridgewater canal halved the price of coal in Manchester. Many more canals were dug in the late 18th century and the early 19th century. They played a major role in the industrial revolution by making it cheaper to transport goods.

Meanwhile, in France, the Montgolfier brothers invented the hot air balloon in 1783. The hydrogen balloon was also invented in 1783. In 1785 two men, Jean-Pierre Blanchard and John Jeffries flew over the English Channel in a hydrogen balloon.

It’s debatable which man invented the lifeboat. Lionel Lukin invented an unsinkable boat in 1785. But the first purpose-built lifeboat was built in South Shields, England in 1789 by Henry Greathead.

TRANSPORT IN THE 19th CENTURY

In the mid-19th-century transport was revolutionized by railways. They made travel much faster. (They also removed the danger of highwaymen). The Stockton and Darlington railway opened in 1825. However, the first major railway was from Liverpool to Manchester. It opened in 1830. In the 1840s there was a huge boom in building railways and most towns in Britain were connected. In the late 19th century many branch lines were built connecting many villages.

The first underground railway in Britain was built in London in 1863. The carriages were pulled by steam trains. The first electric underground trains began running in London in 1890. The Central Line opened in 1900. The Bakerloo Line and the Piccadilly Line both opened in 1906. Meanwhile, the Paris Metro opened in 1900.

From 1829 horse-drawn omnibuses began running in London. They soon followed in other towns. In the 1860s and 1870s horse-drawn trams began running in many towns. n Karl Benz and Gottlieb Daimler made the first cars in 1885 and 1886. The motorbike was patented in 1885. Also in the 1880s, the safety bicycle was invented and cycling soon became a popular hobby.

Meanwhile at sea 19th-century transportation was revolutionized by the steamship. By 1815 steamships were crossing the English Channel. The Savannah became the first steamship to cross the Atlantic in 1819. Furthermore, it used to take several weeks to cross the Atlantic. Then in 1838, a steamship called the Sirius made the journey in 19 days. However steam did not completely replace sail until the end of the 19th century when the steam turbine was used on ships.

TRANSPORT IN THE 20th CENTURY

Transportation greatly improved during the 20th century. Although the first cars appeared at the end of the 19th century after the First World War they became cheaper and more common. However in 1940 only about one in 10 families in Britain owned a car. They increased in number after World War II. By 1959 32% of households owned a car. Yet cars only became really common in the 1960s. By the 1970s the majority of families owned one.

In 1903 a speed limit of 20 MPH was introduced in Britain. It was abolished in 1930. However, in 1934 a speed limit of 30 MPH in built-up areas was introduced. The first electric traffic lights were invented in the USA in 1914. In Britain, the first electric traffic lights were installed in 1928. Insurance for motorists was made compulsory in 1931. The first Highway Code was published in 1931. A driving test was introduced in 1934. Also in 1934, Percy Shaw invented the cat’s eye. Meanwhile, in Britain, the AA was formed in 1905.

The parking meter was invented by an American called Carlton Magee. The first ones were installed in the USA in 1935. The first ones in Britain were installed in 1958. Then in 1959, a Swede named Nils Bohlin developed the three-point seat belt. In 1983 wearing a seat belt was made compulsory in Britain. Wheel clamps were introduced to Britain in 1983 and speed cameras in 1992.

Meanwhile in Britain in 1936 Belisha Beacons were introduced to make road crossing safer. The first zebra crossing was introduced in 1949. In Britain Lollipop men and women followed in 1953. The modern pelican crossing was introduced in 1969.

In 1931 an American called Rolla N. Harger invented the first breathalyzer. It was first used in Indianapolis USA in 1939. In Britain, double yellow lines at the sides of the roads meaning no parking were introduced in 1958.

Meanwhile, in the late 19th century, horse-drawn trams ran in many towns in Britain. At the beginning of the 20th century, they were electrified. However, in most towns trams were phased out in the 1930s. They gave way to buses, either motor buses or trolleybuses, which ran on overhead wires. The trolleybuses, in turn, were phased out in the 1950s. Ironically at the end of the 20th century, some cities re-introduced light railways.

In the mid-20th century, there was a large network of branch railways in Britain. However, in 1963 a minister called Dr. Beeching closed many of them. Christopher Cockerell patented the hovercraft in 1955, In 1959 a hovercraft crossed the English Channel.

The first hovercraft passenger service began in 1962.

Meanwhile, a completely new form of transport began. In 1919 planes began carrying passengers between London and Paris. (The first plane flight in Britain was made in 1908). The first passenger jet service began in 1952.

However, in the early 20th-century flight was a luxury few people could afford. Furthermore, only a small minority could afford foreign travel. Foreign holidays only became common in the 1960s.

The Boeing 747, the first ‘Jumbo jet’ was introduced in 1970 and The Channel Tunnel opened in 1994.

The next step in transport will probably be commercial suborbital space flight. At the moment it is still in the future and at first, it will inevitably be very expensive but it will eventually become cheap enough for ordinary people to afford.


The average life span here is 76.88 years (2018).

Antigua and Barbuda grows fruits, cotton, bananas and vegetables they also rear livestock.

Its industry consists of tourism, construction and light manufacturing.

The main exports consist of petroleum products, machinery and transport equipment, manufactures, food and live animals.

Do you know any fun facts about Antigua and Barbuda? Share them in the comments below!

Are you fascinated with learning more about the Caribbean? Check out these awesome facts about Grenada!


Interesting facts about Antigua and Barbuda

Antigua and Barbuda is a twin-island country in the Americas, lying between the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean.

It consists of two major inhabited islands, Antigua and Barbuda, and a number of smaller islands. The smaller islands include Guiana Island, Bird Island, and Long Island.

The nearest countries to Antigua and Barbuda are other island nations, including St Kitts and Nevis, Dominica, the French territory of Guadeloupe and the British territories of Montserrat and Anguilla.

The official language is English.

As of 1 January 2016, the population of Antigua and Barbuda was estimated to be 92,295 people.

The area of Antigua and Barbuda is 442 square kilometers (171 square miles).

The largest island Antigua, is about 22 kilometers (14 miles) long and 18 kilometers (11 miles) wide, encompassing 281 square kilometers (108 square miles). Barbuda covers 161 square kilometers (62 square miles).

St. John’s is the capital and largest city of Antigua and Barbuda, located on the northwest coast of Antigua. It is the commercial center of the nation and the country’s main port.

Antigua and Barbuda both are generally low-lying islands whose terrain has been influenced more by limestone formations than volcanic activity.

The island’s highest point is Mount Obama (formerly Boggy Peak), the remnant of a volcanic crater rising 402 meters (1319 feet). It was known as the Boggy Peak until 4 August 2009, when it was renamed after Barack Obama who has a birthday on this day.

Antigua and Barbuda does not have any permanent rivers and lakes of significant size. There are few streams as rainfall is slight. But both islands lack adequate amounts of fresh groundwater.

The shorelines of both islands are greatly indented with beaches, lagoons, and natural harbours. The islands are rimmed by reefs and shoals.

The country is nicknamed “Land of 365 Beaches” due to the many beaches surrounding the islands.

Pink Sand Beach on the southwest coast of the island of Barbuda is beautiful natural attraction. The champagne colored sand glows in the sun thanks to the crushed coral.

English Harbour is a natural harbour and settlement on the island of Antigua, in the extreme south of the island. The settlement takes its name from the nearby harbour in which the Royal Navy established its base of operations for the area during the eighteenth century. English Harbour is a centre of boating, especially yachting.

Fort James is a fort at the entrance to the harbour of St. John’s. The fort was built to guard St. John’s harbour and is one of the many forts built by the British in the 18th century.

St. John’s Cathedral is an Anglican church perched on a hilltop in St. John’s. The present cathedral with its imposing white twin towers was built on a fossilized reef, in 1845, and is now in its third incarnation, as earthquakes in 1683 and in 1745 destroyed the previous structures.

Antigua is Spanish for “ancient” and Barbuda is Spanish for “bearded”.

The island of Antigua was explored by Christopher Columbus in 1493 and named for the Church of Santa Maria de la Antigua in Seville.

After 349 years as a British colony, Antigua and Barbuda gained independence in 1981.

Citizens of Antigua and Barbuda are known as Antiguans or Barbudans, depending on which island they are from.

The national dish is fungie (pronounced “foon-jee”) and pepper pot. Fungie is a dish that’s similar to Italian Polenta, made mostly with cornmeal.

The culture is predominantly a mixture of West African and British cultural influences.

Cricket is the national sport. Other popular sports include football, boat racing and surfing.

Antigua and Barbuda is one of the Caribbean’s most prosperous nations, thanks to its tourism industry and offshore financial services.

With “one beach for every day of the year”, the country attracts more than 700,000 visitors every year.


Disaster Transport History

Hey. I was looking at a mock up for disaster transport as shown in the 1990 park guide for CP and noticed under the 12 E there was a large florecent looking sign displaying Dis(patch)(M)aster Transport

Does anyone know if this ever exsisted.

Also, i was reading somewhere that there was a pre ride movie. does anyone know anything about this and what it was like?i bet it helped the thmeming alot.

Hmm, good find. I'm not sure that it was ever there, perhaps someone else can confirm. My guess is that it was one of those "only in the artist rendering" things.

Much to my surprise, I have found some cool things on Disaster Transport over the years.
http://www.sfps.net/indexCMS.php?projectPro=theme&profile=3

And somewhere, I have pictures of the transformation to Disaster Transport.

2007: Millennium Force, 2008: Millennium Force ATL, 2009: Top Thrill Dragster
www.pointpixels.com | www.parkpixels.com

Blindturkey

And somewhere, I have pictures of the transformation to Disaster Transport.

Thats awesome. if you ever find them id def be interested in seeing them
*** Edited 8/31/2006 4:17:56 AM UTC by blindturkey***

Anlarsh

I remember that artwork. I think it was in the 1990 Getaway Guide (or whatever it was called then), which I believe I still have somewhere.

Anyway, I know I rode it in either 1990 or 1991, and I don't remember there ever being a sign like that on the finished ride.

You know, I seem to remember enjoying it considerably more when it was the Avalanche Bobsled Run. but that may have more to do with it being the pre-Maggie era and how young I was.

DjDaemon

I agree about AR being more fun, but (as you said) that may have more to do with age and/or the novelty of the ride than anything. That part of the park looked a lot different before it was enclosed, that's for sure.

Jeremy Sell

There was quite a bit of theming to Disaster Transport when it first opened. Despite their best efforts, I always found it kind of cheesy. It'd be nice if they still had it all in place though, it must confuse some people who are unfamiliar with the ride as to why there are things here and there and what it was all supposed to mean at one point. Now it's little more than a bobsled coaster in a building.

The whole gimmick with the ride was that it was supposed to be an "airline" so to speak, but travelling into the atmosphere (IE space) with space planes for a trip to Alaska. The name of this imaginary transport company was "Dispatch Master Transport". Things go wrong on the trip though (mechanical failures, space pirates, whatever) hence the alternate name "Disaster Transport". The sign for the ride actually said "Dispatch Master Transport", but certain letters were made to look like they had coincidentally burned out, leaving "Dis aster Transport" illuminated on the sign. Sort of like an "omen" of things to come.

Throughout the queue, they had TV monitors showing video clips of "airline" employees talking about your trip, space travel, safety precautions, etc. They would go back and forth with the "space plane" pilots shooting the bull. At one point while talking to a pilot he says stuff about things going wrong, like "what the. " or "we're under attack" or some such thing. They had two animatronic robots, one who was very animated and talkative. The other just oversaw the repair bay.

The repair bay had a moving overhead conveyer system. The coaster car in there had robotic welders moving around, throwing sparks, like they were repairing the car.

There were travel posters on the walls for all the destinations Dispatch Master Transport serviced. There was a schematic of the cars as if they were space planes. All kinds of little things that fit the theme.

There was also a satellite hanging in the middle of one of the rooms on the ride itself (I believe it's gone now) and it used to shoot "laser" beams.

The ride ops all used to wear orange jumpsuits to fit the theme. The whole thing was at one point blacklit, making the outfits glow.

While climbing the lift hill, there was a strobe flashing in your eyes. They had a sound track too, something about prepairing for launch. Halfway through the ride, (when it's just a space transport trip to Alaska, before things go wrong) there was a sound clip of a guy (presumably the pilot) exclaiming "I'M LOSING CONTROL!" At the end of the ride, there was a sound clip saying "Welcome to Alaska".

So in the end, the production and special effects were a nice effort, but kind of cheesy. Still, at least it gave the ride some meaning and theming.

There's probably more I'm forgetting, and I may be wrong about one or two things. Confused by the passage of time perhaps. I haven't been on it in a while, they may still have a few of these elements.

I remember there was an accident a few years after it opened. A meteor prop fell on the track and a car hit it, causing leg and back injuries to those in the front of the car.
*** Edited 8/31/2006 11:56:59 AM UTC by Jeremy Sell***


Interesting facts about Antigua and Barbuda

Antigua and Barbuda is a twin-island country in the Americas, lying between the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean.

It consists of two major inhabited islands, Antigua and Barbuda, and a number of smaller islands. The smaller islands include Guiana Island, Bird Island, and Long Island.

The nearest countries to Antigua and Barbuda are other island nations, including St Kitts and Nevis, Dominica, the French territory of Guadeloupe and the British territories of Montserrat and Anguilla.

The official language is English.

As of 1 January 2016, the population of Antigua and Barbuda was estimated to be 92,295 people.

The area of Antigua and Barbuda is 442 square kilometers (171 square miles).

The largest island Antigua, is about 22 kilometers (14 miles) long and 18 kilometers (11 miles) wide, encompassing 281 square kilometers (108 square miles). Barbuda covers 161 square kilometers (62 square miles).

St. John’s is the capital and largest city of Antigua and Barbuda, located on the northwest coast of Antigua. It is the commercial center of the nation and the country’s main port.

Antigua and Barbuda both are generally low-lying islands whose terrain has been influenced more by limestone formations than volcanic activity.

The island’s highest point is Mount Obama (formerly Boggy Peak), the remnant of a volcanic crater rising 402 meters (1319 feet). It was known as the Boggy Peak until 4 August 2009, when it was renamed after Barack Obama who has a birthday on this day.

Antigua and Barbuda does not have any permanent rivers and lakes of significant size. There are few streams as rainfall is slight. But both islands lack adequate amounts of fresh groundwater.

The shorelines of both islands are greatly indented with beaches, lagoons, and natural harbours. The islands are rimmed by reefs and shoals.

The country is nicknamed “Land of 365 Beaches” due to the many beaches surrounding the islands.

Pink Sand Beach on the southwest coast of the island of Barbuda is beautiful natural attraction. The champagne colored sand glows in the sun thanks to the crushed coral.

English Harbour is a natural harbour and settlement on the island of Antigua, in the extreme south of the island. The settlement takes its name from the nearby harbour in which the Royal Navy established its base of operations for the area during the eighteenth century. English Harbour is a centre of boating, especially yachting.

Fort James is a fort at the entrance to the harbour of St. John’s. The fort was built to guard St. John’s harbour and is one of the many forts built by the British in the 18th century.

St. John’s Cathedral is an Anglican church perched on a hilltop in St. John’s. The present cathedral with its imposing white twin towers was built on a fossilized reef, in 1845, and is now in its third incarnation, as earthquakes in 1683 and in 1745 destroyed the previous structures.

Antigua is Spanish for “ancient” and Barbuda is Spanish for “bearded”.

The island of Antigua was explored by Christopher Columbus in 1493 and named for the Church of Santa Maria de la Antigua in Seville.

After 349 years as a British colony, Antigua and Barbuda gained independence in 1981.

Citizens of Antigua and Barbuda are known as Antiguans or Barbudans, depending on which island they are from.

The national dish is fungie (pronounced “foon-jee”) and pepper pot. Fungie is a dish that’s similar to Italian Polenta, made mostly with cornmeal.

The culture is predominantly a mixture of West African and British cultural influences.

Cricket is the national sport. Other popular sports include football, boat racing and surfing.

Antigua and Barbuda is one of the Caribbean’s most prosperous nations, thanks to its tourism industry and offshore financial services.

With “one beach for every day of the year”, the country attracts more than 700,000 visitors every year.


About Antigua

Antigua (pronounced An-tee’ga) is located in the heart of the Caribbean Sea at 17 degrees 5’ north and longitude 61 degrees 45’. The largest of the Leeward Islands, Antigua is a 108-square mile limestone and coral island recognized for its numerous coves, bays, 365 white sand beaches and clear turquoise-colored waters. To the south are the islands of Montserrat and Guadeloupe, and to the north and west are Nevis, St. Kitts, St. Barts and St. Martin/Maarten. The sister island of Barbuda (Bar-byew’ da) lies 27 miles northeast of Antigua with a land area of 62 square miles.

The capital of Antigua is St. John’s with two distinctive waterfront areas and a selection of shops and restaurants.

Sunny and warm all year with soothing trade winds, the average temperature ranges from the mid-seventies in the winter to the mid-eighties in the summer. Annual rainfall averages only 45 inches, making it the sunniest of the eastern Caribbean islands, and the northeast trade winds are nearly constant, flagging only in September.

English is the spoken language.

A majority of the 80,100 people (2004 Census) residing on Antigua are of African descent, the remainder being of British, Lebanese, Syrian, Chinese and Portuguese origin.

ANTIGUA ISLAND HISTORY
Christopher Columbus named Antigua in 1493 in homage to Santa Maria de la Antigua, the miracle-working saint of Seville, Spain. In 1632, the British permanently settled Antigua as a colony. The arrival of Sir Christopher Codrington began the sugar era for the island with more than 150 cane-processing windmills—each the focal point of a sizeable plantation. By the end of the eighteenth century, Antigua had become an important strategic port as well as a valuable commercial colony. Known as the “gateway to the Caribbean,” it was situated in a position that offered control over the major sailing routes to and from the region’srich island colonies. Most of the island’s historical sites, from its many-ruined fortification, to the impeccably restored architecture of English Harbourtown, are reminders of colonial efforts to ensure its safety from invasion.

Horatio Nelson arrived in 1784 to develop the British naval facilities at English Harbour and to enforce stringent commercial shipping laws. The first of these two tasks resulted in construction of Nelson’s Dockyard, one of Antigua’s finest physical assets. Serving under Nelson at the time was the future King William IV, for whom the more pleasant accommodation of Clarence House was built. It was during William’s reign, in 1834, that Britain abolished slavery in the empire.

As the sugar industry of the British islands began to dissolve,the island turned towards the development of tourism. In 1967, under the leadership of V.C. Bird, with Barbuda and the tiny island of Redonda as dependencies, Antigua became an associated state of the Commonwealth, and in 1981 it achieved full independent status.

ANTIGUA AIRPORT INFORMATION
VC Bird International Airport
There are direct flights and connections from North America via San Juan, Montserrat and St. Maarten (and several weekly flights from Europe) provided by Air Canada, Air Montserrat, American Airlines,Caribbean Airlines, Continental Airlines, Delta, LIAT and US Air. Scheduled and charter service is available to many of the neighboring islands.
Flying times: New York𔃂 hrs.
Miami𔃁 hrs.
Baltimore𔃂 hrs.
Toronto𔃂 hrs.
Puerto Rico𔂿 hr.
London𔃆 hrs.
Frankfurt𔃇 1/4 hrs.
Paris𔃆 hrs.
V.C. Bird International Airport, located on the northeast corner of Antigua, is the point of entry for visitors arriving by air. There is a $20 airport departure tax for stay-over visitors.

GOLF

There are two golf courses on the Antigua: an 18-hole, 70-par course at the Cedar Valley Golf Club and another at Jolly Harbour. The K- Club on Barbuda also has its own 9-hole course.

JOLLY HARBOUR GOLF CLUB

Green Fee prices are already included in the membership fees, if a member does not have their own carts and clubs they can be rented at a special membership rate. For non-members the
Fees Are:
9 holes – $25.00US
18 holes – $40.00US Golf Cart Fees:
9 holes – $15.00US
18 holes – $23.00US

Telephone # 268-462-7771 Ext 608
Fax # 268-562-2810
E-mail: [email protected]

CEDAR VALLEY GOLF COURSE

Obtain and fill out a membership form. Form has to be returned for approval – is usually approved. Once approved payments have to be made. There is a joining fee of $260.00EC
Membership fees: Single – $1,280.00EC per year Husband & Wife – $2,050.00EC per year
Family (husband & wife + Kids in school not college) $2,300.00EC per year
Green Fees $30.00US per 18 holes daily
Carts $30.00US per 18 holes (if cart is shared $15.00US per person)

Telephone # 268-462-0161
Fax # 268-562-2762
E-mail: [email protected]

ANTIGUA ACTIVITIES

A variety of land and sea activities await the adventure-seeker. Water sports abound from sailing, boat cruising, water skiing, deep sea and reef fishing to scuba diving and snorkeling among the thriving coral reefs surrounding the island. For land lovers, two 18-hole golf courses and professional tennis and squash courts are accessible and open to the public. In addition, the island offers other popular recreational activities such as horseback riding, helicopter tours, hiking and eco-tours. The

Island also harbors a fierce devotion to the sport of Cricket, with the season running from January to July.

Antigua’s rich history and spectacular topography provide a variety of popular sightseeing opportunities. Nelson’s Dockyard, the only remaining example of a Georgian fort commissioned by the British in 1755, is perhaps the most renowned landmark. Other attractions include a historic overview of six periods of Antiguan history through a multimedia presentation at the Dow Interpretation Center.

Visitors may also enjoy a panoramic view of the Caribbean’s longest continuously operational port from Shirley Heights. Further evidence of the island’s historical roots is St. John’s Cathedral, visible from around the capital it is regarded as one of Antigua’s national monuments. Betty’s Hope, which was built in 1674, is the site of one of the first full-scale sugar plantations on Antigua, and offers a chance to step back into time by visiting the restored mills. Antigua is also recognized for its picturesque landscape and natural preserves. Explore the lush vegetation of the rainforest with an expedition down Fig Tree Drive. Another unique attraction is Devil’s Bridge, located at the eastern tip of the island in Indian Town National Park, where Atlantic breakers have carved out a natural limestone arch.

ANTIGUA WEDDINGS

As destination weddings become even more popular, we offer special packages and wedding planners to help accommodate every desire. There is no waiting period or residency requirement to secure a marriage license, just begin by visiting the Ministry of Justice with a valid passport, complete the application and pay a $40 registration fee, $150 application fee and the Marriage Officer’s fee of $50.

Once a date and time for the ceremony has been determined, the ceremony may be performed in the presence of a registrar or marriage officer and two witnesses. All applicants must be over 18 years of age and if previously married, the original divorce decree or, in the case of a widow or widower, the original marriage and death certificates will need to be presented.

Barbuda is part of our three-island state with Antigua and Redonda in the northeastern Caribbean. In Barbuda you will see an island that is unspoiled by tourism. It is renowned for its beaches that are natural, sprinkled with pink sand, and miles long.

Barbuda’s Frigate Bird Sanctuary is located in the island’s northwestern lagoon and is accessible only by boat. The sanctuary contains over 170 species of birds and is home to over 5,000 frigate birds. Fregata magnificens, the most aerial of water birds, possesses the largest wingspan (four to five feet) in proportion to its body size of any bird in the world. It is also known as the man o’ war bird, and the comparison to warships is a particularly apt one — with its superior size and flight capabilities, the frigate bird harasses less agile flyers like pelicans, egrets, and cormorants until they drop their catch. The male frigate is marked by its red throat pouch, which it can inflates as part of its courtship behaviour and as a defensive display. Courting takes place in the fall, and chicks hatch late in the year. We offer day tours to Barbuda

ANTIGUA TRANSPORTATION

Taxis are available throughout Antigua. Fares between the airport, harbour, and many villas and destinations are fixed and can be obtained upon arrival. Sample fares from V.C. Bird International Airport to: Nelsons Dockyard–US$21 Shirley Heights–US$21 St. John’s–US$7. Taxi drivers are also qualified as tour guides for sightseeing trips. Tour rates can be obtained beforehand.

Renting a car is an ideal way to discover more of Antigua while on your vacation. The cost is about US$40-50 per day. In addition to a valid driver’s license from your country of residence, or an international driver’s license, a permit to drive in Antigua is required. The rental agency can assist you in getting this temporary license, which costs approximately US$25 and is valid for three months. Don’t forget that driving here is on the left side of the road! We recommend Tropical Car rentals among others.

There is some local bus service schedules and routes can be obtained through our offices.

ANTIGUA SECURITY & HEALTH

There is a number of very highly qualified European and US trained physicians in Antigua, but in-patient facilities are limited to a single public hospital (Holberton Hospital, Hospital Road, St. John’s tel. 268-462-0251). There is also a private Adelin Medical Center, Fort Road, Antigua 268 462 0866 clinic. There is no hyperbaric chamber divers requiring treatment for decompression illness must be evacuated from the island, usually to either Saba or Guadeloupe. Pharmacies are well supplied. Most doctors and hospitals will expect payment in cash, regardless of whether you have travel health insurance. Serious medical problems will require air evacuation to a country with state-of-the-art medical facilities.

Antiguan and Barbuda security forces consisted of the Royal Antigua and Barbuda Police Force, which was a constabulary of 350 personnel, and the Antigua and Barbuda Defense Force, which had 115 members. The Defense Force filled the role of the SSUs established in other OECS countries it had only a ground element, as Antigua and Barbuda had no navy or air force. There is also the National coast guard.

ANTIGUA TELECOMMUNICATIONS

Cable and Wireless, and Digicel and APUA provide international direct dialing telephone service, as well as telex, facsimile and data service (including electronic mail and international database to Europe, North America and other parts of the Caribbean).

Licensed operations and services are: Radio and TV Broadcasting Station Cable TV and Multimedia Services Satellite EarthStation, Radio Communications Amateur Radios, Citizens Band (CB) Radios, Very High Frequency (VHF), Ultra High frequency (UHF), Submarine Cable Landing, Mobile Telephone Network

ANTIGUA WEATHER

Temperatures generally range from the mid-seventies in the winter to the mid-eighties in the summer. Annual rainfall averages only 45 inches making it the sunniest of the Eastern Caribbean Islands, and the northeast trade winds are nearly constant, flagging only in September. Low humidity year-round however watch out for the sun!


The islands of Antigua and Barbuda, and several smaller dependent islands, form an independent country towards the eastern extent of the West Indies.

The overall population is just under 100,000, almost all living on Antigua, especially since Hurricane Irma destroyed most of Barbuda’s buildings and infrastructure in 2017, rendering the island uninhabitable until it can be rebuilt.

Antigua is a hugely popular high-end tourist destination, and tourism accounts for half of the annual GDP, with over 250,000 visitors per annum, one third of those from the US. Much of the rest of the GDP is generated via international banking, economic citizenship (encouragement of foreign investors), and the three medical schools, mainly for foreign students, which all contribute to the economy. Agriculture is limited to feeding the local population, and is perpetually short of labour given higher wages which attract locals to the construction and tourism industries.

There is a fairly sizeable expat community, with many Britons and Americans choosing to live on Antigua, either retired or working, again mainly in the banking and tourism sectors.

The official language in Antigua and Barbuda is British English, although around 10% of the population speaks Spanish. There is also the Antiguan Creole patois, which has been widely discouraged in the education system in favour of English, but many terms survive in the local slang, and certain words and phrases have their roots in African languages.

Expats need to be aware that the strong and lyrical West Indian accent, which varies considerably from island to island, and the associated slang (in both English and Spanish) can take some getting used to.

If English is not your native tongue, then learning or improving it will help you to communicate and integrate better, and it will be vital in the workplace. Learning facilities for English on the islands are very limited, therefore it is essential to possess a level of confidence and proficiency in English before you arrive. A working knowledge of the sport of cricket will also go a long way to making conversation!

You may need to consider enrolling in an online course in English, or attending an international school, either in a nearby Latin American country or in your home country. This is especially important if you need occupation-specific proficiency, for example in banking or finance, or the medical sector.

There are many courses in English available on the internet catering for all levels. Some will be free to a certain level.

All daily commerce and general conversation on the islands will be in English, but these daily interactions will improve your level of proficiency fairly quickly, as you will be immersed in the language and culture. You should also be able to find locals willing to coach you or encourage you by engaging in conversation over a coffee or a beer.

It is much the same story in general for the Spanish language. If you need to communicate with the 10,000-strong Spanish speaking population, or indeed visit nearby Latin American countries, which apart from Brazil are all Spanish speaking, you will need some degree of proficiency in that language.

Spanish is the third largest language per capita in the world, spoken by almost half a billion people worldwide, and the Caribbean is flanked by many Spanish speaking countries. If required, you will find many international schools in Latin America with courses in the Spanish language to suit all levels and requirements.

Linguistic experts recommend an immersive learning experience as the quickest and most reliable method to acquire or consolidate a new language. If you need to improve your English, this should be a matter of going about and engaging with the local population, reading English books or newspapers, and watching English-language TV or films without subtitles.

Similarly for learning or improving your abilities in Spanish, immersing yourself in Spanish language television and newspapers is a good plan. Expat learners report that Latin American teaching standards are generally very good, but there are few opportunities to be taught Spanish on Antigua itself, unless you find willing locals to assist you.

For Spanish conversation or practice, rely on your own knowledge and a good phrasebook rather than digital translation: although the islands have a good standard of internet connection, even in adverse weather conditions, island wifi is sometimes slow and you may not be able to access your phone at all times.

Surprisingly for an island with such a small population, employment opportunities do exist, but there are very few outside the tourist industry, where experienced and qualified watersports specialists may be required seasonally with private clubs. A high standard of English will be expected.

Most other jobs would be classified as semi-skilled, and you would be competing with locals. Again proficiency in English is an absolute requirement.


Antigua and Barbuda

Antigua and Barbuda really supply only one thing, and they supply it well: vast, idyllic beaches. One of the most visited spots in the Caribbean - mainly due to its inclusion in nearly every Caribbean cruise package or simply because a flight to Antigua island is one of the most convenient ways to get south of Florida &ndash the sprawling beaches retain a sense of mystery and wonder, especially on the smaller island of Barbuda.

If you are looking for fine dining, try Anguilla or Trinidad. If you are looking for culture, Cuba or Curacao is for you. But if you want to concentrate on sunbathing, swimming and staying active, Antigua island is for you. Much larger than its sister island, the general culture of Antigua seems resigned to the fact that it doesn't have one strong selling point &ndash so it tries to do even the most pedestrian things better. The casinos are flashier, the streets are cleaner. The island offers scenic hiking and enthusiastic kayaking, but you can find the same on nearly anywhere in the Caribbean. And whether you can safely say that the diving is better here than anywhere else is anyone's guess. The same fish seem to swim beneath the aquamarine waters. The same helpful people dot the popular Antigua beaches, ready to help you into your scuba gear or with your snorkel rental.

But many of the beaches on Antigua and Barbuda are virtually deserted, despite their popularity as a vacation spot. Part of it is due to the vast quantity of beaches on Antigua island, where the tourist board has officially named it home to 365 beaches. You can hardly discern where one ends and one begins, but that is no matter &ndash it sounds good on the brochure. And looks good in real life &ndash it would take years to explore every islet of Antigua island. Darkwood Beach might be the most scenic, offering spacious views of the nearby island of Montserrat and the large (not to mention highly active) volcano that lives there.

Antigua Map

Barbuda is even more underdeveloped. Merely 62 square miles in area, the island is home to three posh resorts and little else. Here you can find wild boar right outside your door, goats are everywhere, and humans are easily outnumbered by the island"s turtle population. For those who want immaculately beautiful beaches, Antigua and Barbuda are the place to go. For those who want true seclusion, however, Barbuda is the real find.


Watch the video: Geography Now! Afghanistan (July 2022).


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